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ex(1)									 ex(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     ex	- text editor

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     ex	[-s] [-l] [-L] [-R] [-r	file] [-t tag] [-v] [-V] [-x] [-C] [+ command]
     [-c command] [-w size] file ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     ex	is the root of a family	of editors:  ex	and vi.	 ex is a superset of
     ed, with the most notable extension being a display editing facility.
     Display based editing is the focus	of vi.

     If	you use	a window or a CRT terminal, you	may wish to use	the vi(1)
     editor, which focuses on the display-editing portion of ex.

   For ed Users    [Toc]    [Back]
     If	you have used ed(1) you	will find that,	in addition to having all of
     the ed(1) commands	available, ex has a number of additional features
     useful on CRT terminals.  Intelligent terminals and high speed terminals
     are very pleasant to use with vi.	Generally, the ex editor uses far more
     of	the capabilities of terminals than ed(1) does and uses the terminal
     capability	data base (see terminfo(4)) and	the type of the	terminal you
     are using from the	environment variable TERM to determine how to drive
     your terminal efficiently.	 The editor makes use of features such as
     insert and	delete character and line in its visual	command	(which can be
     abbreviated vi) and which is the central mode of editing when using

     ex	contains a number of features for easily viewing the text of the file.
     The z command gives easy access to	windows	of text.  Typing ^D (controld)
	causes the editor to scroll a half-window of text and is more useful
     for quickly stepping through a file than just typing return.  Of course,
     the screen-oriented visual	mode gives constant access to editing context.

     ex	gives you help when you	make mistakes.	The undo (u) command allows
     you to reverse any	single change that goes	astray.	 ex gives you a	lot of
     feedback, normally	printing changed lines,	and indicates when more	than a
     few lines are affected by a command so that it is easy to detect when a
     command has affected more lines than it should have.

     The editor	also normally prevents overwriting existing files, unless you
     edited them, so that you do not accidentally overwrite a file other than
     the one you are editing.  If the system (or editor) crashes, or you
     accidentally hang up the telephone, you can use the editor	recover
     command (or -r file option) to retrieve your work.	 This gets you back to
     within a few lines	of where you left off.

     ex	has several features for dealing with more than	one file at a time.
     You can give it a list of files on	the command line and use the next (n)
     command to	deal with each in turn.	 The next command can also be given a
     list of filenames,	or a pattern as	used by	the shell to specify a new set
     of	files to be dealt with.	 In general, filenames in the editor can be

									Page 1

ex(1)									 ex(1)

     formed with full shell metasyntax.	 The metacharacter % is	also available
     in	forming	filenames and is replaced by the name of the current file.
     For editing large groups of related files you can use ex's	tag command to
     quickly locate functions and other	important points in any	of the files.
     This is useful when working on a large program when you want to quickly
     find the definition of a particular function.  The	ctags(1) utility
     builds a tags file	for C, Pascal, and FORTRAN programs.

     The editor	has a group of buffers whose names are the ASCII lower-case
     letters (a-z).  You can place text	in these named buffers where it	is
     available to be inserted elsewhere	in the file.  The contents of these
     buffers remain available when you begin editing a new file	using the edit
     (e) command.

     There is a	command	& in ex	that repeats the last substitute command.  In
     addition, there is	a confirmed substitute command.	 You give a range of
     substitutions to be done and the editor interactively asks	whether	each
     substitution is desired.

     It	is possible to ignore the case of letters in searches and
     substitutions.  ex	also allows regular expressions	that match words to be
     constructed.  This	is convenient, for example, in searching for the word
     edit if your document also	contains the word editor.  See the regcomp(5)
     man page for information about using the regular expression syntax.  This
     version of	ex is X/Open compliant and uses	the X/Open defined regular
     expression	syntax.

     ex	has a set of options that you can set to tailor	it to your liking.
     One option	that is	very useful is the autoindent option that allows the
     editor to supply leading white space to align text	automatically.	You
     can then use ^D as	a backtab and space or tab to move forward to align
     new code easily.

     Miscellaneous useful features include an intelligent join (j) command
     that supplies white space between joined lines automatically, commands <
     and > that	shift groups of	lines, and the ability to filter portions of
     the buffer	through	commands such as sort(1).

   Invocation Options    [Toc]    [Back]
     The following invocation options are interpreted by ex (previously
     documented	options	are discussed in the NOTES section at the end of this
     manual page):

     -s		  Suppress all interactive-user	feedback.  This	is useful in
		  processing editor scripts.

     -l		  Set lisp mode; indents appropriately for Lisp	code; the (),
		  {}, [[ and ]]	commands in visual mode	are modified to	have
		  meaning for Lisp.

									Page 2

ex(1)									 ex(1)

     -L		  List the names of all	files saved as the result of an	editor
		  or system crash.

     -R		  Readonly mode; the readonly flag is set, preventing
		  accidental overwriting of the	file.  -r file Edit file after
		  an editor or system crash.  (Recovers	the version of file
		  that was in the buffer when the crash	occurred.)

     -t	tag	  Edit the file	containing the tag and position	the editor at
		  its definition.

     -v		  Invoke vi.

     -x		  Encryption option; when used,	ex simulates an	X command and
		  prompts the user for a key.  This key	is used	to encrypt and
		  decrypt text using the algorithm of crypt(1).	 The X command
		  makes	an educated guess to determine whether text read in is
		  encrypted or not.  The temporary buffer file is encrypted
		  also,	using a	transformed version of the key typed in	for
		  the -x option.  See crypt(1).

     -C		  Encryption option; the same as the -x	option,	except that ex
		  simulates a C	command.  The C	command	is like	the X command,
		  except that all text read in is assumed to have been

     + command	  Begin	editing	by executing the specified ex command-mode
		  commands.  As	with normal editing command-line entries, the
		  command option-argument can consist of multiple ex commands
		  separated by vertical-line characters	(|).  The use of
		  commands that	enter input or visual modes in this manner
		  produces undefined results.

     -w	size	  Set the value	of the window editor option to size.

     -c	command	  Begin	editing	by executing the specified editor command
		  (usually a search or positioning command).

     The file argument indicates one or	more files to be edited.

   ex States
     Command   Normal and initial state.  Input	prompted for by	:.  Your line
	       kill character cancels a	partial	command.

     Insert    Entered by a, i,	or c.  Arbitrary text can be entered.  Insert
	       state normally is terminated by a line having only "."  on it,
	       or, abnormally, with an interrupt.

     Visual    Entered by typing vi; terminated	by typing Q or ^\ (control-\).

									Page 3

ex(1)									 ex(1)

   ex Command Names and	Abbreviations
     abbrev   ab	map		      set	   se
     append   a		mark	   ma	      shell	   sh
     args     ar	move	   m	      source	   so
     change   c		next	   n	      substitute   s
     copy     co	number	   nu	      unabbrev	   unab
     delete   d		preserve   pre	      undo	   u
     edit     e		print	   p	      unmap	   unm
     file     f		put	   pu	      version	   ve
     global   g		quit	   q	      visual	   vi
     insert   i		read	   r	      write	   w
     join     j		recover	   rec	      xit	   x
     list     l		rewind	   rew	      yank	   ya

   ex Commands
     shell escape	    !
     forced encryption	    C
     heuristic encryption   X
     lshift		    <
     print next		    CR
     resubst		    &
     rshift		    >
     scroll		    ^D
     window		    z

   ex Command Addresses
     n	   line	n      /pat   next with	pat
     .	   current     ?pat   previous with pat
     $	   last	       x-n    n	before x
     +	   next	       x,y    x	through	y
     -	   previous    'x     marked with x
     +n	   n forward   ''     previous context
     %	   1,$

   Initializing	options
     EXINIT	    place set's	here in	environment variable
     $HOME/.exrc    editor initialization file
     ./.exrc	    editor initialization file
     set x	    enable option x
     set nox	    disable option x
     set x=val	    give value val to option x
     set	    show changed options
     set all	    show all options
     set x?	    show value of option x

     If	the EXINIT environment variable	is set,	initialization options are
     taken from	that variable.	Otherwise, initialization options are taken
     from $HOME/.exrc, if it exists.  Finally, if the exrc option is set
     (either by	EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc,)	initialization options are taken from
     ./.exrc, if it exists.

									Page 4

ex(1)									 ex(1)

   Most	useful options and their abbreviations
     autoindent	  ai	 supply	indent
     autowrite	  aw	 write before changing files
     directory		 pathname of directory for temporary work files
     exrc	  ex	 allow vi/ex to	read the .exrc in the current
			 directory; this option	is set in the EXINIT shell
			 variable or in	the .exrc file in the $HOME directory
     ignorecase	  ic	 ignore	case of	letters	in scanning
     list		 print ^I for tab, $ at	end
     magic		 treat . [ * special in	patterns
     modelines		 first five lines and last five	lines executed as
			 vi/ex commands	if they	are of the form
			 ex:command: or	vi:command:
     number	  nu	 number	lines
     paragraphs	  para	 macro names that start	paragraphs
     redraw		 simulate smart	terminal
     report		 informs you if	the number of lines modified by	the
			 last command is greater than the value	of the
			 report	variable
     scroll		 command mode lines
     sections	  sect	 macro names that start	sections
     shiftwidth	  sw	 for < >, and input ^D
     showmatch	  sm	 to ) and } as typed
     showmode	  smd	 show insert mode in vi
     slowopen	  slow	 stop updates during insert
     term		 specifies to vi the type of terminal being used (the
			 default is the	value of the environment variable TERM)
     window		 visual	mode lines
     wrapmargin	  wm	 automatic line	splitting
     wrapscan	  ws	 search	around end (or beginning) of buffer

   Scanning pattern formation    [Toc]    [Back]
      ^		  beginning of line
      $		  end of line
      .		  any character
      \<	  beginning of word
      \>	  end of word
      [str]	  any character	in str
      [^str]	  any character	not in str
      [x-y]	  any character	between	x and y
      *		  any number of	preceding characters

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /usr/lib/exrecover		 recover command
     /usr/lib/expreserve	 preserve command
     /usr/share/lib/terminfo/*	 describes capabilities	of terminals
     $HOME/.exrc		 editor	startup	file
     ./.exrc			 editor	startup	file
     /tmp/Exnnnnn		 editor	temporary
     /tmp/Rxnnnnn		 named buffer temporary

									Page 5

ex(1)									 ex(1)

     /usr/preserve/login	 preservation directory	(where login is	the
				 user's	login name)

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     Several options, although they continue to	be supported, have been
     replaced in the documentation by options that follow the Command Syntax
     Standard (see intro(1)).  The - option has	been replaced by -s, a -r
     option that is not	followed with an option-argument has been replaced by
     -L, and +command has been replaced	by -c command.

     ex	has a limit of 15,687,678 editable lines.  Attempts to edit or create
     files larger than this limit cause	ex to terminate	with an	appropriate
     error message.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     crypt(1), ctags(1), ed(1),	edit(1), grep(1), sed(1), sort(1), vi(1),
     curses(3X), term(4), terminfo(4), regcomp(5).

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The z command prints the number of	logical	rather than physical lines.
     More than a screen	full of	output may result if long lines	are present.

     File input/output errors do not print a name if the command line -s
     option is used.

     There is no easy way to do	a single scan ignoring case.

     The editor	does not warn if text is placed	in named buffers and not used
     before exiting the	editor.

     Null characters are discarded in input files and cannot appear in
     resultant files.

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 6666
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