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EXPLAIN(1)					      Last changed: 7-21-97

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     explain - Displays	the explanation	for an error message

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     explain msgid

IMPLEMENTATION    [Toc]    [Back]

     UNICOS systems

     IRIX systems

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The explain utility retrieves and outputs a message explanation from
     an	online explanation catalog.  If	the output device is a terminal,
     the output	of explain is piped through the	pager specified	in the
     PAGER variable.  If PAGER is not specified, the default pager more	-s
     is	used.  If the output device is not a terminal, the output of
     explain is	sent to	the standard output device (stdout).

     The explain utility requires the following	argument:

     msgid  Specifies the message ID string associated with a message that
	    appears when an error message is output.  This string consists
	    of the product group code and the message number.  The product
	    group code (group) is a string that	identifies the product
	    issuing the	message.  The message number (msg#) specifies which
	    message within the product you have	received.  Enter the
	    message ID as an argument to explain in the	form groupmsg# or
	    in the form	group-msg#.  If	the group code ends in one or more
	    digits (for	example, cf90),	you must use the form that includes
	    the	dash (-).

   Recognized Group Codes    [Toc]    [Back]
     The following tables show the products and	group codes that have
     message and explanation catalogs on UNICOS	systems	and on IRIX
     systems.  The first column	lists the group	code (needed to	look up	the
     explanations for messages); the second column gives the complete name
     of	the software product or	products associated with the group code;
     the third column lists the	publication number in which explanations
     for messages in that group	code can be found.

			       UNICOS group codes
     Group Code	 Software Product			Publication
     apprentice	 MPP Apprentice	tool			Online only
     as		 CAL assembler				SR-3108
     asm	 Cray Assembler	for MPP	(CAM)		Online only
     atchop	 atchop(1) performance tool		Online only
     atexpert	 atexpert(1) performance tool		Online only
     builddefs	 builddefs(1) command of the UNICOS	Online only
     cc		 Cray Standard C compiler		Online only
     cf90	 CF90 Fortran language			Online only
     cld	 Loader	for CRAY T3E systems		Online only
     cmd	 UNICOS	utilities that are compliant	Online only
		 with XPG4
     dbg	 cdbx(1), debug(1), symdebug(3F), and	Online only
		 symdump(3F) debugging commands
     define	 define(1) command of the UNICOS	Online only
     deplib	 deplib(1) command			Online only
     df		 df(1) utility				Online only
     dm		 Data Migration	Facility		SG-2135
     du		 du(1) utility				Online only
     ex		 ex(1) and vi(1) utilities		Online only
     flowv	 flowview(1) performance tool		Online only
     fmp	 fmp(1)	Fortran	vectorization		SR-3771
     fpp	 fpp(1)	Fortran	vectorization analyzer	SR-3771
     fsquota	 File system quota feature		Online only
     hpm	 hpm(1)	performance tool		Online only
     hpmall	 hpmall(8) performance tool		Online only
     hpmflop	 hpmflop(8) performance	tool		Online only
     jt		 jt(1) performance tool			Online only
     jumpv	 jumpview(1) performance tool		Online only
     ldr	 segldr(1) and ld(1) loader commands	SR-0066
     lib	 Fortran and I/O libraries		Online only
     libm	 Mathematical libraries			SG-2138
     libp	 Pascal	library				Online only
     lprof	 libprof library			Online only
     ltrace	 Jumptrace library			Online only
     mppldr	 Loader	for CRAY T3D systems		Online only
     mtdump	 mtdump(1) performance tool		Online only
     nqs	 Network Queuing System			Online only
     perf	 libperf library			Online only
     perfdmp	 perfdmp(1) performance	tool		Online only
     perfv	 perfview(1) performance tool		Online only
     proc	 procstat(1) performance tool		Online only
     procv	 procview(1) performance tool		Online only
     prof	 prof(1) performance tool		Online only
     profv	 profview(1) performance tool		Online only
     ps		 ps(1) utility				Online only
     sh		 Standard shell				Online only
     sys	 UNICOS	system error list		SR-2012
     syslog	 System	message	logger (newsys(8) and	Online only
     talk	 talk(1B) utility			Online only
     urm	 Unified Resource Manager		Online only
     usm	 UNICOS	Source Manager (USM)		SG-2097

				IRIX group codes
     Group Code	 Software Product			Publication
     cf90	 f90 version 7.2			Online only
     lib	 Fortran 90 library version 2.0, and	Online only
     msgsys	 explain(1) and	caterr(1) utilities	Online only

   Location of Explanation Catalogs    [Toc]    [Back]
     To	find the explanation for the message, explain searches the path
     specified in the NLSPATH environment variable for the group.exp file.
     The value of the NLSPATH variable depends on the LANG environment
     variable or the LC_MESSAGES category.  If explain cannot access an
     existing explanation catalog, check the value of the NLSPATH
     environment variable and either the LANG environment variable or the
     LC_MESSAGES category to ensure that the path name of the catalog is in
     the message system	search path.

     On	UNICOS systems,	you can	use the	whichcat(1) utility to determine
     which catalog is being accessed by	explain.  For more information,	see

     On	UNICOS systems,	see the	catopen(3C) man	page for a description of
     the NLSPATH, LANG,	and LC_MESSAGES	components.

     On	IRIX systems, see environ(5) for a description of the NLSPATH,
     LANG, and LLC_MESSAGES components.

   Message Format Variables    [Toc]    [Back]
     If	msgid does not appear with the error message or	if you want to
     change the	format of the messages you receive, you	can modify your
     MSG_FORMAT	and CMDMSG_FORMAT environment variables.  Both variables
     can be set	to define the fields and the order of the fields to be
     included in message output.

     The MSG_FORMAT variable controls the format in which you receive error
     messages from programs that use the message formatting function
     catmsgfmt(3C).  On	UNICOS systems,	these are most messages	in group
     codes other than cmd.  On IRIX systems, these are most messages in
     group codes other than msgsys.

     On	UNICOS systems,	the CMDMSG_FORMAT variable controls the	format in
     which you receive error messages issued by	system utilities that are
     included in the XPG4 standard.  These are messages	in the cmd group
     code.  A separate environment variable is provided	to control message
     output from these utilities, because it is	often desirable	to capture
     and process this output through a script or program; limiting the
     output to one line	makes this easier.  The	default	format (shown
     below) for	non-utility messages outputs at	least two lines.  The
     CMDMSG_FORMAT variable exists to provide a	one-line default format	for
     utility messages.

     On	IRIX systems, the explain and caterr utilities use either
     CMDMSG_FORMAT or MSG_FORMAT variables; however, CMDMSG_FORMAT is used
     before MSG_FORMAT.

   Message Format Syntax    [Toc]    [Back]
     Valid fields for MSG_FORMAT and CMDMSG_FORMAT are as follows:

     %G	  Group	code

     %N	  Message number

     %C	  Command name

     %S	  Severity level

     %P	  Position of the error

     %M	  Message text

     %D	  Debugging information

     %T	  Time stamp

     If	one of the % fields is not present in the contents of MSG_FORMAT or
     CMDMSG_FORMAT, the	corresponding message field is not printed.

     The default message format	is produced by the following assumed
     MSG_FORMAT	contents:

	  %G-%N	 %C: %S	%P\n  %M\n

     For messages issued by UNICOS utilities, and by the IRIX utilities
     explain(1)	and caterr(1), the default message format is produced by
     the following assumed CMDMSG_FORMAT contents:

	  %G-%N: %C %M\n

     Messages issued from the cmd group	code determine their format
     according to the following	precedence:

     1.	Content	of CMDMSG_FORMAT variable, if it exists

     2.	Content	of MSG_FORMAT variable,	if it exists

     3.	Default	message	format for utilities

     The format	of the time stamp (%T) is equivalent to	that produced by
     the cftime(3C) function and can be	overridden by the CFTIME
     environment variable.  For	details	about time stamp formats, see the
     strftime(3C) man page, which documents the	cftime function.

     The Standard C printf escape sequences also can be	embedded in the
     contents of MSG_FORMAT.  The following table lists	special	characters
     that can be embedded.

     Description      Symbol  Sequence
     New-line	      NL      \n
     character	      (LF)
     Horizontal	tab   HT      \t
     Vertical tab     VT      \v
     Backspace	      BS      \b
     Carriage return  CR      \r
     Form feed	      FF      \f
     Audible alert    BEL     \a
     Backslash	      \	      \\
     Question mark    ?	      \?
     Single	      '	      \'
     quotation mark
     Double	      "	      \"
     quotation mark
     Octal number     ooo     \ooo
     Hexadecimal      hh      \xhh

     The escape	\ooo consists of the backslash followed	by 1, 2, or 3 octal
     digits, which are taken to	specify	the value of the desired character.
     A common example of this construction is \0, which	specifies the null
     character.	 The escape \xhh consists of the backslash, followed by	x,
     followed by hexadecimal digits, which are taken to	specify	the value
     of	the desired character.	There is no limit on the number	of digits,
     but the behavior is undefined if the resulting character value exceeds
     that of the largest character.

     Any characters other than those listed in this table are passed
     through without the backslash, (for example, \q produces q).

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     On	UNICOS systems,	if this	utility	is installed with a privilege
     assignment	list (PAL), a user with	one of the following active
     categories	is allowed to perform the actions shown:

     Active Category	 Action

     system, secadm	 In a privileged administrator shell environment,
			 allowed to write shell-redirected output to any

     sysadm		 Shell-redirected output is subject to security
			 label restrictions.

     If	the PRIV_SU configuration option is enabled, the super user can
     write shell-redirected output to any file.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

   UNICOS systems
     caterr(1),	catxt(1), gencat(1), whichcat(1)

     catgetmsg(3C), catgets(3C), catmsgfmt(3C),	catopen(3C), strftime(3C)
     in	the UNICOS System Libraries Reference Manual, publication SR-2080

     nl_types(5), msg(7D) in the UNICOS	File Formats and Special Files
     Reference Manual, publication SR-2014

   IRIX	systems
     caterr(1),	gencat(1)

     catgetmsg(3C), catmsgfmt(3C)


   Cray	Research publications
     UNICOS Message System Programmer's	Guide, publication SG-2121

     Segment Loader (SEGLDR) and ld Reference Manual, publication SR-0066

     UNICOS System Calls Reference Manual, publication SR-2012

     UNICOS Source Manager (USM) User's	Guide, publication SG-2097

     Cray Data Migration Facility (DMF)	Administrator's	Guide, publication

     Intrinsic Procedures Reference Manual, publication	SR-2138

     Cray Assembly Language (CAL) for Cray PVP Systems Reference Manual,
     publication SR-3108

     UNICOS User Commands Reference Manual, publication	SR-2011, for the
     printed version of	this man page.
[ Back ]
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