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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     make -- maintain program dependencies

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     make [-BPSXeiknqrstv] [-C directory] [-D variable] [-d flags]
	  [-E variable] [-f makefile] [-I directory] [-j max_jobs]
	  [-m directory] [-V variable] [variable=value] [target ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The make utility is a program designed to simplify the maintenance of
     other programs.  Its input is a list of specifications describing dependency
 relationships between the generation of files and programs.	The
     first of BSDmakefile, makefile and Makefile that can be found in either
     the current directory or a special object directory (see .OBJDIR) will be
     read for this list of specifications.  If the file .depend can be found,
     it is also read (see mkdep(1)).

     This manual page is intended as a reference document only.  For a more
     thorough introduction to make and makefiles, please refer to Make - A

     The options are as follows:

     -B      Try to be backwards compatible by executing a single shell per
	     command and by executing the commands to make the sources of a
	     dependency line in sequence.  This is turned on by default unless
	     -j is used.

     -C directory
	     Change to directory before reading the makefiles or doing anything
 else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each is interpreted
 relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to
	     -C /etc.

     -D variable
	     Define variable to be 1, in the global context.

     -d flags
	     Turn on debugging, and specify which portions of make are to
	     print debugging information.  Argument flags is one or more of
	     the following:

	     A	     Print all possible debugging information; equivalent to
		     specifying all of the debugging flags.

	     a	     Print debugging information about archive searching and

	     c	     Print debugging information about conditional evaluation.

	     d	     Print debugging information about directory searching and

	     f	     Print debugging information about the execution of for

	     g1      Print the input graph before making anything.

	     g2      Print the input graph after making everything, or before
		     exiting on error.

	     j	     Print debugging information about running multiple

	     l	     Print commands in Makefiles regardless of whether or not
		     they are prefixed by @ or other "quiet" flags.  Also
		     known as "loud" behavior.

	     m	     Print debugging information about making targets, including
 modification dates.

	     s	     Print debugging information about suffix-transformation

	     t	     Print debugging information about target list maintenance.

	     v	     Print debugging information about variable assignment.

     -E variable
	     Specify a variable whose environment value (if any) will override
	     macro assignments within makefiles.

     -e      Specify that environment values override macro assignments within
	     makefiles for all variables.

     -f makefile
	     Specify a makefile to read instead of the default makefile and
	     Makefile.	If makefile is `-', standard input is read.  Multiple
	     makefiles may be specified, and are read in the order specified.

     -I directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for makefiles and included
	     makefiles.  The system makefile directory (or directories, see
	     the -m option) is automatically included as part of this list.

     -i      Ignore non-zero exit of shell commands in the makefile.  Equivalent
 to specifying `-' before each command line in the makefile.

     -j max_jobs
	     Specify the maximum number of jobs that make may have running at
	     any one time.  Turns compatibility mode off, unless the B flag is
	     also specified.

     -k      Continue processing after errors are encountered, but only on
	     those targets that do not depend on the target whose creation
	     caused the error.

     -m directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for sys.mk and makefiles
	     included via the <...> style.  Multiple directories can be added
	     to form a search path.  This path will override the default system
 include path: /usr/share/mk.  Furthermore, the system include
	     path will be appended to the search path used for "..."-style
	     inclusions (see the -I option).

     -n      Display the commands that would have been executed, but do not
	     actually execute them.

     -P      Collate the output of a given job and display it only when the
	     job finishes, instead of mixing the output of parallel jobs
	     together.	This option has no effect unless -j is used too.

     -q      Do not execute any commands, but exit 0 if the specified targets
	     are up-to-date and 1, otherwise.

     -r      Do not use the built-in rules specified in the system makefile.

     -S      Stop processing when an error is encountered.  Default behaviour.
	     This is needed to negate the -k option during recursive builds.

     -s      Do not echo any commands as they are executed.  Equivalent to
	     specifying `@' before each command line in the makefile.

     -t      Rather than re-building a target as specified in the makefile,
	     create it or update its modification time to make it appear upto-date.

     -V variable
	     Print make's idea of the value of variable, in the global context.
  Do not build any targets.  Multiple instances of this
	     option may be specified; the variables will be printed one per
	     line, with a blank line for each null or undefined variable.

     -v      Be extra verbose.	For multi-job makes, this will cause file banners
 to be generated.

     -X      When using the -V option to print the values of variables, do not
	     recursively expand the values.

	     Set the value of the variable variable to value.

     There are seven different types of lines in a makefile: file dependency
     specifications, shell commands, variable assignments, include statements,
     conditional directives, for loops, and comments.

     In general, lines may be continued from one line to the next by ending
     them with a backslash (`\').  The trailing newline character and initial
     whitespace on the following line are compressed into a single space.


     Dependency lines consist of one or more targets, an operator, and zero or
     more sources.  This creates a relationship where the targets ``depend''
     on the sources and are usually created from them.	The exact relationship
     between the target and the source is determined by the operator that separates
 them.  The three operators are as follows:

     :	   A target is considered out-of-date if its modification time is less
	   than those of any of its sources.  Sources for a target accumulate
	   over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target is
	   removed if make is interrupted.

     !	   Targets are always re-created, but not until all sources have been
	   examined and re-created as necessary.  Sources for a target accumulate
 over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target
	   is removed if make is interrupted.

     ::    If no sources are specified, the target is always re-created.  Otherwise,
 a target is considered out-of-date if any of its sources
	   has been modified more recently than the target.  Sources for a
	   target do not accumulate over dependency lines when this operator
	   is used.  The target will not be removed if make is interrupted.

     Targets and sources may contain the shell wildcard expressions `?', `*',
     `[]' and `{}'.  The expressions `?', `*' and `[]' may only be used as
     part of the final component of the target or source, and must be used to
     describe existing files.  The expression `{}' need not necessarily be
     used to describe existing files.  Expansion is in directory order, not
     alphabetically as done in the shell.

SHELL COMMANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Each target may have associated with it a series of shell commands, normally
 used to create the target.  Each of the commands in this script
     must be preceded by a tab.  While any target may appear on a dependency
     line, only one of these dependencies may be followed by a creation
     script, unless the `::' operator is used.

     If the first or first two characters of the command line are `@' and/or
     `-', the command is treated specially.  A `@' causes the command not to
     be echoed before it is executed.  A `-' causes any non-zero exit status
     of the command line to be ignored.


     Variables in make are much like variables in the shell, and, by tradition,
 consist of all upper-case letters.  The five operators that can be
     used to assign values to variables are as follows:

     =	     Assign the value to the variable.	Any previous value is overridden.

     +=      Append the value to the current value of the variable.

     ?=      Assign the value to the variable if it is not already defined.

     :=      Assign with expansion, i.e. expand the value before assigning it
	     to the variable.  Normally, expansion is not done until the variable
 is referenced.

     !=      Expand the value and pass it to the shell for execution and
	     assign the result to the variable.  Any newlines in the result
	     are replaced with spaces.

     Any whitespace before the assigned value is removed; if the value is
     being appended, a single space is inserted between the previous contents
     of the variable and the appended value.

     Variables are expanded by surrounding the variable name with either curly
     braces (`{}') or parentheses (`()') and preceding it with a dollar sign
     (`$').  If the variable name contains only a single letter, the surrounding
 braces or parentheses are not required.  This shorter form is not

     Variable substitution occurs at two distinct times, depending on where
     the variable is being used.  Variables in dependency lines are expanded
     as the line is read.  Variables in shell commands are expanded when the
     shell command is executed.

     The four different classes of variables (in order of increasing precedence)

     Environment variables
	     Variables defined as part of make's environment.

     Global variables
	     Variables defined in the makefile or in included makefiles.

     Command line variables
	     Variables defined as part of the command line.

     Local variables
	     Variables that are defined specific to a certain target.  The
	     seven local variables are as follows:

	     .ALLSRC   The list of all sources for this target; also known as

	     .ARCHIVE  The name of the archive file; also known as `!'.

	     .IMPSRC   The name/path of the source from which the target is to
		       be transformed (the ``implied'' source); also known as

	     .MEMBER   The name of the archive member; also known as `%'.

	     .OODATE   The list of sources for this target that were deemed
		       out-of-date; also known as `?'.

	     .PREFIX   The file prefix of the file, containing only the file
		       portion, no suffix or preceding directory components;
		       also known as `*'.

	     .TARGET   The name of the target; also known as `@'.

	     The shorter forms `@', `!', `<', `%', `?', `>', and `*' are permitted
 for backward compatibility and are not recommended.  The
	     six variables `@F', `@D', `<F', `<D', `*F', and `*D' are permitted
 for compatibility with AT&T System V UNIX makefiles and are
	     not recommended.

	     Four of the local variables may be used in sources on dependency
	     lines because they expand to the proper value for each target on
	     the line.	These variables are .TARGET, .PREFIX, .ARCHIVE, and

     In addition, make sets or knows about the following internal variables or
     environment variables:

     $		A single dollar sign `$', i.e. `$$' expands to a single dollar

     MAKE	The name that make was executed with (argv[0]).

     .CURDIR	A path to the directory where make was executed.  The make
		utility sets .CURDIR to the canonical path given by getcwd(3).

     .OBJDIR	A path to the directory where the targets are built.  At
		startup, make searches for an alternate directory to place
		target files.  It will attempt to change into this special
		directory and will search this directory for makefiles not
		found in the current directory.  The following directories are
		tried in order:

		1.   ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/`pwd`
		2.   ${MAKEOBJDIR}
		3.   obj.${MACHINE}
		4.   obj
		5.   /usr/obj/`pwd`

		The first directory that make successfully changes into is
		used.  If either MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX or MAKEOBJDIR is set in the
		environment but make is unable to change into the corresponding
 directory, then the current directory is used without
		checking the remainder of the list.  If they are undefined and
		make is unable to change into any of the remaining three
		directories, then the current directory is used.

		The make utility sets .OBJDIR to the canonical path given by

		The environment variable MAKEFLAGS may contain anything that
		may be specified on make's command line.  Its contents are
		stored in make's .MAKEFLAGS variable.  Anything specified on
		make's command line is appended to the .MAKEFLAGS variable
		which is then entered into the environment as MAKEFLAGS for
		all programs which make executes.

     MFLAGS	A synonym for .MAKEFLAGS provided for backward compatibility.

     .TARGETS	List of targets make is currently building.

     .INCLUDES	See .INCLUDES special target.

     .LIBS	See .LIBS special target.

     MACHINE	Name of the machine architecture make is running on, obtained
		from the MACHINE environment variable, or through uname(3) if
		not defined.

		Name of the machine architecture make was compiled for,
		defined at compilation time.

     VPATH	Makefiles may assign a colon-delimited list of directories to
		VPATH.	These directories will be searched for source files by
		make after it has finished parsing all input makefiles.

     Variable expansion may be modified to select or modify each word of the
     variable (where a ``word'' is whitespace-delimited sequence of characters).
  The general format of a variable expansion is as follows:


     Each modifier begins with a colon and one of the following special characters.
  The colon may be escaped with a backslash (`\').

		 The C modifier is just like the S modifier except that the
		 old and new strings, instead of being simple strings, are an
		 extended regular expression (see re_format(7)) and an
		 ed(1)-style replacement string.  Normally, the first occurrence
 of the pattern in each word of the value is changed.
		 The `1' modifier causes the substitution to apply to at most
		 one word; the `g' modifier causes the substitution to apply
		 to as many instances of the search pattern as occur in the
		 word or words it is found in.	Note that `1' and `g' are
		 orthogonal; the former specifies whether multiple words are
		 potentially affected, the latter whether multiple substitutions
 can potentially occur within each affected word.

     E		 Replaces each word in the variable with its suffix.

     H		 Replaces each word in the variable with everything but the
		 last component.

     L		 Converts variable to lower-case letters.

     Mpattern	 Select only those words that match the rest of the modifier.
		 The standard shell wildcard characters (`*', `?', and `[]')
		 may be used.  The wildcard characters may be escaped with a
		 backslash (`\').

     Npattern	 This is identical to M, but selects all words which do not
		 match the rest of the modifier.

     O		 Order every word in the variable alphabetically.

     Q		 Quotes every shell meta-character in the variable, so that it
		 can be passed safely through recursive invocations of make.

     R		 Replaces each word in the variable with everything but its

		 Modify the first occurrence of old_string in each word of the
		 variable's value, replacing it with new_string.  If a `g' is
		 appended to the last slash of the pattern, all occurrences in
		 each word are replaced.  If old_string begins with a caret
		 (`^'), old_string is anchored at the beginning of each word.
		 If old_string ends with a dollar sign (`$'), it is anchored
		 at the end of each word.  Inside new_string, an ampersand
		 (`&') is replaced by old_string.  Any character may be used
		 as a delimiter for the parts of the modifier string.  The
		 anchoring, ampersand, and delimiter characters may be escaped
		 with a backslash (`\').

		 Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside both
		 old_string and new_string with the single exception that a
		 backslash is used to prevent the expansion of a dollar sign
		 (`$'), not a preceding dollar sign as is usual.

		 This is the AT&T System V UNIX style variable substitution.
		 It must be the last modifier specified.  If old_string or
		 new_string do not contain the pattern matching character %
		 then it is assumed that they are anchored at the end of each
		 word, so only suffixes or entire words may be replaced.  Otherwise
 % is the substring of old_string to be replaced in

     T		 Replaces each word in the variable with its last component.

     U		 Converts variable to upper-case letters.

     Directives, conditionals, and for loops reminiscent of the C programming
     language are provided in make.  All such structures are identified by a
     line beginning with a single dot (`.') character.	The following directives
 are supported:

     .include <file>

     .include "file"
	     Include the specified makefile.  Variables between the angle
	     brackets or double quotes are expanded to form the file name.  If
	     angle brackets are used, the included makefile is expected to be
	     in the system makefile directory.	If double quotes are used, the
	     including makefile's directory and any directories specified
	     using the -I option are searched before the system makefile

     .undef variable
	     Un-define the specified global variable.  Only global variables
	     may be un-defined.

     .error message
	     Terminate processing of the makefile immediately.	The filename
	     of the makefile, the line on which the error was encountered and
	     the specified message are printed to standard output and make
	     terminates with exit code 1.  Variables in the message are

     Conditionals are used to determine which parts of the Makefile to
     process.  They are used similarly to the conditionals supported by the C
     pre-processor.  The following conditionals are supported:

     .if [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     Test the value of an expression.

     .ifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .ifnmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .else   Reverse the sense of the last conditional.

     .elif [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .if.

     .elifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifdef.

     .elifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifndef.

     .elifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifmake.

     .elifnmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifnmake.

     .endif  End the body of the conditional.

     The operator may be any one of the following:

     ||     logical OR

     &&     Logical AND; of higher precedence than `||'.

     As in C, make will only evaluate a conditional as far as is necessary to
     determine its value.  Parentheses may be used to change the order of
     evaluation.  The boolean operator `!' may be used to logically negate an
     entire conditional.  It is of higher precedence than `&&'.

     The value of expression may be any of the following:

     defined	 Takes a variable name as an argument and evaluates to true if
		 the variable has been defined.

     make	 Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if
		 the target was specified as part of make's command line or
		 was declared the default target (either implicitly or explicitly,
 see .MAIN) before the line containing the conditional.

     empty	 Takes a variable, with possible modifiers, and evaluates to
		 true if the expansion of the variable would result in an
		 empty string.

     exists	 Takes a file name as an argument and evaluates to true if the
		 file exists.  The file is searched for on the system search
		 path (see .PATH).

     target	 Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if
		 the target has been defined.

     An expression may also be an arithmetic or string comparison, with the
     left-hand side being a variable expansion.  Variable expansion is performed
 on both sides of the comparison, after which the integral values
     are compared.  A value is interpreted as hexadecimal if it is preceded by
     0x, otherwise it is decimal; octal numbers are not supported.  The standard
 C relational operators are all supported.  If after variable expansion,
 either the left or right hand side of a `==' or `!=' operator is
     not an integral value, then string comparison is performed between the
     expanded variables.  If no relational operator is given, it is assumed
     that the expanded variable is being compared against 0.

     When make is evaluating one of these conditional expressions, and it
     encounters a word it doesn't recognize, either the ``make'' or
     ``defined'' expression is applied to it, depending on the form of the
     conditional.  If the form is .if, .ifdef or .ifndef, the ``defined''
     expression is applied.  Similarly, if the form is .ifmake or .ifnmake,
     the ``make'' expression is applied.

     If the conditional evaluates to true the parsing of the makefile continues
 as before.  If it evaluates to false, the following lines are
     skipped.  In both cases this continues until a .else or .endif is found.

     For loops are typically used to apply a set of rules to a list of files.
     The syntax of a for loop is:

     .for variable in expression

     After the for expression is evaluated, it is split into words.  The iteration
 variable is successively set to each word, and substituted in the
     make-rules inside the body of the for loop.

COMMENTS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Comments begin with a hash (`#') character, anywhere but in a shell command
 line, and continue to the end of the line.

SPECIAL SOURCES    [Toc]    [Back]

     .IGNORE	 Ignore any errors from the commands associated with this target,
 exactly as if they all were preceded by a dash (`-').

     .MAKE	 Execute the commands associated with this target even if the
		 -n or -t options were specified.  Normally used to mark
		 recursive make's.

     .NOTMAIN	 Normally make selects the first target it encounters as the
		 default target to be built if no target was specified.  This
		 source prevents this target from being selected.

     .OPTIONAL	 If a target is marked with this attribute and make can't figure
 out how to create it, it will ignore this fact and assume
		 the file isn't needed or already exists.

     .PRECIOUS	 When make is interrupted, it removes any partially made targets.
	This source prevents the target from being removed.

     .SILENT	 Do not echo any of the commands associated with this target,
		 exactly as if they all were preceded by an at sign (`@').

     .USE	 Turn the target into make's version of a macro.  When the
		 target is used as a source for another target, the other target
 acquires the commands, sources, and attributes (except
		 for .USE) of the source.  If the target already has commands,
		 the .USE target's commands are appended to them.

     .WAIT	 If special .WAIT source is appears in a dependency line, the
		 sources that precede it are made before the sources that succeed
 it in the line.  Loops are not being detected and targets
 that form loops will be silently ignored.

SPECIAL TARGETS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Special targets may not be included with other targets, i.e. they must be
     the only target specified.

     .BEGIN	 Any command lines attached to this target are executed before
		 anything else is done.

     .DEFAULT	 This is sort of a .USE rule for any target (that was used
		 only as a source) that make can't figure out any other way to
		 create.  Only the shell script is used.  The .IMPSRC variable
		 of a target that inherits .DEFAULT's commands is set to the
		 target's own name.

     .END	 Any command lines attached to this target are executed after
		 everything else is done.

     .IGNORE	 Mark each of the sources with the .IGNORE attribute.  If no
		 sources are specified, this is the equivalent of specifying
		 the -i option.

     .INCLUDES	 A list of suffixes that indicate files that can be included
		 in a source file.  The suffix must have already been declared
		 with .SUFFIXES; any suffix so declared will have the directories
 on its search path (see .PATH) placed in the .INCLUDES
		 special variable, each preceded by a -I flag.

     .INTERRUPT  If make is interrupted, the commands for this target will be

     .LIBS	 This does for libraries what .INCLUDES does for include
		 files, except that the flag used is -L.

     .MAIN	 If no target is specified when make is invoked, this target
		 will be built.  This is always set, either explicitly, or
		 implicitly when make selects the default target, to give the
		 user a way to refer to the default target on the command

     .MAKEFLAGS  This target provides a way to specify flags for make when the
		 makefile is used.  The flags are as if typed to the shell,
		 though the -f option will have no effect.

		 Disable parallel mode.

		 Same as above, for compatibility with other pmake variants.

     .ORDER	 The named targets are made in sequence.

     .PATH	 The sources are directories which are to be searched for
		 files not found in the current directory.  If no sources are
		 specified, any previously specified directories are deleted.
		 Where possible, use of .PATH is preferred over use of the
		 VPATH variable.

		 The sources are directories which are to be searched for suffixed
 files not found in the current directory.  The make
		 utility first searches the suffixed search path, before
		 reverting to the default path if the file is not found there.
		 This form is required for .LIBS and .INCLUDES to work.

     .PHONY	 Apply the .PHONY attribute to any specified sources.  Targets
		 with this attribute are always considered to be out of date.

     .PRECIOUS	 Apply the .PRECIOUS attribute to any specified sources.  If
		 no sources are specified, the .PRECIOUS attribute is applied
		 to every target in the file.

     .SILENT	 Apply the .SILENT attribute to any specified sources.	If no
		 sources are specified, the .SILENT attribute is applied to
		 every command in the file.

     .SUFFIXES	 Each source specifies a suffix to make.  If no sources are
		 specified, any previous specified suffices are deleted.

COMPATIBILITY    [Toc]    [Back]

     Older versions of make used MAKE instead of MAKEFLAGS.  This was removed
     for POSIX compatibility.  The internal variable MAKE is set to the same
     value as .MAKE; support for this may be removed in the future.

     Most of the more esoteric features of make should probably be avoided for
     greater compatibility.

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

     The make utility uses the following environment variables, if they exist:

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     .depend			 list of dependencies
     Makefile			 list of dependencies
     makefile			 list of dependencies
     obj			 object directory
     sys.mk			 system makefile (processed before any other
				 file, including makefile and Makefile)
     /usr/share/mk		 system makefile directory
     /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make  PMake tutorial
     /usr/obj			 default MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX directory.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The determination of .OBJDIR is contorted to the point of absurdity.

     In the presence of several .MAIN special targets, make silently ignores
     all but the first.

     .TARGETS is not set to the default target when make is invoked without a
     target name and no .MAIN special target exists.

     The evaluation of expression in a test is very simple-minded.  Currently,
     the only form that works is `.if ${VAR} op something' For instance, you
     should write tests as `.if ${VAR} = string' not the other way around,
     which doesn't work.

     For loops are expanded before tests, so a fragment such as:

	   .if ${TMACHINE} = ${MACHINE}

     won't work, and should be rewritten the other way around.

     The parsing code is broken with respect to handling a semicolon after a
     colon, so a fragment like this will fail:

	   HDRS=   foo.h bar.h

	   .for h in ${HDRS:S;^;${.CURDIR}/;}

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     mkdep(1), make.conf(5)

     PMake - A Tutorial.  in /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     A make command appeared in PWB UNIX.

FreeBSD 5.2.1			 June 13, 1995			 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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