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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     hier -- layout of file systems

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /	      root directory of the file system

     /bin/    user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user

     /boot/   programs and configuration files used during operating system

	      defaults/  default bootstrapping configuration files; see
	      kernel/	 pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded
			 into memory at boot time).
	      modules/	 third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)

     /cdrom/  default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by sysinstall(8))

	      normally a link to /usr/compat.  If not, then the /usr/compat
	      comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))

     /dev/    block and character device files

	      fd/  file descriptor files; see fd(4)

     /dist/   mount point used by sysinstall(8)

     /etc/    system configuration files and scripts

	      defaults/    default system configuration files; see rc(8)
	      gnats/	   gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
	      isdn/	   isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8)
	      localtime    local timezone information; see ctime(3)
	      mail/	   Sendmail control files
	      mtree/	   mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
	      namedb/	   named configuration files; see named(8)
	      pam.d/	   configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication
 Modules (PAM) library; see pam(8)
	      periodic/    scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly,
			   via cron(8); see periodic(8)
	      ppp/	   ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
	      ssl/	   OpenSSL configuration files

     /lib/    critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin

	      critical system utilites needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin

     /mnt/    empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary
 mount point

     /proc/   process file system; see procfs(5), mount_procfs(8)

	      statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see rescue(8)

     /root/   root's HOME directory

     /sbin/   system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both
	      single-user and multi-user environments

     /stand/  programs used in a standalone environment

     /tmp/    temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system

     /usr/    contains the majority of user utilities and applications

	      bin/	common utilities, programming tools, and applications
	      compat/	files needed to support binary compatibility with
			other operating systems, such as Linux (created by
	      games/	useful and semi-frivolous programs
	      include/	standard C include files

			arpa/	    C include files for Internet service protocols

			cam/	    C include files for the Common Access
				    Methods Layer
				    scsi/	The SCSI device on top of CAM
			dev/	    C include files for programming various
				    FreeBSD devices
				    ic/ 	Various header files describing
 driver- and bus-independent
 hardware circuits
				    ofw/	OpenFirmware support
				    ppbus/	The parallel port bus; see
				    usb/	The USB subsystem
				    utopia/	Physical chip driver for ATM
						interfaces; see utopia(4)
				    wi/ 	The wi(4) WaveLAN driver
				    fdescfs/	per-process file descriptors
						file system
				    fifofs/	IEEE Std 1003.1 (``POSIX.1'')
						FIFOs file system
				    msdosfs/	MS-DOS file system
				    ntfs/	NTFS file system
				    nullfs/	loopback file system
				    nwfs/	NetWare file system
				    portalfs/	portal file system
				    procfs/	process file system
				    smbfs/	SMB/CIFS file system
				    udf/	UDF file system
				    umapfs/	alternate uid/gid mappings
						file system
				    unionfs	union file system
			g++/	    GNU C++ include files
				    std/	GNU C++ libstdc++ include
			isc/	    ISC utility library libisc include files
				    cd9660/	iso9660 file system
			libmilter/  C include files for libmilter, the
				    sendmail(8) mail filter API
			machine/    machine-specific C include files
			net/	    misc network C include files
			netatalk/   Appletalk protocol
			netatm/     ATM include files; see atm(8)
			netinet/    C include files for Internet standard protocols;
 see inet(4)
			netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol version
 6; see inet6(4)
			netipx/     IPX/SPX protocol stacks
			netkey/     kernel key-management service
			netnatm/    NATM include files; see natm(4)
			netsmb/     SMB/CIFS requester
			nfs/	    C include files for NFS (Network File System)

			objc/	    Objective C include files
			openssl/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
			pccard/     PC-CARD controllers
			posix4/     POSIX real-time extensions includes; see
			protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service protocols

			readline/   get a line from a user, with editing; see
			rpc/	    remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
			rpcsvc/     definition of RPC service structures; see
			security/   PAM; see pam(8)
			sys/	    system C include files (kernel data structures)

			ufs/	    C include files for UFS (The U-word File
				    ffs/	Fast file system
				    ufs/	UFS file system
			vm/	    virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

	      lib/	archive libraries
			aout/	    a.out archive libraries
			compat/     shared libraries for compatibility
				    aout/	a.out backward compatibility

	      libdata/	misc. utility data files
			doscmd/     files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts,
				    etc.); see doscmd(1)
				    fonts/  fonts used by doscmd
			gcc/	    ???
			ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)
			lint/	    various prebuilt lint libraries; see
			stallion/   firmware images for Stallion serial controllers;
 see stl(4)

	      libexec/	system daemons & system utilities (executed by other
			aout/	    utilities to manipulate a.out executables
			elf/	    utilities to manipulate ELF executables
			lpr/	    utilities and filters for LP print system;
				    see lpr(1)
			sendmail/   the sendmail(8) binary; see mailwrapper(8)
			sm.bin/     restricted shell for sendmail(8); see

	      local/	local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as the
			default destination for the FreeBSD ports framework.
			Within local/, the general layout sketched out by hier
			for /usr should be used.  Exceptions are the man
			directory (directly under local/ rather than under
			local/share/), ports documentation (in
			share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
	      obj/	architecture-specific target tree produced by building
			the /usr/src tree
	      ports/	The FreeBSD ports collection (optional).
	      sbin/	system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
	      share/	architecture-independent files

			calendar/  a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see
			dict/	   word lists; see look(1)

				   freebsd     FreeBSD-specific terms, proper
					       names, and jargon
				   words       common words
				   web2        words from Webster's 2nd International

				   papers/     reference databases; see

			doc/	   miscellaneous documentation; source for
				   most of the printed BSD manuals (available
				   from the USENIX association)
				   FAQ/        Frequently Asked Questions
				   IPv6/       implementation notes for IPv6
				   bind/       documents pertaining to BIND
					       (the Berkeley Internet Name
				   es/	       Spanish translations of documents
 in /usr/share/doc
				   handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
				   ja/	       Japanese translations of documents
 in /usr/share/doc
				   ncurses/    HTML documents pertaining to
					       ncurses; see ncurses(3X)
				   ntp/        HTML documents pertaining to
					       the Network Time Protocol
				   papers/     UNIX Papers
				   psd/        UNIX Programmer's Supplementary
				   ru/	       Russian translations of documents
 in /usr/share/doc
				   smm/        UNIX System Manager's Manual
				   tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
				   usd/        UNIX User's Supplementary Documents

				   zh/	       Chinese translations of documents
 in /usr/share/doc

			examples/  various examples for users and programmers
			games/	   ASCII text files used by various games
				   device description file for device name
			info/	   GNU Info hypertext system
			isdn/	   ISDN
			locale/    localization files; see setlocale(3)
			man/	   manual pages
			me/	   macros for use with the me macro package;
				   see me(7)
			misc/	   misc system-wide ASCII text files
				   fonts/      ???
				   pcvtfonts/  pcvt fonts; see pcvt(4)
				   termcap     terminal characteristics database;
 see termcap(5)
			mk/	   templates for make; see make(1)
			nls/	   national language support files; see
			pcvt/	   pcvt documentation and etc examples; see
			security/  data files for security policies such as
			sendmail/  sendmail(8) configuration files
			skel/	   example . (dot) files for new accounts
			syscons/   files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
				   fonts/	console fonts; see
						vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
				   keymaps/	console keyboard maps; see
						kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
				   scrnmaps/	console screen maps
			tabset/    tab description files for a variety of terminals;
 used in the termcap file; see
			tmac/	   text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
			vi/	   localization support and utilities for
			zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
	      src/	BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

			bin/	    source code for files in /bin
			contrib/    source code for contributed software
			crypto/     source code for contributed cryptography
			etc/	    source code for files in /etc
			games/	    source code for files in /usr/games
			gnu/	    Utilities covered by the GNU General Public
			include/    source code for files in /usr/include
			kerberos5/  build infrastructure for kerberos version
			lib/	    source code for files in /usr/lib
			libexec/    source code for files in /usr/libexec
			release/    files required to produce a FreeBSD
			sbin/	    source code for files in /sbin
			secure/     build directory for files in
			share/	    source for files in /usr/share
			sys/	    kernel source code
			tools/	    tools used for maintenance and testing of
			usr.bin/    source code for files in /usr/bin
			usr.sbin/   source code for files in /usr/sbin

	      X11R6/	X11R6 distribution executables, libraries, etc
			bin/	  X11R6 binaries (servers, utilities, local
			etc/	  X11R6 configuration files and scripts.
			include/  X11R6 include files.
			lib/	  X11R6 libraries.
			man/	  X11R6 manual pages.
			share/	  architecture-independent files.

     /var/    multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

	      account/	 system accounting files

			 acct	     execution accounting file; see acct(5)

	      at/	 timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
			 jobs/	    directory containing job files
			 spool/     directory containing output spool files

	      backups/	 misc. backup files
	      crash/	 default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
			 crash(8) and savecore(8)
	      cron/	 files used by cron; see cron(8)
			 tabs/	    crontab files; see crontab(5)

	      db/	 misc. automatically generated system-specific database
	      empty/	 empty directory for use by programs that need a
			 specifically empty directory.	Used for instance by
			 sshd(8) for privilege separation.
	      games/	 misc. game status and score files
	      heimdal/	 kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
	      log/	 misc. system log files

			 wtmp	     login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

	      mail/	 user mailbox files
	      msgs/	 system messages database; see msgs(1)
	      preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an accidental
			 death of an editor; see ex(1)
	      quotas/	 file system quota information files
	      run/	 system information files describing various info
			 about system since it was booted

			 named/      writable by the ``bind'' user; see
			 ppp/	     writable by the ``network'' group for
				     command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
			 utmp	     database of current users; see utmp(5)

	      rwho/	 rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
	      spool/	 misc. printer and mail system spooling directories

				     undelivered submission mail queue; see
			 ftp/	     commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root
			 mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
			 output/     line printer spooling directories

	      tmp/	 temporary files that are kept between system reboots
				     the directory where recovery files are
	      yp/	 the NIS maps

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     This manual page documents the default FreeBSD file system layout, but
     the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system administrator's
 discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include a customized
 version of this document.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
     which(1), fsck(8)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 5.2.1			 June 5, 1993			 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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