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ps(1)									 ps(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     ps	- report process status

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     ps	[ options ]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     ps	prints information about active	processes.  Without options,
     information is printed about processes associated with the	controlling
     terminal.	The output consists of a short listing containing only the
     process ID, terminal identifier, cumulative execution time, and the
     command name.  Since a batch job doesn't have a controlling terminal,
     invoking ps without options from a	batch job will result in an error.
     Otherwise,	the information	that is	displayed is controlled	by the
     selection of options.

     options accept names or lists as arguments.  Arguments can	be either
     separated from one	another	by commas or enclosed in double	quotes and
     separated from one	another	by commas or spaces.  Values for proclist and
     grplist must be numeric.

     The options are:

     -a		  Print	information about all processes	most frequently
		  requested:  all those	except process group leaders and
		  processes not	associated with	a terminal.

     -A		  Print	information about every	process	now running.

     -c		  Print	information about the scheduler	properties.  (See

     -d		  Print	information about all processes	except process group

     -e		  Print	information about every	process	now running
		  (equivalent to -A).

     -f		  Generate a full listing.  (See below for significance	of
		  columns in a full listing.)

     -g	grplist	  List only process data whose process group leader's ID
		  numbers appear in grplist.  (A group leader is a process
		  whose	process	ID number is identical to its process group ID
		  number.  A login shell is a common example of	a process
		  group	leader.)

     -G	grplist	  List only process data whose real group leader's ID numbers
		  appears in grplist.

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ps(1)									 ps(1)

     -j		  Print	session	ID and process group ID.

     -l		  Generate a long listing.  (See below.)

     -M		  If the system	supports Mandatory Access Control, print the
		  security label for each process.  The	-M option can be
		  automatically	be turned on by	using an environmental
		  variable LABELFLAG.  Set variable to on (not case sensitive)
		  for automatic	security label information.  To	turn off
		  feature set to off or	NULL.

     -n	name	  This argument	is obsolete and	is no longer used.

     -o	format	  Print	information according to the format specification
		  given	in format.  (See below.)

     -P		  If the system	supports capabilities then print the
		  capabilities of each process.

     -p	proclist  List only process data whose process ID numbers are given in

     -s	sesslist  List information on all session leaders whose	IDs appear in

     -t	termlist  List only process data associated with the terminal given in
		  termlist.  Terminal identifiers consist of the device's name
		  (for example,	ttyd1, ttyq1).

     -T		  List data for	individual kernel threads.  Normally the
		  information presented	is a summation across all threads of
		  the process.	This is	of use when examining POSIX threaded

     -u	uidlist	  List only process data whose user ID number or login name is
		  given	in uidlist.  In	the listing, the numerical user	ID is
		  printed unless you give the -f option, which prints the
		  login	name.

     -U	uidlist	  List only process data whose real user ID number or login
		  name is given	in uidlist.

     Under the -f option, ps tries to determine	the command name and arguments
     given when	the process was	created	by examining the user block.  Failing
     this, the command name is printed,	as it would have appeared without the
     -f	option,	in square brackets.

     The column	headings and the meaning of the	columns	in a ps	listing	are
     given below.  The letters f and l indicate	the option (full or long,
     respectively) that	causes the corresponding heading to appear (assuming
     the -o option is not specified); all means	that the heading always
     appears.  Note that these options determine only what information is

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ps(1)									 ps(1)

     provided for a process; they do not determine which processes are listed.

     If	the environment	variable _XPG is defined and has a numeric value
     greater than 0, ps	operates in conformance	with the X/Open	XPG4
     specifications.  The format of the	output of the -l option	differs	in
     some details from the XPG format and backward compatibility mode.	The
     differences are explained in the table below.

     F	   (l)	    Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associated	with the

		    001	  Process is a system (resident) process.
		    002	  Process is being traced.
		    004	  Stopped process has been given to parent via
		    008	  Process is sleeping at a non-interruptible priority.
		    010	  Process is in	core.
		    020	  Process user area is in core.
		    040	  Process has enabled atomic operator emulation.
		    080	  Process in stream poll or select.
		    100	  Process is a kernel thread.

     S	   (l)	    The	state of the process:

		    0	Process	is running on a	processor.
		    S	Process	is sleeping, waiting for a resource.
		    R	Process	is running.
		    Z	Process	is terminated and parent not waiting
		    T	Process	is stopped.
		    I	Process	is in intermediate state of creation.
		    X	Process	is waiting for memory.
		    C	Process	is creating core image after error.

     UID    (f,l)   The	user ID	number of the process owner (the login name is
		    printed under the -f option).

     PID    (all)   The	process	ID of the process (this	datum is necessary in
		    order to kill a process).

     PPID   (f,l)   The	process	ID of the parent process.

     PGID   (j)	    Process group leader ID.  This can be used with the	-g

     SID    (j)	    Session ID.	 This can be used with the -s option.

     CLS    (c)	    Scheduling class.  The values printed for CLS are two
		    character mnemonics	for the	scheduler class.  RT indicates
		    real-time, TS indicates timeshare, B indicates batch, BC
		    indicates batch critical, WL indicate weightless and GN

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ps(1)									 ps(1)

		    indicates gang scheduled.

     C	    (f,l)   Processor utilization for scheduling.  Not printed when
		    the	-c option is used.

     PRI    (l)	    The	priority of the	process	(higher	numbers	mean higher
		    priority).	If the class of	the process is WL, w is
		    displayed as the priority. If the process is scheduled via
		    miser(1) it	may be b for batch or bc for batch critical.

     NI	    (l)	    Nice value,	used in	priority computation.  Not printed
		    when the -c	option is used (see nice(1) and	csh(1)).  Only
		    processes in the time-sharing class	have a nice value.
		    Processes in other scheduling classes have their two
		    letter class mnemonic printed in this field	(refer to CLS
		    description	above).

     P	    (l)	    If the process is running, gives the number	of processor
		    on which the process is executing.	Contains an asterisk
		    otherwise.	This is	not displayed in X/OPEN	XPG4
		    conformance	mode.

     ADDR  (l)	    The	physical address of the	process.  This is only
		    displayed in X/OPEN	XPG4 conformance mode.

     SZ	    (l)	    Total size (in pages) of the process, including code,
		    data, shared memory, mapped	files, shared libraries	and
		    stack.  Pages associated with mapped devices are not
		    counted.  (Refer to	sysconf(1) or sysconf(3C) for
		    information	on determining the page	size.)

     RSS    (l)	    Total resident size	(in pages) of process.	This includes
		    only those pages of	the process that are physically
		    resident in	memory.	 Mapped	devices	(such as graphics) are
		    not	included.  Shared memory (shmget(2)) and the shared
		    parts of a forked child (code, shared objects, and files
		    mapped MAP_SHARED) have the	number of pages	prorated by
		    the	number of processes sharing the	page.  Two independent
		    processes that use the same	shared objects and/or the same
		    code each count all	valid resident pages as	part of	their
		    own	resident size.	The page size can either be 4096 or
		    16384 bytes	as determined by the return value of the
		    getpagesize(2) system call.	 In general the	larger page
		    size is used on systems where uname(1) returns "IRIX64".
		    This is not	displayed in X/OPEN XPG4 conformance mode.

     WCHAN  (l)	    The	name (or address if the	name is	unavailable) of	an
		    event for which the	process	is sleeping, or	in SXBRK
		    state, (if blank, the process is running).

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ps(1)									 ps(1)

     STIME  (f)	    The	starting time of the process, given in hours, minutes,
		    and	seconds.  (A process begun more	than twenty-four hours
		    before the ps inquiry is executed is given in months and

     TTY    (all)   The	controlling terminal for the process (the message, ?,
		    is printed when there is no	controlling terminal).

     TIME   (all)   The	cumulative execution time for the process.

     COMMAND(all)   The	command	name (the full command name and	its arguments
		    are	printed	under the -f option).  A process that has
		    exited and has a parent, but has not yet been waited for
		    by the parent, is marked <defunct>.

     The -o option allows the output format to be specified under user

     The format	specification must be a	list of	names presented	as a single
     argument, blank- or comma-separated.  Each	variable has a default header.
     The default header	can be overridden by appending an equals sign and the
     new text of the header.  The rest of the characters in the	argument are
     used as the header	text.  The fields specified are	written	in the order
     specified on the command line and should be arranged in columns in	the
     output.  The field	widths are selected by the system to be	at least as
     wide as the header	text (default or overridden value).  If	the header
     text is null such as -o user=, the	field width is at least	as wide	as the
     default header text.  If all header text fields are null, no header line
     is	written.

     The following names are recognized:

     ruser    The real user ID of the process.
     user     The effective user ID of the process.
     rgroup   The real group UD	of the process.
     group    The effective group ID of	the process.
     pid      The decimal value	of the process ID.
     ppid     The decimal value	of the parent process ID.
     pgid     The decimal value	of the process group ID.
     pcpu     The ratio	of CPU time used recently to the CPU time available in
	      the same period, expressed as a percentage.
     vsz      The size of the process in (virtual) memory.
     nice     The decimal value	of the system scheduling priority of the
     time     The cumulative CPU time of the process.
     etime    The elapsed time since the process was started.
     stime    The starting time	of the process.
     flag     Flags associated with the	process.
     state    The state	of the process.
     wchan    The address of an	event for which	the process is waiting or

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ps(1)									 ps(1)

     wname    The name (or address if the name is unavailable) of an event for
	      which the	process	is waiting or sleeping.
     util     Processor	utilization for	scheduling.
     uid      The user ID number of the	process	owner.
     cpu      The processor process is currently executing on.
     class    The scheduling class of the process.
     tty      The name of the controlling terminal of the process (if any) in
	      the same format used by the who utility.
     comm     The name of the command being executed (argv[0] value) as	a
     args     The command with all its arguments as a string.
     label    The MAC label of the running process.

     The file /tmp/.ps_data/.ps_data is	used to	improve	the performance	of ps
     by	caching	kernel info, and some device information.  It is recreated
     when it is	older (either the mtime	or ctime) than /unix, or /dev, or when
     a read error occurs on the	file.  ps runs noticeably slower when this
     file isn't	used, or needs to be recreated.

SHARE II ACTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     When the Share II package is installed and	enabled, every process
     acquires a	new property: its attached lnode.  The lnode is	the kernel
     structure that is used to store per-user resource and administration data
     under Share II.  Many processes can be attached to	the same lnode.

     An	lnode contains a user's	resource limits, including limits on memory
     usage and `number of processes'.  All the processes attached to an	lnode
     are collectively subject to the lnode's memory and	process	limits.

     Each lnode	is addressed by	a unique key which is a	UID number.  When
     given the -y option, ps reports each process's lnode attachment under the
     `UID' column as a UID or login name.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /etc/passwd    UID	information supplier
		    internal data structure

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     capabilities(4), getty(1M), gr_osview(1), gr_top(1), kill(1), miser(1),
     nice(1), sysconf(1), top(1), sched_setscheduler(2), sysconf(3C).

WARNING    [Toc]    [Back]

     Things can	change while ps	is running; the	snapshot it gives is only true
     for a splitsecond,	and it may not be accurate by the time you see it.
     Some data printed for defunct processes is	irrelevant.

     If	no termlist, proclist, uidlist,	or grplist is specified, ps checks
     stdin, stdout, and	stderr in that order, looking for the controlling
     terminal and attempts to report on	processes associated with the

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ps(1)									 ps(1)

     controlling terminal.  In this situation, if stdin, stdout, and stderr
     are all redirected, ps does not find a controlling	terminal, so there is
     no	report.

     ps	-ef may	not report the actual start of a tty login session, but	rather
     an	earlier	time, when a getty was last respawned on the tty line.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The C and ADDR fields currently always report 0.  The output resulting
     from using	the format specification pcpu is also always 0.

     When a machine's system time is corrected by timed	or timeslave and if
     the correction sets the time to an	earlier	value, ps reports a
     meaningless huge or negative TIME value for the timed or timeslave

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 7777
[ Back ]
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