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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       sources.list - Package resource list for APT

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  package  resource  list  is used to locate archives of the package
       distribution system in use on the system. At  this  time,  this	manual
       page  documents	only the packaging system used by the Debian GNU/Linux
       system.	This control file is located in /etc/apt/sources.list

       The source list is designed to support any number of active sources and
       a variety of source media. The file lists one source per line, with the
       most preferred source listed first. The format of each  line  is:  type
       uri  args. The first item, type, determines the format for args. uri is
       a Universal Resource Identifier (URI), which is a superset of the  more
       specific and well-known Universal Resource Locator, or URL. The rest of
       the line can be marked as a comment by using a #.

THE DEB AND DEB-SRC TYPES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The deb type describes a typical two-level  Debian  archive,  distribu-
       tion/component.	Typically,  distribution  is  generally one of stable,
       unstable, or frozen, while component is one of main, contrib, non-free,
       or  non-us.  The  deb-src type describes a debian distribution's source
       code in the same form as the deb type. A deb-src line  is  required  to
       fetch source indexes.

       The  format  for  a  sources.list entry using the deb and deb-src types

       deb uri distribution [component1] [componenent2] [...]

       The URI for the deb type must specify the base of the Debian  distribution,
  from which APT will find the information it needs.  distribution
       can specify an exact path, in which case the components must be omitted
       and  distribution  must	end  with a slash (/). This is useful for when
       only a particular sub-section of the archive denoted by the URI	is  of
       interest.  If distribution does not specify an exact path, at least one
       component must be present.

       distribution may also contain a variable, $(ARCH), which expands to the
       Debian  architecture  (i386,  m68k,  powerpc, ...)  used on the system.
       This permits archiecture-independent sources.list files to be used.  In
       general	this  is  only	of interest when specifying an exact path, APT
       will automatically generate a URI with the current architecture	otherwise.

       Since  only one distribution can be specified per line it may be necessary
 to have multiple lines for the same URI, if a subset of all available
 distributions or components at that location is desired.  APT will
       sort the URI list after it has generated a complete set internally, and
       will  collapse  multiple  references  to  the  same  Internet host, for
       instance, into a single connection, so that it does  not  inefficiently
       establish  an FTP connection, close it, do something else, and then reestablish
 a connection to that same host. This feature  is  useful  for
       accessing  busy	FTP  sites  with  limits on the number of simultaneous
       anonymous users. bf(APT) also parallizes connections to different hosts
       to more effectively deal with sites with low bandwidth.

       It  is  important to list sources in order of preference, with the most
       preferred source listed first. Typically this will result in sorting by
       speed from fastest to slowest (CD-ROM followed by hosts on a local network,
 followed by distant Internet hosts, for example).

       Some examples:

       deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free
       deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian dists/stable-updates/

URI SPECIFICATION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The currently recognized URI types are cdrom, file, http, and ftp.

       file   The file scheme allows an arbitrary directory in the file system
	      to  be  considered an archive. This is useful for NFS mounts and
	      local mirrors or archives.

       cdrom  The cdrom scheme allows APT to use  a  local  CDROM  drive  with
	      media  swapping.	Use  the  apt-cdrom(8) program to create cdrom
	      entries in the source list.

       http   The http scheme specifies an HTTP server for the archive. If  an
	      environment   variable   http_proxy   is	set  with  the	format
	      http://server:port/, the proxy server  specified	in  http_proxy
	      will  be used. Users of authenticated HTTP/1.1 proxies may use a
	      string of the  format  http://user:pass@server:port/  Note  that
	      this is an insecure method of authentication.

       ftp    The  ftp	scheme	specifies an FTP server for the archive. APT's
	      FTP behavior is highly configurable; for	more  information  see
	      the apt.conf(5) manual page. Please note that a ftp proxy can be
	      specified by using the ftp_proxy	environment  variable.	It  is
	      possible	to  specify  a	http  proxy  (http proxy servers often
	      understand ftp urls) using this method and ONLY this method. ftp
	      proxies  using  http specified in the configuration file will be

       copy   The copy scheme is identical to  the  file  scheme  except  that
	      packages	are  copied  into  the cache directory instead of used
	      directly at their location.  This is useful for people  using  a
	      zip disk to copy files around with APT.


       ssh    The rsh/ssh method method invokes rsh/ssh to connect to a remote
	      host as a given user and access the files. No password authentication
  is  possible, prior arrangements with RSA keys or rhosts
	      must have been made.  Access to files on the remote  uses  standard
 find and dd commands to perform the file transfers from the

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Uses the archive stored locally (or NFS mounted) at  /home/jason/debian
       for stable/main, stable/contrib, and stable/non-free.

       deb file:/home/jason/debian stable main contrib non-free

       As above, except this uses the unstable (development) distribution.

       deb file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free

       Source line for the above

       deb-src file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free

       Uses  HTTP  to  access the archive at archive.debian.org, and uses only
       the hamm/main area.

       deb http://archive.debian.org/debian-archive hamm main

       Uses FTP to access the archive  at  ftp.debian.org,  under  the	debian
       directory, and uses only the stable/contrib area.

       deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian stable contrib

       Uses  FTP  to  access  the  archive at ftp.debian.org, under the debian
       directory, and uses  only  the  unstable/contrib  area.	If  this  line
       appears	as  well as the one in the previous example in sources.list, a
       single FTP session will be used for both resource lines.

       deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable contrib

       Uses HTTP to access the archive at nonus.debian.org, under the  debiannon-US

       deb http://nonus.debian.org/debian-non-US stable/non-US main contrib non-free

       Uses  HTTP to access the archive at nonus.debian.org, under the debiannon-US
 directory, and uses only files found under  unstable/binary-i386
       on  i386 machines, unstable/binary-m68k on m68k, and so forth for other
       supported architectures. [Note this example only illustrates how to use
       the substitution variable; non-us is no longer structured like this]

       deb http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian-non-US unstable/binary-$(ARCH)/

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       apt-cache(8) apt.conf(5)

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

       See  the APT bug page <URL:http://bugs.debian.org/apt>.	If you wish to
       report a bug in APT, please see /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt
       or the bug(1) command.

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       APT was written by the APT team <apt@packages.debian.org>.

				 12 March 2001		       SOURCES.LIST(5)
[ Back ]
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