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 sed(1)                                                               sed(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      sed - stream text editor

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      sed [-n] script [file ...]

      sed [-n] [-e script] ... [-f script_file] ... [file ...]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      sed copies the named text files (standard input default) to the
      standard output, edited according to a script containing up to 100
      commands.  Only complete input lines are processed.  Any input text at
      the end of a file that is not terminated by a new-line character is

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      sed recognizes the following options:

           -f script_file Take script from file script_file.

           -e script      Edit according to script.  If there is just one -e
                          option and no -f options, the flag -e can be

           -n             Suppress the default output.

      sed interprets all -escript and -fscript_file arguments in the order
      given.  Use caution, if mixing -e and -f options, to avoid
      unpredictable or incorrect results.

    Command Scripts    [Toc]    [Back]
      A script consists of editor commands, one per line, of the following

           [address [, address]] function [arguments]

      In normal operation, sed cyclically copies a line of input into a
      pattern space (unless there is something left after a D command),
      applies in sequence all commands whose addresses select that pattern
      space, and, at the end of the script, copies the pattern space to the
      standard output (except under -n) and deletes the pattern space.

      Some of the commands use a hold space to save all or part of the
      pattern space for subsequent retrieval.

    Command Addresses    [Toc]    [Back]
      An address is either a decimal number that counts input lines
      cumulatively across files, a $ which addresses the last line of input,
      or a context address; that is, a /regular expression/ in the style of
      ed(1) modified thus:

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 sed(1)                                                               sed(1)

           +  In a context address, the construction \?regular expression?,
              where ? is any character, is identical to /regular
              expression/.  Note that in the context address \xabc\xdefx,
              the second x stands for itself, so that the regular expression
              is abcxdef.

           +  The escape sequence \n matches a new-line character embedded
              in the pattern space.

           +  A period (.) matches any character except the terminal newline
 of the pattern space.

           +  A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space.

           +  A command line with one address selects each pattern space
              that matches the address.

           +  A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range
              from the first pattern space that matches the first address
              through the next pattern space that matches the second (if the
              second address is a number less than or equal to the line
              number first selected, only one line is selected).  Thereafter
              the process is repeated, looking again for the first address.

      sed supports Basic Regular Expression syntax (see regexp(5)).

      Editing commands can also be applied to only non-selected pattern
      spaces by use of the negation function ! (described below).

    Command Functions    [Toc]    [Back]
      In the following list of functions, the maximum number of permissible
      addresses for each function is indicated in parentheses.  Other
      function elements are interpreted as follows:

           text        One or more lines, all but the last of which end with
                       \ to hide the new-line.  Backslashes in text are
                       treated like backslashes in the replacement string of
                       an s command, and can be used to protect initial
                       blanks and tabs against the stripping that is done on
                       every script line.

           rfile       Must terminate the command line, and must be preceded
                       by exactly one blank.

           wfile       Must terminate the command line, and must be preceded
                       by exactly one blank.  Each wfile is created before
                       processing begins.  There can be at most 10 distinct
                       wfile arguments.

      sed recognizes the following functions:

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 sed(1)                                                               sed(1)

      text        Append.  Place text on the output before reading next
                  input line.

      (2)b label  Branch to the : command bearing label.  If no label is
                  specified, branch to the end of the script.

      text        Change.  Delete the pattern space.  With 0 or 1 address or
                  at the end of a 2-address range, place text on the output.
                  Start the next cycle.

      (2)d        Delete pattern space and start the next cycle.

      (2)D        Delete initial segment of pattern space through first
                  new-line and start the next cycle.

      (2)g        Replace contents of the pattern space with contents of the
                  hold space.

      (2)G        Append contents of hold space to the pattern space.

      (2)h        Replace contents of the hold space with contents of the
                  pattern space.

      (2)H        Append the contents of the pattern space to the hold

      text        Insert.  Place text on the standard output.

      (2)l        List the pattern space on the standard output in an
                  unambiguous form.  Non-printing characters are spelled in
                  three-digit octal number format (with a preceding
                  backslash), and long lines are folded.

      (2)n        Copy the pattern space to the standard output if the
                  default output has not been suppressed (by the -n option
                  on the command line or the #n command in the script file).
                  Replace the pattern space with the next line of input.

      (2)N        Append the next line of input to the pattern space with an
                  embedded new-line.  (The current line number changes.)

      (2)p        Print.  Copy the pattern space to the standard output.

      (2)P        Copy the initial segment of the pattern space through the
                  first new-line to the standard output.

      (1)q        Quit.  Branch to the end of the script.  Do not start a
                  new cycle.

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 sed(1)                                                               sed(1)

      (1)r rfile  Read contents of rfile and place on output before reading
                  the next input line.

      (2)s/regular expression/replacement/flags
                  Substitute replacement string for instances of regular
                  expression in the pattern space.  Any character can be
                  used instead of /.  For a fuller description see ed(1).
                  flags is zero or more of:

                     n           n=1-2048 (LINE_MAX).  Substitute for just
                                 the nth occurrence of regular expression in
                                 the pattern space.

                     g           Global.  Substitute for all non-overlapping
                                 instances of regular expression rather than
                                 just the first one.

                     p           Print the pattern space if a replacement
                                 was made and the default output has been
                                 suppressed (by the -n option on the command
                                 line or the #n command in the script file).

                     w wfile     Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile
                                 if a replacement was made.

      (2)t label  Test.  Branch to the : command bearing the label if any
                  substitutions have been made since the most recent reading
                  of an input line or execution of a t.  If label is empty,
                  branch to the end of the script.

      (2)w wfile  Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile.

      (2)x        Exchange the contents of the pattern and hold spaces.

                  Transform.  Replace all occurrences of characters in
                  string1 with the corresponding character in string2.  The
                  lengths of string1 and string2 must be equal.

      (2)! function
                  Don't.  Apply the function (or group, if function is {)
                  only to lines not selected by the address or addresses.

      (0): label  This command does nothing; it bears a label for b and t
                  commands to branch to.

      (1)=        Place the current line number on the standard output as a

      (2){        Execute the following commands through a matching } only
                  when the pattern space is selected.  The syntax is:

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 sed(1)                                                               sed(1)

                       { cmd1

      (0)         An empty command is ignored.

      (0)#        If a # appears as the first character on the first line of
                  a script file, that entire line is treated as a comment
                  with one exception: If the character after the # is an n,
                  the default output is suppressed.  The rest of the line
                  after #n is also ignored.  A script file must contain at
                  least one non-comment line.

    Environment Variables
      LANG provides a default value for the internationalization variables
      that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the default value of
      "C" (see lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization
      variables contains an invalid setting, sed will behave as if all
      internationalization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

      LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all
      the other internationalization variables.

      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
      multi-byte characters, the classification of characters as printable,
      and the characters matched by character class expressions in regular

      LC_MESSAGES determines the locale that should be used to affect the
      format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error
      and informative messages written to standard output.

      NLSPATH determines the location of message catalogues for the
      processing of LC_MESSAGES.

    International Code Set Support    [Toc]    [Back]
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      Make a simple substitution in a file from the command line or from a
      shell script, changing abc to xyz:

           sed 's/abc/xyz/' file1 >file1.out

      Same as above but use shell or environment variables var1 and var2 in
      search and replacement strings:

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 sed(1)                                                               sed(1)

           sed "s/$var1/$var2/" file1 >file1.out


           sed 's/'$var1'/'$var2'/' file1 >file1.out

      Multiple substitutions in a single command:

           sed -e 's/abc/xyz/' -e 's/lmn/rst/' file1 >file1.out


           sed -e 's/abc/xyz/' \
           -e 's/lmn/rst/' \
           file1 >file1.out

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      sed limits command scripts to a total of not more than 100 commands.

      The hold space is limited to 8192 characters.

      sed processes only text files.  See the glossary for a definition of
      text files and their limitations.

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      sed was developed by OSF and HP.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), environ(5), lang(5), regexp(5).

      sed: A Non-Interactive Streaming Editor tutorial in the Text
      Processing Users Guide.

      sed: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2

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[ Back ]
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