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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       neqn,   checkeq  -  Typesets  mathematical  equations  and

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       neqn [-dxy] [-pn] [-sn] [-fn] [file...] | nroff...

       checkeq [file...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The neqn command is an nroff(1) preprocessor for  displaying
  mathematical  symbols  and  equations  on  terminals.
       Usage almost always involves preprocessing an nroff source
       file with neqn and then piping the output through nroff.


       The  neqn  command  formatting  works  best on typesetting
       devices.  Your terminal might not be equipped  to  display
       equations  and other math symbols in a meaningful way.  In
       fact, you might have difficulty viewing  the  symbols  and
       examples included in this reference page.

       If  no  files  are specified, neqn reads from the standard
       input. A line beginning with marks the start of  an  equation;
 at the beginning of a line marks the end of an equation.
 Neither of these lines is altered, so  they  can  be
       defined in macro packages to produce centering, numbering,
       and so on.

       It is also possible to set two characters  as  delimiters;
       subsequent  text  between  delimiters  is  also treated as
       input to neqn.  Delimiters may be set to any  two  characters,
 such as x and y, with the command-line argument -dxy
       or more commonly by placing delim xy between and be  identical.
   Delimiters are turned off by delim off.  All text
       that is neither between  delimiters  nor  between  and  is
       passed through untouched.

       The  program  checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters
 and pairs.

       Tokens within neqn are separated  by  spaces,  tabs,  newlines,
  braces, double quotation marks, tildes, or circumflexes.
 Braces  { }  are  used  for  grouping.   Generally
       speaking, anywhere a single character could appear, a complicated
 construction  enclosed  in  braces  can  be  used
       instead.   The  tilde  (~)  represents a full space in the
       output; the circumflex (^) half as much.

       Subscripts and superscripts are produced with the keywords
       sub and sup.

       Fractions use the keyword over.

       The sqrt keyword creates square roots.

       The  keywords  from  and  to are used to express lower and
       upper limits.

       Left  and  right  brackets,  braces,  and  so  forth  that
       encompass more than one line are created with the left and
       right keywords and tildes.  Legal characters to  use  with
       left and right are  {, }, [, ], |, c (ceiling), f (floor),
       and , meaning `nothing' (to use with the left keyword when
       you  want  brackets or braces on the right side only). The
       right keyword clause is optional.

       Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, rpile,
       and  cpile.   There can be an arbitrary number of elements
       in a pile.  You  use  lpile  to  left-justify  a  vertical
       grouping  and  rpile  to  right-justify one.  The pile and
       cpile keywords create centered piles  but  have  different
       vertical spacing.

       You  use the matrix keyword to create matrixes.  The lcol,
       ccol, and col keywords are used with matrix to specify the
       alignment within the matrix; that is a left-justified column,
 centered column, and right-justified column,  respectively.

       Diacritical marks are made with the following keywords:

       dot      Produces  a  period  (.)  over the character preceding the
       dotdot   Produces two periods (..) over the character preceding the
       hat      Produces a circumflex (^) over the character preceding the
       tilde    Produces a tilde (~) over the character preceding the keyword.

       bar      Produces a horizontal bar over the character preceding the
       vec      Produces a left-pointing arrow over the character  preceding
 the keyword.
       dyad     Produces  a bidirectional arrow over the character preceding
 the keyword.
       under    Produces an underscore under the character  preceding  the

       Size  and  font  changes  are made with the following keywords:

       size n           Specifies the size as n points.
       size+n           Increases the size n points.
       size-n           Decreases the size n points.
       roman            Uses roman type font.
       italic           Uses italic type font.
       bold             Uses bold type font.
       font n           Uses the specified type font.

       Size and font can be changed globally  in  a  document  by
       using  the  gsize n and the gfont n keyword expressions or
       by the command-line arguments -s n and -f n.

       Normally subscripts and superscripts are reduced by  three
       point  sizes  from the previous size.  You can change this
       default with the -p n command-line argument.

       To aline successive display arguments, place the mark keyword
  before  the  desired lineup point in the first equation.
  Then place the lineup keyword at the place that  is
       to line up vertically in subsequent equation lines.

       New  keywords  or  new  forms  of existing keywords can be
       defined with the define keyword.  For example, the following
  define  expression defines the new keyword cc to be C

       define cc % C Language %

       Whenever cc appears in the source  file,  processing  with
       neqn  causes  C  Language to appear in the preprocessed or
       output file. Note that the delimiting character  surrounding
 the replacement string can be any character as long as
       it does not appear in the replacement string itself.

       The following keywords are  also  recognized  for  typeset

       sum   Produces a large Greek sigma indicating summation.
       int   Produces an integration sign.
       inf   Produces an infinity sign.
       >=    Produces a greater-than-or-equals sign.
       <=    Produces a less-than-or-equals sign.
       ->    Produces a right pointing arrow.
       <-    Produces a left pointing arrow.
       !=    Produces a not equal sign.

       Greek  letters  are  spelled  out in the desired case, for
       example, alpha or GAMMA. Mathematical words like sin, cos,
       log  are  output  in  roman  type  automatically.  Strings
       enclosed in double  quotation  marks  ("...")  are  passed
       through  untouched;  this  feature  permits keywords to be
       entered as text.

RESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       To embolden digits,  parentheses,  and  so  on,  you  must
       enclose  them  in  quotation marks after the keyword bold.
       For example:

       bold "12.3".

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Input and output for x with subscript i:

              x sub i   ->   x
                              i Input and output for x with  subscript
 i and superscript 2:

              x sub i sup 2    ->   x2
                                     i  Input  and  output  for e
              with a superscript of x squared plus y squared:

                                                 2  2
                                                x +y e sup {x sup
              2  +  y  sup  2}    ->   e Input and output for the
              fraction q over r:

                            q q over r  ->   _
                            r Input and output for  the  fraction
              of  1  over  the  square  root of a polynomial that
              includes a superscript:

                                                    1 1 over sqrt
              {as sup 2 +bx+c}  ->  _________
                                              \|ax   +bx+c  Input
              and output for an expression with a lower and upper

              lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x  sub  i    ->
              lim Rxi
              Input and output for an expression with large  left
              and right braces:

              2 y }
              left {x sup 2 = y sup 2 over alpha right} ~=~ 1  ->
              {x +A } = 1
              } Input and output for a "pile" expression:

                                                  a   pile   {  a
              above b above c }   ->     b
                                                  c   Input   and
              output for an expression with a matrix:

              matrix  {lcol  {  x  sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1
              above 2 }} ->

                   x        1

                   y        2

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       nroff(1), tbl(1), ms(5)

[ Back ]
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