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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       apt-get - APT package handling utility -- command-line interface

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       apt-get	[  -hvs  ]   [ -o=config string ]  [ -c=file ]	 [ update ]  [
       upgrade ]  [ dselect-upgrade ]  [ install  pkg... ]  [ remove  pkg... ]
       [  source   pkg...  ]   [  build-dep  pkg... ]  [ check ]  [ clean ]  [
       autoclean ]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       apt-get is the command-line tool for handling packages, and may be considered
 the user's "back-end" to other tools using the APT library.

       Unless the -h, or --help option is given one of the commands below must
       be present.

       update update is used to resynchronize the  package  index  files  from
	      their  sources.  The  indexes  of available packages are fetched
	      from the location(s) specified  in  /etc/apt/sources.list.   For
	      example, when using a Debian archive, this command retrieves and
	      scans the Packages.gz files, so that information about  new  and
	      updated  packages  is available. An update should always be performed
 before an upgrade or dist-upgrade. Please be  aware  that
	      the  overall progress meter will be incorrect as the size of the
	      package files cannot be known in advance.

	      upgrade is used to install the newest versions of  all  packages
	      currently installed on the system from the sources enumerated in
	      /etc/apt/sources.list. Packages  currently  installed  with  new
	      versions	available are retrieved and upgraded; under no circumstances
 are currently installed packages	removed,  or  packages
	      not  already  installed retrieved and installed. New versions of
	      currently installed packages that  cannot  be  upgraded  without
	      changing	the  install status of another package will be left at
	      their current version. An update must be performed first so that
	      apt-get knows that new versions of packages are available.

	      is  used	in  conjunction  with the traditional Debian GNU/Linux
	      packaging front-end,  dselect(8).  dselect-upgrade  follows  the
	      changes  made  by  dselect(8)  to  the Status field of available
	      packages, and performs the actions  necessary  to  realize  that
	      state  (for instance, the removal of old and the installation of
	      new packages).

	      dist-upgrade, in addition to performing the function of upgrade,
	      also  intelligently  handles changing dependencies with new versions
 of packages; apt-get has  a  "smart"  conflict  resolution
	      system,  and it will attempt to upgrade the most important packages
 at the expense of less important ones  if  necessary.   The
	      /etc/apt/sources.list  file  contains  a	list of locations from
	      which to retrieve desired package files.

	      install is followed by one or more packages desired for  installation.
  Each  package  is a package name, not a fully qualified
	      filename (for instance, in  a  Debian  GNU/Linux	system,  libc6
	      would  be the argument provided, not em(libc6_1.9.6-2.deb)). All
	      packages required by the package(s) specified  for  installation
	      will  also be retrieved and installed. The /etc/apt/sources.list
	      file is used to locate the desired  packages.  If  a  hyphen  is
	      appended	to  the  package name (with no intervening space), the
	      identified package will be removed if it is installed. Similarly
	      a plus sign can be used to designate a package to install. These
	      latter features may be used to override decisions made  by  aptget's
 conflict resolution system.

	      A specific version of a package can be selected for installation
	      by following the package name with an equals and the version  of
	      the  package  to	select.  This  will  cause  that version to be
	      located and selected for install. Alternatively a specific  distribution
  can  be selected by following the package name with a
	      slash and the version of the distribution or  the  Archive  name
	      (stable, frozen, unstable).

	      Both  of the version selection mechanisms can downgrade packages
	      and must be used with care.

	      If no package matches the given expression  and  the  expression
	      contains one of '.', '?' or '*' then it is assumed to be a POSIX
	      regex and it is applied to all package names  in	the  database.
	      Any  matches are then installed (or removed). Note that matching
	      is done by substring so 'lo.*' matches 'how-lo' and 'lowest'. If
	      this is undesired prefix with a '^' character.

       remove remove  is identical to install except that packages are removed
	      instead of installed. If a plus sign is appended to the  package
	      name (with no intervening space), the identified package will be

       source source causes apt-get to fetch source packages. APT will examine
	      the  available packages to decide which source package to fetch.
	      It will then find and download into the  current	directory  the
	      newest available version of that source package. Source packages
	      are tracked separately from binary  packages  via  deb-src  type
	      lines  in the sources.list(5) file. This probably will mean that
	      you will not get	the  same  source  as  the  package  you  have
	      installed  or  as you could install. If the --compile options is
	      specified then the package will be compiled  to  a  binary  .deb
	      using  dpkg-buildpackage,  if  --download-only is specified then
	      the source package will not be unpacked.

	      A specific source version can be	retrieved  by  postfixing  the
	      source  name with an equals and then the version to fetch, similar
 to the mechanism used for the package  files.  This  enables
	      exact  matching  of the source package name and version, implicitly
 enabling the APT::Get::Only-Source option.

	      Note that source packages are not tracked like binary  packages,
	      they  exist  only  in  the  current directory and are similar to
	      downloading source tar balls.

	      build-dep  causes  apt-get  to  install/remove  packages	in  an
	      attempt to satisfy the build dependencies for a source packages.
	      Right now virtual package build depends choose a package at random.

       check  check  is  a  diagnostic	tool; it updates the package cache and
	      checks for broken dependencies.

       clean  clean clears out	the  local  repository	of  retrieved  package
	      files.   It   removes   everything   but	 the  lock  file  from
	      /var/cache/apt/archives/	and   /var/cache/apt/archive/partial/.
	      When  APT is used as a dselect(8) method, clean is run automatically.
  Those who do not use dselect will  likely  want  to  run
	      apt-get clean from time to time to free up disk space.

	      Like  clean,  autoclean  clears  out  the  local	repository  of
	      retrieved package files. The difference is that it only  removes
	      package  files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely
	      useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period
	      without  it  growing  out  of  control. The configuration option
	      APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from  being
	      erased if it is set off.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       All  command  line options may be set using the configuration file, the
       descriptions indicate the configuration	option	to  set.  For  boolean
       options	you  can  override  the  config  file  by using something like
       -f-,--no-f, -f=no or several other variations.


	      Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or
	      installed.  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download-Only.


	      Fix;  attempt  to  correct  a system with broken dependencies in
	      place. This option, when used with install/remove, can omit  any
	      packages	to  permit APT to deduce a likely soltion. Any Package
	      that are specified  must	completly  correct  the  problem.  The
	      option  is  sometimes  necessary	when running APT for the first
	      time; APT itself does not allow broken package  dependencies  to
	      exist  on  a  system.  It is possible that a system's dependency
	      structure can be so corrupt as to  require  manual  intervention
	      (which usually means using dselect(8) or dpkg --remove to eliminate
 some  of  the  offending  packages).  Use  of  this	option
	      together	with -m may produce an error in some situations.  Configuration
 Item: APT::Get::Fix-Broken.



	      Ignore missing packages; If packages cannot be retrieved or fail
	      the  integrity  check after retrieval (corrupted package files),
	      hold back those packages and handle  the	result.  Use  of  this
	      option together with -f may produce an error in some situations.
	      If a package is selected for installation (particularly if it is
	      mentioned  on  the  command line) and it could not be downloaded
	      then  it	will  be  silently  held  back.   Configuration  Item:

	      Disables	downloading  of  packages.  This  is  best  used  with
	      --ignore-missing to force APT to	use  only  the	.debs  it  has
	      already downloaded.  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download.


	      Quiet;  produces	output suitable for logging, omitting progress
	      indicators.  More q's will produce more quiet up to a maximum of
	      2.  You can also use -q=# to set the quiet level, overriding the
	      configuration file.  Note that quiet level  2  implies  -y,  you
	      should  never  use  -qq without a no-action modifier such as -d,
	      --print-uris or -s as APT may decided to do  something  you  did
	      not expect.  Configuration Item: quiet.






	      No  action;  perform a simulation of events that would occur but
	      do  not  actually  change  the  system.	 Configuration	 Item:

	      Simulate	prints	out  a series of lines each one representing a
	      dpkg operation, Configure (Conf), Remove (Remv), Unpack  (Inst).
	      Square  brackets	indicate broken packages with and empty set of
	      square brackets  meaning	breaks	that  are  of  no  consequence



	      Automatic  yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts
	      and run non-interactively. If an undesirable situation, such  as
	      changing	a held package or removing an essential package occurs
	      then apt-get will abort.	Configuration Item:  APT::Get::AssumeYes.


	      Show  upgraded  packages;  Print out a list of all packages that
	      are  to  be  upgraded.   Configuration   Item:   APT::Get::ShowUpgraded.



	      Compile  source  packages after downloading them.  Configuration
	      Item: APT::Get::Compile.

	      Ignore package Holds; This  causes  apt-get  to  ignore  a  hold
	      placed  on  a  package.  This  may be useful in conjunction with
	      dist-upgrade to override a  large  number  of  undesired	holds.
	      Configuration Item: APT::Ignore-Hold.

	      Do  not  upgrade packages; When used in conjunction with install
	      no-upgrade will prevent packages listed from being  upgraded  if
	      they     are    already	 installed.	Configuration	 Item:

	      Force yes; This is a dangerous option that  will	cause  apt  to
	      continue	without prompting if it is doing something potentially
	      harmful. It should not be used except  in  very  special	situations.
  Using  force-yes	can  potentially  destroy your system!
	      Configuration Item: APT::Get::force-yes.

	      Instead of fetching the files to install their URIs are printed.
	      Each URI will have the path, the destination file name, the size
	      and the expected md5 hash. Note that the file name to  write  to
	      will  not  always  match	the file name on the remote site! This
	      also  works  with  the  /source/	command.  Configuration  Item:

	      Use  purge instead of remove for anything that would be removed.
	      Configuration Item: APT::Get::Purge.

	      Re-Install packages that are already installed and at the newest
	      version.	Configuration Item: APT::Get::ReInstall.

	      This  option  defaults  to  on, use --no-list-cleanup to turn it
	      off. When on apt-get will automatically manage the  contents  of
	      /var/lib/apt/lists  to  ensure  that  obsolete files are erased.
	      The only reason to turn it off is if you frequently change  your
	      source list.  Configuration Item: APT::Get::List-Cleanup.



	      This  option controls the default input to the policy engine, it
	      creates a default  pin  at  priority  990  using	the  specified
	      release  string.	The preferences file may further override this
	      setting. In short, this option lets you have simple control over
	      which  distribution packages will be retrieved from. Some common
	      examples might be -t '2.1*' or -t unstable.  Configuration Item:

	      Only  perform  operations that are 'trivial'. Logically this can
	      be considered related to --assume-yes, where  --assume-yes  will
	      answer  yes  to any prompt, --trivial-only will answer no.  Configuration
 Item: APT::Get::Trivial-Only.

	      If any packages are to be  removed  apt-get  immediately	aborts
	      without prompting.  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Remove

	      Only  has  meaning  for  the  source command. indicates that the
	      given source names are not to be mapped through the  binary  table.
  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Only-Source


	      Download only the diff or tar file of a source archive.  Configuration
 Item: APT::Get::Diff-Only and APT::Get::Tar-Only


       --help Show a short usage summary.


	      Show the program verison.


	      Configuration File; Specify a configuration file	to  use.   The
	      program  will  read the default configuration file and then this
	      configuration file. See apt.conf(5) for syntax information.


	      Set a Configuration Option; This will set an arbitary configuration
 option. The syntax is -o Foo::Bar=bar.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

	      locations   to   fetch   packages   from.   Configuration  Item:

	      APT configuration file.  Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Main.

	      APT   configuration   file   fragments	Configuration	 Item:

	      version  preferences  file Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Preferences.

	      storage area for retrieved package files.   Configuration  Item:

	      storage  area for package files in transit.  Configuration Item:
	      Dir::Cache::Archives (implicit partial).

	      storage area for state information  for  each  package  resource
	      specified     in	   sources.list(5)     Configuration	 Item:

	      storage area for state information  in  transit.	 Configuration
	      Item: Dir::State::Lists (implicit partial).

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       apt-cache(8),   apt-cdrom(8),   dpkg(8),  dselect(8),  sources.list(5),
       apt.conf(5), The APT users guide  in  /usr/share/doc/apt/,  apt_prefer-

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

       apt-get returns zero on normal operation, decimal 100 on error.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

       See  the APT bug page <URL:http://bugs.debian.org/apt>.	If you wish to
       report a bug in APT, please see /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt
       or the bug(1) command.

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       APT was written by the APT team <apt@packages.debian.org>.

				 12 March 2001			    APT-GET(8)
[ Back ]
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