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edit(1)								       edit(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     edit - text editor	(variant of ex for casual users)

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     edit [-r] [-x] [-C] name ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     edit is a variant of the text editor ex recommended for new or casual
     users who wish to use a command-oriented editor.  It operates precisely
     as	ex(1) with the following options automatically set:

     novice	ON
     report	ON
     showmode	ON
     magic	OFF

     These options can be turned on or off via the set command in ex(1).

     -r	  Recover file after an	editor or system crash.

     -x	  Encryption option; when used the file	is encrypted as	it is being
	  written and requires an encryption key to be read.  edit makes an
	  educated guess to determine if a file	is encrypted or	not.  See
	  crypt(1).  Also, see the WARNING section at the end of this
	  reference page.

     -C	  Encryption option; the same as -x except that	edit assumes files are

     The following brief introduction should help you get started with edit.
     If	you are	using a	CRT terminal you may want to learn about the display
     editor vi.

     To	edit the contents of an	existing file you begin	with the command edit
     name to the shell.	 edit makes a copy of the file that you	can edit and
     tells you how many	lines and characters are in the	file.  To create a new
     file, you also begin with the command edit	with a filename:  edit name;
     the editor	tells you it is	a [New File].

     The edit command prompt is	the colon (:), which you should	see after
     starting the editor.  If you are editing an existing file,	you have some
     lines in edit's buffer (its name for the copy of the file you are
     editing).	When you start editing,	edit makes the last line of the	file
     the current line.	Most commands to edit use the current line if you do
     not tell them which line to use.  Thus if you say print (which can	be
     abbreviated p) and	type carriage return (as you should after all edit
     commands),	the current line is printed.  If you delete (d)	the current
     line, edit	prints the new current line, which is usually the next line in
     the file.	If you delete the last line, the new last line becomes the
     current one.

									Page 1

edit(1)								       edit(1)

     If	you start with an empty	file or	wish to	add some new lines, the	append
     (a) command can be	used.  After you execute this command (typing a
     carriage return after the word append), edit reads	lines from your
     terminal until you	type a line consisting of just a dot (.); it places
     these lines after the current line.  The last line	you type becomes the
     current line.  The	command	insert (i) is like append, but places the
     lines you type before, rather than	after, the current line.

     edit numbers the lines in the buffer, with	the first line having number
     1.	 If you	execute	the command 1, edit types the first line of the
     buffer.  If you then execute the command d, edit deletes the first	line,
     line 2 becomes line 1, and	edit prints the	current	line (the new line 1)
     so	you can	see where you are.  In general,	the current line is always the
     last line affected	by a command.

     You can make a change to some text	within the current line	by using the
     substitute	(s) command:  s/old/new/ where old is the string of characters
     you want to replace and new is the	string of characters you want to
     replace old with.

     The command file (f) tells	you how	many lines there are in	the buffer you
     are editing and says [Modified] if	you have changed the buffer.  After
     modifying a file, you can save the	contents of the	file by	executing a
     write (w) command.	 You can leave the editor by issuing a quit (q)
     command.  If you run edit on a file, but do not change it,	it is not
     necessary (but does no harm) to write the file back.  If you try to quit
     from edit after modifying the buffer without writing it out, you receive
     the message No write since	last change (:quit! overrides),	and edit waits
     for another command.  If you do not want to write the buffer out, issue
     the quit command followed by an exclamation point (q!).  The buffer is
     irretrievably discarded and you return to the shell.

     By	using the d and	a commands and giving line numbers to see lines	in the
     file, you can make	any changes you	want.  You should learn	at least a few
     more things, however, if you will use edit	more than a few	times.

     The change	(c) command changes the	current	line to	a sequence of lines
     you supply	(as in append, you type	lines up to a line consisting of only
     a dot (.).	 You can tell change to	change more than one line by giving
     the line numbers of the lines you want to change, that is,	3,5c.  You can
     print lines this way too:	1,23p prints the first 23 lines	of the file.

     The undo (u) command reverses the effect of the last command you executed
     that changed the buffer.  Thus if you execute a substitute	command	that
     does not do what you want,	type u and the old contents of the line	are
     restored.	You can	also undo an undo command.  edit gives you a warning
     message when a command affects more than one line of the buffer.  Note
     that commands such	as write and quit cannot be undone.

     To	look at	the next line in the buffer, type carriage return.  To look at
     a number of lines,	type ^D	(while holding down the	control	key, press d)
     rather than carriage return.  This	shows you a half-screen	of lines on a

									Page 2

edit(1)								       edit(1)

     CRT or 12 lines on	a hardcopy terminal.  You can look at nearby text by
     executing the z command.  The current line	appears	in the middle of the
     text displayed, and the last line displayed becomes the current line; you
     can get back to the line where you	were before you	executed the z command
     by	typing ''.  The	z command has other options:  z- prints	a screen of
     text (or 24 lines)	ending where you are; z+ prints	the next screenful.
     If	you want less than a screenful of lines, type z.11 to display five
     lines before and  five lines after	the current line.  (Typing z.n,	when n
     is	an odd number, displays	a total	of n lines, centered about the current
     line; when	n is an	even number, it	displays n-1 lines, so that the	lines
     displayed are centered around the current line.)  You can give counts
     after other commands; for example,	you can	delete 5 lines starting	with
     the current line with the command d5 .

     To	find things in the file, you can use line numbers if you happen	to
     know them;	since the line numbers change when you insert and delete lines
     this is somewhat unreliable.  You can search backwards and	forwards in
     the file for strings by giving commands of	the form /text/	to search
     forward for text or ?text?	 to search backward for	text . If a search
     reaches the end of	the file without finding text, it wraps	around and
     continues to search back to the line where	you are.  A useful feature
     here is a search of the form /^text/ which	searches for text at the
     beginning of a line.  Similarly /text$/ searches for text at the end of a
     line.  You	can leave off the trailing / or	? in these commands.

     The current line has the symbolic name dot	(.); this is most useful in a
     range of lines as in .,$p which prints the	current	line plus the rest of
     the lines in the file.  To	move to	the last line in the file, you can
     refer to it by its	symbolic name $.  Thus the command $d deletes the last
     line in the file, no matter what the current line is.  Arithmetic with
     line references is	also possible.	Thus the line $-5 is the fifth before
     the last and .+20 is 20 lines after the current line.

     You can find out the current line by typing .=.  This is useful if	you
     wish to move or copy a section of text within a file or between files.
     Find the first and	last line numbers you wish to copy or move.  To	move
     lines 10 through 20, type 10,20d a	to delete these	lines from the file
     and place them in a buffer	named a.  edit has 26 such buffers named a
     through z.	 To put	the contents of	buffer a after the current line, type
     put a.  If	you want to move or copy these lines to	another	file, execute
     an	edit (e) command after copying the lines; following the	e command with
     the name of the other file	you wish to edit, that is, edit	chapter2.  To
     copy lines	without	deleting them, use yank	(y) in place of	d.  If the
     text you wish to move or copy is all within one file, it is not necessary
     to	use named buffers.  For	example, to move lines 10 through 20 to	the
     end of the	file, type 10,20m $.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     ed(1), ex(1), vi(1).

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