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vi(1)									 vi(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     vi, view, vedit - screen-oriented (visual)	display	editors	based on ex

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     vi	[-t tag] [-r file] [-L]	[-wn] [-R] [-x]	[-C] [-c command] file ...
     view [-t tag] [-r file] [-L] [-wn]	[-R] [-x] [-C] [-c command] file ...
     vedit [-t tag] [-r	file] [-L] [-wn] [-R] [-x] [-C]	[-c command] file ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     vi	(visual) is a display-oriented text editor based on an underlying line
     editor ex(1).  It is possible to use the command mode of ex from within
     vi	and vice-versa.	 The visual commands are described on this manual
     page; how to set options (like automatically numbering lines and
     automatically starting a new output line when you type carriage return)
     and all ex	line editor commands are described on the ex(1)	reference

     When using	vi, changes you	make to	the file are reflected in what you see
     on	your terminal screen.  The position of the cursor on the screen
     indicates the position within the file.

   Invocation Options    [Toc]    [Back]
     The following invocation options are interpreted by vi (previously
     documented	options	are discussed in the NOTES section at the end of this
     manual page):

     -t	tag	   Edit	the file containing the	tag and	position the editor at
		   its definition.

     -r	file	   Edit	file after an editor or	system crash.  (Recovers the
		   version of file that	was in the buffer when the crash

     -L		   List	the name of all	files saved as the result of an	editor
		   or system crash.

     -wn	   Set the default window size to n.  This is useful when
		   using the editor over a slow	speed line.

     -R		   Readonly mode; the readonly flag is set, preventing
		   accidental overwriting of the file.

     -x		   Encryption option; when used, vi simulates the X command of
		   ex and prompts the user for a key.  This key	is used	to
		   encrypt and decrypt text using the algorithm	of crypt(1).
		   The X command makes an educated guess to determine whether
		   text	read in	is encrypted or	not.  The temporary buffer
		   file	is encrypted also, using a transformed version of the
		   key typed in	for the	-x option.  See	crypt(1).

									Page 1

vi(1)									 vi(1)

     -C		   Encryption option; same as the -x option, except that vi
		   simulates the C command of ex.  The C command is like the X
		   command of ex, except that all text read in is assumed to
		   have	been encrypted.

     -c	 command   Begin editing by executing the specified editor command
		   (usually a search or	positioning command).  When used with
		   -t, the specified command is	given after moving to the tag.

     The file argument indicates one or	more files to be edited.

     The view invocation is the	same as	vi except that the readonly flag is

     The vedit invocation is intended for beginners.  It is the	same as	vi
     except that the report flag is set	to 1, the showmode and novice flags
     are set, and magic	is turned off.	These defaults make it easier to learn
     how to use	vi.

   vi Modes
     Command	 Normal	and initial mode.  Other modes return to command mode
		 upon completion.  ESC (escape)	is used	to cancel a partial

     Input	 Entered by setting any	of the following options:  a A i I o O
		 c C s S R .  Arbitrary	text can then be entered.  Input mode
		 is normally terminated	with ESC character, or,	abnormally,
		 with an interrupt.

     Last line	 Reading input for : / ? or !; terminate by typing a carriage
		 return; an interrupt cancels termination.

     In	the descriptions, CR stands for	carriage return	and ESC	stands for the
     escape key.

   Sample commands    [Toc]    [Back]
     <-	|v |^ ->	       arrow keys move the cursor
     h j k l	       same as arrow keys
     itextESC	       insert text
     cwnewESC	       change word to new
     easESC	       pluralize word (end of word; append s;
		       escape from input state)
     x		       delete a	character
     dw		       delete a	word
     dd		       delete a	line
     3dd	       delete 3	lines
     u		       undo previous change
     ZZ		       exit vi,	saving changes
     :q!CR	       quit, discarding	changes

									Page 2

vi(1)									 vi(1)

     /textCR	       search for text
     ^U	^D	       scroll up or down
     :cmdCR	       any ex or ed command

   Counts before vi commands    [Toc]    [Back]
     Numbers can be typed as a prefix to some commands.	 They are interpreted
     in	one of these ways.

     line/column number	  z  G	|
     scroll amount	  ^D  ^U
     repeat effect	  most of the rest

   Interrupting, canceling
      ESC	end insert or incomplete cmd
      DEL	(delete	or rubout) interrupts

   File	manipulation
      ZZ	      if file modified,	write and exit;	otherwise, exit
      :wCR	      write back changes
      :w!CR	      forced write, if permission originally not valid
      :qCR	      quit
      :q!CR	      quit, discard changes
      :e nameCR	      edit file	name
      :e!CR	      reedit, discard changes
      :e + nameCR     edit, starting at	end
      :e +nCR	      edit starting at line n
      :e #CR	      edit alternate file
      :e! #CR	      edit alternate file, discard changes
      :w nameCR	      write file name
      :w! nameCR      overwrite	file name
      :shCR	      run shell, then return
      :!cmdCR	      run cmd, then return
      :nCR	      edit next	file in	arglist
      :n argsCR	      specify new arglist
      ^G	      show current file	and line
      :tag tagCR      position cursor to tag (see ctags(1)), save position
      :popCR	      return to	previous tag's position

     In	general, any ex	or ed command (such as substitute or global) can be
     typed, preceded by	a colon	and followed by	a carriage return.

   Positioning within file    [Toc]    [Back]
      ^F	  forward screen
      ^B	  backward screen
      ^D	  scroll down half screen
      ^U	  scroll up half screen
      nG	  go to	the beginning of the specified line
		  (end default), where n is a line number
      /pat	  next line matching pat
      ?pat	  previous line	matching pat

									Page 3

vi(1)									 vi(1)

      n		  repeat last /	or ? command
      N		  reverse last / or ? command
      /pat/+n	  nth line after pat
      ?pat?-n	  nth line before pat
      ]]	  next section/function
      [[	  previous section/function
      (		  beginning of sentence
      )		  end of sentence
      {		  beginning of paragraph
      }		  end of paragraph
      %		  find matching	( ) { or }
      ^]	  :tag command using word after	the cursor as the tag
      ^T	  return to previous tag's position (:pop command)

   Adjusting the screen    [Toc]    [Back]
      ^L	    clear and redraw window
      ^R	    clear and redraw window if ^L is ->	key
      zCR	    redraw screen with current line at top of window
      z-	    redraw screen with current line at bottom of window
      z.	    redraw screen with current line at center of window
      /pat/z-CR	    move pat line to bottom of window
      zn.	    use	n-line window
      ^E	    scroll window down 1 line
      ^Y	    scroll window up 1 line

   Marking and returning    [Toc]    [Back]
      ``      move cursor to previous context
      ''      move cursor to first non-white space in line
      mx      mark current position with the ASCII lower-case letter x
      `x      move cursor to mark x
      'x      move cursor to first non-white space in line marked by x

   Line	positioning
      H		 top line on screen
      L		 last line on screen
      M		 middle	line on	screen
      +		 next line, at first non-white
      -		 previous line,	at first non-white
      CR	 return, same as +
      |v	or j	 next line, same column
      |^	or k	 previous line,	same column

   Character positioning    [Toc]    [Back]
      ^		  first	non white-space	character
      0		  beginning of line
      $		  end of line
      l	or ->	  forward
      h	or <-	  backward
      ^H	  same as <- (backspace)
      space	  same as -> (space bar)

									Page 4

vi(1)									 vi(1)

      fx	  find next x
      Fx	  find previous	x
      tx	  move to character prior to next x
      Tx	  move to character following previous x
      ;		  repeat last f	F t or T
      ,		  repeat inverse of last f F t or T
      n|	  move to column n
      %		  find matching	( { ) or }

   Words, sentences, sections, and paragraphs
      w	      forward a	word
      b	      back a word
      e	      end of word
      )	      to next sentence
      }	      to next paragraph
      ]]      next section/function
      [[      previous section/function
      (	      back a sentence
      {	      back a paragraph
      W	      forward a	blank-delimited	word
      B	      back a blank-delimited word
      E	      end of a blank-delimited word

     A paragraph is a superset of a section.  In addition to the delimiters
     set by the	paragraph and section variables, a section is defined as a
     line starting with	a { or a formfeed.  A paragraph	starts with those, a
     blank line, or the	beginning of a file.  These definitions	are XPG4
     compliant,	and somewhat different than earlier releases.  To use the
     older definitions,	set the	variable oldparagraphs.

   Corrections during insert    [Toc]    [Back]
      ^H	erase last character (backspace)
      ^W	erase last word
      erase	your erase character, same as ^H (backspace)
      kill	your kill character, erase this	line of	input
      \		quotes your erase and kill characters
      ESC	ends insertion,	back to	command	mode
      DEL	interrupt, terminates insert mode
      ^D	backtab	one character; reset left margin
		of autoindent
      ^^D	caret (^) followed by control-d	(^D);
		backtab	to beginning of	line;
		do not reset left margin of autoindent
      0^D	backtab	to beginning of	line;
		reset left margin of autoindent
      ^T	insert shiftwidth spaces.
      ^V	quote non-printable character

   Insert and replace    [Toc]    [Back]
      a		   append after	cursor

									Page 5

vi(1)									 vi(1)

      A		   append at end of line
      i		   insert before cursor
      I		   insert before first non-blank
      o		   open	line below
      O		   open	above
      rx	   replace single char with x
      RtextESC	   replace characters

   Operators    [Toc]    [Back]
     Operators are followed by a cursor	motion,	and affect all text that would
     have been moved over.  For	example, since w moves over a word, dw deletes
     the word that would be moved over.	 Double	the operator, for example, dd
     to	affect whole lines.

      d	      delete
      c	      change
      y	      yank lines to buffer
      <	      left shift
      >	      right shift
      !	      filter through command

   Miscellaneous Operations    [Toc]    [Back]
      C	      change rest of line (c$)
      D	      delete rest of line (d$)
      s	      substitute chars (cl)
      S	      substitute lines (cc)
      J	      join lines
      x	      delete characters	(dl)
      X	      delete characters	before cursor (dh)
      Y	      yank lines (yy)

   Yank	and Put
     Put inserts the text most recently	deleted	or yanked; however, if a
     buffer is named (using the	ASCII lower-case letters a-z), the text	in
     that buffer is put	instead.

      3yy     yank 3 lines
      3yl     yank 3 characters
      p	      put back text after cursor
      P	      put back text before cursor
      "xp     put from buffer x
      "xy     yank to buffer x
      "xd     delete into buffer x

   Undo, Redo, Retrieve
      u	      undo last	change
      U	      restore current line
      .	      repeat last change
      "dp     retrieve d'th last delete

									Page 6

vi(1)									 vi(1)

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

     vi	and ex were developed by The University	of California, Berkeley
     California, Computer Science Division, Department of Electrical
     Engineering and Computer Science.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /tmp   default directory where temporary work files are placed; it	can be
	    changed using the directory	option (see the	ex set command)
	    compiled terminal description database

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     Two options, although they	continue to be supported, have been replaced
     in	the documentation by options that follow the Command Syntax Standard
     (see intro(1)).  A	-r option that is not followed with an option-argument
     has been replaced by -L and +command has been replaced by -c command.

     vi	has a limit of 15,687,678 editable lines.  Attempts to edit or create
     files larger than this limit cause	vi to terminate	with an	appropriate
     error message.  There is also a limit of 8192 bytes per line (languages
     with multibyte characters may therefore have fewer	than 8192 characters
     per line; otherwise this is also the number of characters per line.
     Files with	longer lines are not edittable (or even	viewable) with this
     editor.  Use of either fold(1) or fmt(1) on the file (while changing the
     contents) can be used to avoid this limit.

     Several changes have been made and	bugs fixed for XPG4 compliance.	 See
     the discussion about paragraphs above, for	one case.  Additionally, the e
     (move to end of word) command had bugs skipping over single letter	words,
     and skipped one to	few words, when	the current position was the last
     letter in a word.	Formerly, the ordering of the -c and -t	options	was
     not defined, and the command was executed before moving to	the tag.  The
     order is now reversed.  If	a file is readonly, the	! override must	now be
     used whenever you write the file, not just	the first time.

     Tampering with entries in /usr/lib/terminfo/?/* (for example, changing or
     removing an entry)	can affect programs such as that expect	the entry to
     be	present	and correct.  In particular, removing the "dumb" terminal may
     cause unexpected problems.

     The regular expression has	been changed to	XPG4 compliance, please	see

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     ctags(1), ed(1), edit(1), ex(1), regcomp(5), vi(1).

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     In	insert mode, software tabs using ^T work only immediately after	the

									Page 7

vi(1)									 vi(1)

     Left and right shifts on intelligent terminals do not make	use of insert
     and delete	character operations in	the terminal.

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 8888
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