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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       ms - Text formatting macros

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       nroff -ms  [options] file...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       This package of nroff macro definitions provides a formatting
 facility for various styles of articles, theses,  and
       books.  When  producing  2-column  output on a terminal or
       lineprinter, or when reverse line motions are needed, filter
  the  output  through col(1).  All external -ms macros
       are defined in the following section.  Many nroff requests
       are  unsafe in conjunction with this package. However, the
       first four requests in the list that follows can  be  used
       with  impunity  after initialization, and the last two may
       be used even before initialization: Begin new  page  Break
       output  line  Insert  n  spacing lines Center next n lines
       Line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space No alignment of
       right margin

       Font  and  point  size  changes  with  \f  and \s are also
       allowed; for example, \fIword\fR italicize word. Output of
       the  tbl  and  neqn preprocessors for equations and tables
       ris acceptable as input.

REQUESTS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Macro Name   Initial     Break/Reset   Explanation
       .AB x        -           y             Begin   abstract;  if  x
                                              =no,   do   not    label
       .AE          -           y             End abstract.
       .AI          -           y             Author's institution.
       .AM          -           n             Better accent mark definitions.

       .AU          -           y             Author's name.
       .B x         -           n             Embolden  x;  if  no  x,
                                              switch to boldface.
       .B1          -           y             Begin    text    to   be
                                              enclosed in a box.
       .B2          -           y             End boxed text and print
       .BT          date        n             Bottom title, printed at
                                              foot of page.
       .BX x        -           n             Print word x in a box.
       .CM          if t        n             Cut mark between pages.
       .CT          -           y/y           Chapter title: page number
   moved  to  CF  (TM
       .DA x        if n        n             Force date x  at  bottom
                                              of  page; today if no x.
       .DE          -           y             End  display   (unfilled
                                              text) of any kind.
       .DS x y      I           y             Begin display with keep;
                                              x =I,L,C,B; y =indent.
       .ID y        8n,.5i      y             Indented display with no
                                              keep; y =indent.

       .LD          -           y             Left   display  with  no
       .CD          -           y             Centered display with no
       .BD          -           y             Block   display;  center
                                              entire block.
       .EF x        -           n             Even page  footer  x  (3
                                              part, as for .tl).
       .EH x        -           n             Even  page  header  x (3
                                              part, as for .tl).
       .EN          -           y             End  displayed  equation
                                              produced by *neqn.
       .EQ x y      -           y             Break  out  equation;  x
                                              =L,I,C; y =equation number.

       .FE          -           n             End   footnote   to   be
                                              placed  at   bottom   of
       .FP          -           n             Numbered  footnote paragraph;
 may be redefined.
       .FS x        -           n             Start   footnote;  x  is
                                              optional footnote label.
       .HD          undef       n             Optional   page   header
                                              below header margin.
       .I x         -           n             Italicize x;  if  no  x,
                                              switch to italics.
       .IP x y      -           y/y           Indented paragraph, with
                                              hanging   tag   x;    y=
       .IX x y      -           y             Index  words x, y and so
                                              on (up to five  levels).
       .KE          -           n             End keep of any kind.
       .KF          -           n             Begin   floating   keep;
                                              text fills remainder  of
       .KS          -           y             Begin  keep;  unit  kept
                                              together  on  a   single
       .LG          -           n             Larger;  increase  point
                                              size by 2.
       .LP          -           y/y           Left (block) paragraph.
       .MC x        -           y/y           Multiple   columns;    x
                                              =column width.
       .ND x        if t        n             No  date in page footer;
                                              x is date on cover.
       .NH x y      -           y/y           Numbered    header;    x
                                              =level,  x  =0 resets, x
                                              =S sets to y.
       .NL          10p         n             Set point size  back  to
       .OF x        -           n             Odd  page  footer  x  (3
                                              part, as for .tl).
       .OH x        -           n             Odd  page  header  x  (3
                                              part, as for .tl).
       .P1          if TM       n             Print  header  on  first
       .PP          -           y/y           Paragraph   with   first
                                              line indented.
       .PT          - % -       n             Page  title,  printed at
                                              head of page.
       .PX x        -           y             Print  index  (table  of
                                              contents);  x  =no, suppresses
       .QP          -           y/y           Quote          paragraph
                                              (indented  and shorter).

       .R           on          n             Return to Roman font.
       .RE          5n          y/y           Retreat:  end  level  of
                                              relative indentation.
       .RP x        -           n             Released paper format; x
                                              =no,  stops   title   on
                                              first page.
       .RS          5n          y/y           Right shift: start level
                                              of relative indentation.
       .SH          -           y/y           Section header, in boldface.

       .SM          -           n             Smaller; decrease  point
                                              size by 2.
       .TA          8n,5n       n             Set  tabs  to 8n 16n ...
                                              (nroff)   5n   10n   ...
       .TC x        -           y             Print  table of contents
                                              at  end;  x  =no,   suppresses
       .TE          -           y             End  of  table processed
                                              by tbl.
       .TH          -           y             End multipage header  of
       .TL          -           y             Title  in  boldface  and
                                              two points larger.
       .TM          off         n             UC Berkeley thesis mode.
       .TS x        -           y/y           Begin table;  if  x  =H,
                                              table    has   multipage
       .UL x        -           n             Underline  x,  even   in
       .UX x        -           n             UNIX;  trademark message
                                              first time; x  appended.
       .XA x y      -           y             Another  index  entry; x
                                              =page or no for none;  y
       .XE          -           y             End   index   entry  (or
                                              series of .IX  entries).
       .XP          -           y/y           Paragraph   with   first
                                              line  exdented,   others
       .XS x y      -           y             Begin   index  entry;  x
                                              =page or no for none;  y
       .1C          on          y/y           One-column  format, on a
                                              new page.
       .2C          -           y/y           Begin two-column format.
       .]-          -           n             Beginning of refer  reference.

       .[0          -           n             End   of  unclassifiable
                                              type of reference.
       .[N          -           n             N=    1:journal-article,
                                              2:book,  3:book-article,

REGISTERS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Formatting distances can be controlled in -ms by means  of
       built-in number registers. For example, this sets the line
       length to 6.5 inches:

        .nr  LL  6.5i

       Here is a table of number registers and their default values:

       Register Name   Controls             Effects        Default
       PS              Point size           paragraph      10
       VS              Vertical spacing     paragraph      12
       LL              Line length          paragraph      6i
       LT              Title length         next page      same as LL
       FL              Footnote length      next .FS       5.5i
       PD              Paragraph distance   paragraph      1v  (if  n), .3v (if
       DD              Display distance     displays       1v (if n),  .5v  (if
       PI              Paragraph indent     paragraph      5n
       QI              Quote indent         next .QP       5n
       FI              Footnote indent      next .FS       2n
       PO              Page offset          next page      0  (if  n),  ~1i (if
       HM              Header margin        next page      1i
       FM              Footer margin        next page 1i
       FF              Footnote format      next .FS       0 (1,  2,  3  available)


       When  resetting  these  values,  make  sure to specify the
       appropriate units.  Setting the  line  length  to  7,  for
       example,  results  in  output with one character per line.
       Setting FF to 1 suppresses footnote  superscripting;  setting
  it  to  2  also  suppresses indentation of the first
       line; and setting it to 3 produces  an  .IP-like  footnote

       Here  is a list of string registers available in -ms; they
       can be used anywhere in the text:

       Name    String's Function
       \*Q     Quote (" in nroff, " in *roff )
       \*U     Unquote (" in nroff, " in *roff )
       \*-     Dash (-- in nroff, -- in *roff )
       \*(MO   Month (month of the year)
       \*(DY   Day (current date)
       \**     Automatically numbered footnote
       \*'     Acute accent (before letter)
       \*`     Grave accent (before letter)
       \*^     Circumflex (before letter)
       \*,     Cedilla (before letter)
       \*:     Umlaut (before letter)
       \*~     Tilde (before letter)

       When using the extended accent mark definitions  available
       with  .AM,  these  strings  should come after, rather than
       before, the letter to be accented.

RESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted to the  same
       space,  so  they cannot be mixed together with predictable

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  -ms  macro  package  source  file  Files   that   are
       hardlinked to ???.s files Supplemental -ms macros

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       col(1), neqn(1), nroff(1), tbl(1)

[ Back ]
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