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  man pages->HP-UX 11i man pages -> glossary (9)              



 glossary(9)                                                     glossary(9)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      glossary - description of common HP-UX terms

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      HP-UX and other UNIX-like systems use a specialized vocabulary in
      which certain words and terms have very specific meanings.  This
      glossary is intended as an aid in promoting exactness in use of these
      specialized terms whose meanings sometimes differ from those that
      might be encountered in other environments.  References to other HP-UX
      documentation are included as appropriate.

      Entities in italics with a following parenthesized roman number
      (sometimes with a capital letter), such as sh(1), wait(2), or
      fopen(3S) refer to entries in the other sections of this manual.
      Items in bold face refer to other entries in this glossary.  Items in
      computer font (bold face in the online manpages) are literals, such as
      file names and environment variables.  Any italicized manual names
      refer to separate manuals that are either included with your system or
      available separately.

      The definitions specifically reflect the HP-UX operating system,
      although some terms and definitions are also derived from those in the
      emerging IEEE POSIX standards and the X/Open Portability Guide.
      Differences in wording exist to more specifically reflect the
      characteristics of the HP-UX system.

 GLOSSARY ENTRIES    [Toc]    [Back]
      . (dot)        A special file name that refers to the current
                     directory.  It can be used alone or at the beginning of
                     a directory path name.  See also path name resolution.
                     The dot also functions as a special command in the
                     POSIX, Bourne, and Korn shells, and has special meaning
                     in text editors and formatters, in parsing regular
                     expressions and in designating file names.

      .. (dot-dot)   A special file name that refers to the parent
                     directory.  If it begins a path name, dot-dot refers to
                     the parent of the current directory.  If it occurs in a
                     path name, dot-dot refers to the parent directory of
                     the directory preceding dot-dot in the path name
                     string.  As a special case, dot-dot refers to the
                     current directory in any directory that has no parent
                     (most often, the root directory).  See also path name

      .o (dot-oh)    The suffix customarily given to a relocatable object
                     file.  The term dot-oh file is sometimes used to refer
                     to a relocatable object file.  The format of such files
                     is sometimes called dot-oh format.  See a.out(4).

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      a.out          The name customarily given to an executable object code
                     file on HP-UX.  The format is machine-dependent, and is
                     described in a.out(4) for each implementation.  Object
                     code that is not yet linked has the same format, but is
                     referred to as a .o (dot-oh) file.  a.out is also the
                     default output file name used by the linker, ld(1).

      absolute path name
                     A path name beginning with a slash (/).  It indicates
                     that the file's location is given relative to the root
                     directory (/), and that the search begins there.

      access         The process of obtaining data from or placing data in
                     storage, or the right to use system resources.
                     Accessibility is governed by three process
                     characteristics: the effective user ID, the effective
                     group ID, and the group access list.  The access(2)
                     system call determines accessibility of a file
                     according to the bit pattern contained in its amode
                     parameter, which is constructed to read, write, execute
                     or check the existence of a file.  The access(2) system
                     call uses the real user ID instead of the effective
                     user ID and the real group ID instead of the effective
                     group ID.

      access groups  The group access list is a set of supplementary group
                     IDs used in determining resource accessibility.  Access
                     checks are performed as described below in file access

      access mode    An access mode is a form of access permitted to a file.
                     Each implementation provides separate read, write, and
                     execute/search access modes.

      address        A number used in information storage or retrieval to
                     specify and identify memory location.  An address is
                     used to mark, direct, indicate destination, instruct or
                     otherwise communicate with computer elements.

                     In mail, address is a data structure whose format can
                     be recognized by all elements involved in transmitting
                     information.  On a local system, this might be as
                     simple as the user's login name, while in a networked
                     system, address specifies the location of the resource
                     to the network software.

                     In a text editor (such as vi, ex, ed, or sed), an
                     address locates the line in a file on which a given
                     instruction is intended.

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                     For adb, the address specifies at what assemblylanguage
 instruction to execute a given command.

                     In disk utilities such as fsdb, address might refer to
                     a raw or block special file, the inode number, volume
                     header, or other file attribute.

                     In the context of peripheral devices, address refers to
                     a set of values that specify the location of an I/O
                     device to the computer.  The exact details of the
                     formation of an address differ between systems.  On
                     Series 700 systems, the address consists of up to two
                     elements: the select code, and the function number.

      address space  The range of memory locations to which a process can

      affiliation    See terminal affiliation.

      appropriate privileges
                     Each implementation provides a means of associating
                     privileges with a process for function calls and
                     function call options requiring special privileges.  In
                     the HP-UX system, appropriate privileges refers either
                     to superuser status or to a privilege associated with
                     privilege groups (see setprivgrp(1M)).

      archive        A file comprised of the contents of other files, such
                     as a group of object files (that is, .o) used by the
                     linker, ld(1)).  An archive file is created and
                     maintained by a
                     or cpio(1).  An archive is often called a library.

      ASCII          An acronym for American Standard Code for Information
                     Interchange.  ASCII is the traditional System V coded
                     character set and defines 128 characters, including
                     both control characters and graphic characters, each of
                     which is represented by 7-bit binary values ranging
                     from 0 through 127 decimal.

      background process group
                     Any process group that is a member of a session which
                     has established a connection with a controlling
                     terminal that is not in the foreground process group.

      backup         The process of making a copy of all or part of the file
                     system in order to preserve it, in case a system crash
                     occurs (usually due to a power failure, hardware error,
                     etc.).  This is a highly recommended practice.

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      block          (1) The fundamental unit of information HP-UX uses for
                     access and storage allocation on a mass storage medium.
                     The size of a block varies between implementations and
                     between file systems.  In order to present a more
                     uniform interface to the user, most system calls and
                     utilities use block to mean 512 bytes, independent of
                     the actual block size of the medium.  This is the
                     meaning of block unless otherwise specified in the
                     manual entry.

                     (2) On media such as 9-track tape that write variable
                     length strings of data, the size of those strings.
                     Block is often used to distinguish from record; a block
                     contains several records, whereas the number of records
                     denotes the blocking factor.

      block special file
                     A special file associated with a mass storage device
                     (such as a hard disk or tape cartridge drive) that
                     transfers data in multiple-byte blocks, rather than by
                     series of individual bytes (see character special
                     file).  Block special files can be mounted.  A block
                     special file provides access to the device where
                     hardware characteristics of the device are not visible.

      boot, boot-up  The process of loading, initializing, and running an
                     operating system.

      boot area      A portion of a mass storage medium on which the volume
                     header and a ``bootstrap'' program used in booting the
                     operating system reside.  The boot area is reserved
                     exclusively for use by HP-UX.

      boot ROM       A program residing in ROM (Read-Only Memory) that
                     executes each time the computer is powered up and is
                     designed to bring the computer to a desired state by
                     means of its own action.  The first few instructions of
                     a bootstrap program are sufficient to bring the
                     remainder of the program into the computer from an
                     input device and initiate functions necessary for
                     computation.  The function of the boot ROM is to run
                     tests on the computer's hardware, find all devices
                     accessible through the computer, and then load either a
                     specified operating system or the first operating
                     system found according to a specific search algorithm.

      bus address    A number which makes up part of the address HP-UX uses
                     to locate a particular device.  The bus address is
                     determined by a switch setting on a peripheral device
                     which allows the computer to distinguish between two
                     devices connected to the same interface.  A bus address

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                     is sometimes called a ``device address''.

      character      An element used for the organization, control, or
                     representation of text.  Characters include graphic
                     characters and control characters.

      character set  A set of characters used to communicate in a native or
                     computer language.

      character special file
                     A special file associated with I/O devices that
                     transfer data byte-by-byte.  Other byte-mode I/O
                     devices include printers, nine-track magnetic tape
                     drives, and disk drives when accessed in ``raw'' mode
                     (see raw disk).  A character special file has no
                     predefined structure.

      child process  A new process created by a pre-existing process via the
                     fork(2) system call.  The new process is thereafter
                     known to the pre-existing process as its child process.
                     The pre-existing process is the parent process of the
                     new process.  See parent process and fork.

      clock tick     A rate used within the system for scheduling and
                     accounting.  It consists of the number of intervals per
                     second as defined by CLK_TCK that is used to express
                     the value in type clock_t.  CLK_TCK was previously
                     known as the defined constant HZ.

      coded character set
                     A set of unambiguous rules that establishes a character
                     set and the one-to-one relationship between each
                     character of the set and its corresponding bit
                     representation.  ASCII is a coded character set.

      collating element
                     The smallest entity used in collation to determine the
                     logical ordering of strings (that is, the collation
                     sequence).  To accommodate native languages, a
                     collating element consists of either a single
                     character, or two or more characters collating as a
                     single entity.  The current value of the LANG
                     environment variable determines the current set of
                     collating elements.

      collation      The logical ordering of strings in a predefined
                     sequence according to rules established by precedence.
                     These rules identify a collation sequence among the
                     collating elements and also govern the ordering of
                     strings consisting of multiple collating elements, to
                     accommodate native languages.

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      collation sequence
                     The ordering sequence applied to collating elements
                     when they are sorted.  To accommodate native languages,
                     collation sequence can be thought of as the relative
                     order of collating elements as set by the current value
                     of the LANG environment variable.  Characters can be
                     omitted from the collation sequence, or two or more
                     collating elements can be given the same relative order
                     (see string(3C)).

      command        A directive to perform a particular task.  HP-UX
                     commands are executed through a command interpreter
                     called a shell.  HP-UX supports several shells,
                     including the POSIX shell (sh-posix(1)), the C shell
                     (csh(1)), and the Korn shell (ksh(1)).  See sh(1) for
                     more information about supported shells.  Most commands
                     are carried out by an executable file, called a
                     utility, which might take the form of a stand-alone
                     unit of executable object code (a program) or a file
                     containing a list of other programs to execute in a
                     given order (a shell script).  Scripts can contain
                     references to other scripts, as well as to object-code
                     programs.  A typical command consists of the utility
                     name followed by arguments that are passed to the
                     utility.  For example, in the command, ``ls
                     mydirectory'', ``ls'' is the utility name and
                     ``mydirectory'' is an argument passed to the ``ls''

      command interpreter
                     A program which reads lines of text from standard input
                     (typed at the keyboard or read from a file), and
                     interprets them as requests to execute other programs.
                     A command interpreter for HP-UX is called a shell.  See
                     sh(1) and related manual entries.

      Command Set 1980    [Toc]    [Back]
                     See CS/80.

      composite graphic symbol
                     A graphic symbol consisting of a combination of two or
                     more other graphic symbols in a single character
                     position, such as a diacritical mark and a basic

      control character
                     A character other than a graphic character that affects
                     the recording, processing, transmission, or
                     interpretation of text.  In the ASCII character set,
                     control characters are those in the range 0 through 31,
                     and 127.  Control characters can be generated by

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                     holding down the control key (which may be labeled
                     CTRL, CONTROL, or CNTL depending on your terminal), and
                     pressing a character key (as you would use SHIFT).
                     These two-key sequences are often written as, for
                     example, Control-D, Ctrl-D, or ^D, where ^ stands for
                     the control key.

      controlling process
                     The session leader that establishes the connection to
                     the controlling terminal.  Should the terminal
                     subsequently cease to be a controlling terminal for
                     this session, the session leader ceases to be the
                     controlling process.

      controlling terminal
                     A terminal that is associated with a session.  Each
                     session can have at most one controlling terminal
                     associated with it and a controlling terminal is
                     associated with exactly one session.  Certain input
                     sequences from the controlling terminal cause signals
                     to be sent to all processes in the foreground process
                     group associated with the controlling terminal.

      Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)    [Toc]    [Back]
                     See Epoch.

      CS/80, CS-80   A family of mass storage devices that communicate with
                     the controlling computer by means of a series of
                     commands and data transfer protocol referred to as the
                     CS/80 (Command Set 1980) command set.  This command set
                     was implemented in order to provide better
                     forward/backward compatibility between models and
                     generations of mass storage devices as technological
                     advances develop.  Some mass storage devices support
                     only a subset of the full CS/80 command set, and are
                     usually referred to as SS/80 (Subset 1980) devices.

      crash          The unexpected shutdown of a program or system.  If the
                     operating system crashes, this is a ``system crash'',
                     and requires the system to be re-booted.

      current directory
                     See working directory.

      current working directory
                     See working directory.

      daemon         A process which runs in the background, and which is
                     usually immune to termination instructions from a
                     terminal.  Its purpose is to perform various
                     scheduling, clean-up, and maintenance jobs.

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                     lpsched(1M) is an example of a daemon.  It exists to
                     perform these functions for line printer jobs queued by
                     lp(1).  An example of a permanent daemon (that is, one
                     that should never die) is cron(1M).

      data encryption
                     A method for encoding information in order to protect
                     sensitive or proprietary data.  For example, HP-UX
                     automatically encrypts all users' passwords.  The
                     encryption method used by HP-UX converts ASCII text
                     into a base-64 representation using the alphabet ., /,
                     0-9, A-Z, a-z.  See passwd(4) for the numerical
                     equivalents associated with this alphabet.

      default search path
                     The sequence of directory prefixes that sh(1), time(1),
                     and other HP-UX commands apply in searching for a file
                     known by an relative path name (that is, a path name
                     not beginning with a slash (/)).  It is defined by the
                     environment variable PATH (see environ(5)).  login(1)
                     sets PATH equal to :/usr/bin, which means that your
                     working directory is the first directory searched,
                     followed by /usr/bin.  The search path can be redefined
                     by modifying the value of PATH.  This is usually done
                     in /etc/profile, and/or in the .profile file found in
                     the home directory.

      defunct process
                     See zombie process.

      delta          A term used in the Source Code Control System (SCCS) to
                     describe a unit of one or more textual changes to an
                     SCCS file.  Each time an SCCS file is edited, changes
                     made to the file are stored separately as a delta.  The
                     get(1) command is then used to specify which deltas are
                     to be applied to or excluded from the SCCS file, thus
                     yielding a particular version of the file.  Contrast
                     this with the vi or ed editor, which incorporates
                     changes into the file immediately, eliminating any
                     possibility of obtaining a previous version of that
                     file.  A similar capability is provided by RCS files
                     (see rcsintro(5)).

      demon          Improper spelling of the UNIX word daemon.

      device         A computer peripheral or an object that appears to an
                     application as such.

      device address See bus address.

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      device file    See special file.

      directory      A file that provides the mapping between the names of
                     files and their contents, and is manipulated by the
                     operating system alone.  For every file name contained
                     in a directory, that directory contains a pointer to
                     the file's inode; The pointer is called a link.  A file
                     can have several links appearing anywhere on the same
                     file system.  Each user is free to create as many
                     directories as needed (using mkdir(1)), provided that
                     the parent directory of the new directory gives the
                     permission to do so.  Once a directory has been
                     created, it is ready to contain ordinary files and
                     other directories.  An HP-UX directory is named and
                     behaves exactly like an ordinary file, with one
                     exception: no user (including the superuser) is allowed
                     to write data on the directory itself; this privilege
                     is reserved for the HP-UX operating system.

                     By convention, a directory contains at least two links,
                     . and .., referred to as dot and dot-dot respectively.
                     Dot refers to the directory itself and dot-dot refers
                     to its parent directory.  A directory containing only .
                     and .. is considered empty.

      dot            See .  (dot).

      dot-dot        See ..  (dot-dot).

      dot-oh         See .o (dot-oh).

      dot-oh file    See .o (dot-oh).

      dot-oh format  See .o (dot-oh).

      downshifting   The conversion of an uppercase character to its
                     lowercase representation.

      dynamic loader A routine invoked at process startup time that loads
                     shared libraries into a process' address space.  The
                     dynamic loader also resolves symbolic references
                     between a program and the shared libraries, and
                     initializes the shared libraries' linkage tables.  See
                     dld.sl(5) (PA-RISC systems) or dld.so(5) (Itanium(R)-
                     based systems) for details.

      effective group ID
                     Every process has an effective group ID that is used to
                     determine file access permissions.  A process's
                     effective group ID is determined by the file (command)
                     that process is executing.  If that file's set-group-ID

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                     bit is set (located in the mode of the file, see mode),
                     the process's effective group ID is set equal to the
                     file's group ID.  This makes the process appear to
                     belong to the file's group, perhaps enabling the
                     process to access files that must be accessed in order
                     for the program to execute successfully.  If the file's
                     set-group-ID bit is not set, the process's effective
                     group ID is inherited from the process's parent.  The
                     setting of the process's effective group ID lasts only
                     as long as the program is being executed, after which
                     the process's effective group ID is set equal to its
                     real group ID.  See group, real group ID, and set-
                     group-ID bit.

      effective user ID
                     A process has an effective user ID that is used to
                     determine file access permissions (and other
                     permissions with respect to system calls, if the
                     effective user ID is 0, which means superuser).  A
                     process's effective user ID is determined by the file
                     (command) that process is executing.  If that file's
                     set-user-ID bit is set (located in the mode of the
                     file, see mode), the process's effective user ID is set
                     equal to the file's user ID.  This makes the process
                     appear to be the file's owner, enabling the process to
                     access files which must be accessed in order for the
                     program to execute successfully.  (Many HP-UX commands
                     which are owned by root, such as mkdir and mail, have
                     their set-user-ID bit set so other users can execute
                     these commands.) If the file's set-user-ID bit is not
                     set, the process's effective user ID is inherited from
                     that process's parent.  See real user ID and set-user-
                     ID bit.

      end-of-file (EOF)
                     (1) The data returned when attempting to read past the
                     logical end of a file via stdio(3S) routines.  In this
                     case, end-of-file is not properly a character.

                     (2) The ASCII character Ctrl-D.

                     (3) A character defined by stty(1) or ioctl(2) (see
                     termio(7)) to act as end-of-file on your terminal.
                     Usually this is Ctrl-D.

                     (4) The return value from read(2) that indicates end of

      environment    The set of defined shell variables (such as EXINIT,
                     HOME, PATH, SHELL, TERM, and others) that define the
                     conditions under which user commands run.  These

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                     conditions can include user terminal characteristics,
                     home directory, and default search path.  Each shell
                     variable setting in the current process is passed on to
                     all child processes that are created, provided that
                     each shell variable setting has been exported via the
                     export command (see sh(1)).  Unexported shell variable
                     settings are meaningful only to the current process,
                     and any child processes created get the default
                     settings of certain shell variables by executing
                     /etc/profile, $HOME/.profile, or $HOME/.login.

      EOF            See end-of-file.

      Epoch          The time period beginning at 0 hours, 0 minutes, 0
                     seconds, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on January 1,
                     1970.  Increments quantify the amount of time elapsed
                     from the Epoch to the referenced time.

                     Leap seconds, which occur at irregular intervals, are
                     not reflected in the count of seconds between the Epoch
                     and the referenced time.  (Fourteen leap seconds
                     occurred in the years 1970 through 1988.)

      FIFO special file    [Toc]    [Back]
                     A type of file.  Data written to a FIFO is read on a
                     first-in-first-out basis.  Other characteristics are
                     described in open(2), read(2), write(2) and lseek(2).

      file           A stream of bytes that can be written to and/or read
                     from.  A file has certain attributes, including
                     permissions and type.  File types include regular file,
                     character special file, block special file, FIFO
                     special file, network special file, directory, and
                     symbolic link.  Every file must have a file name that
                     enables the user (and many of the HP-UX commands) to
                     refer to the contents of the file.  The system imposes
                     no particular structure on the contents of a file,
                     although some programs do.  Files can be accessed
                     serially or randomly (indexed by byte offset).  The
                     interpretation of file contents and structure is up to
                     the programs that access the file.

      file access mode
                     A characteristic of an open file description that
                     determines whether the described file is open for
                     reading, writing, or both.  (See open(2).)

      file access permissions
                     Every file in the file hierarchy has a set of access
                     permissions.  These permissions are used in determining
                     whether a process can perform a requested operation on

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                     the file (such as opening a file for writing).  Access
                     permissions are established when a file is created via
                     the open(2) or creat(2) system calls, and can be
                     changed subsequently through the chmod(2) call.  These
                     permissions are read by stat(2) or fstat(2).

                     File access controls whether a file can be read,
                     written, or executed.  Directory files use the execute
                     permission to control whether or not the directory can
                     be searched.

                     File access permissions are interpreted by the system
                     as they apply to three different classes of users: the
                     owner of the file, the users in the file's group, and
                     anyone else (``other'').  Every file has an independent
                     set of access permissions for each of these classes.
                     When an access check is made, the system decides if
                     permission should be granted by checking the access
                     information applicable to the caller.

                     Read, write, and execute/search permissions on a file
                     are granted to a process if any of the following
                     conditions are met:

                          +  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

                          +  The process's effective user ID matches the
                             user ID of the owner of the file and the
                             appropriate access bit of the owner portion
                             (0700) of the file mode is set.

                          +  The process's effective user ID does not match
                             the user ID of the owner of the file, and
                             either the process's effective group ID matches
                             the group ID of the file, or the group ID of
                             the file is in the process's group access list,
                             and the appropriate access bit of the group
                             portion (070) of the file mode is set.

                          +  The process's effective user ID does not match
                             the user ID of the owner of the file, and the
                             process's effective group ID does not match the
                             group ID of the file, and the group ID of the
                             file is not in the process's group access list,
                             and the appropriate access bit of the ``other''
                             portion (07) of the file mode is set.

                     Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

      file descriptor
                     A small unique, per-process, nonnegative integer

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                     identifier that is used to refer to a file opened for
                     reading and/or writing.  Each file descriptor refers to
                     exactly one open file description.

                     A file descriptor is obtained through system calls such
                     as creat(2), fcntl(2), open(2), pipe(2), or dup(2).
                     The file descriptor is used as an argument by calls
                     such as read(2), write(2), ioctl(2), and close(2).

                     The value of a file descriptor has a range from 0 to
                     one less than the system-defined maximum.  The systemdefined
 maximum is the value NOFILE in <sys/param.h>.

      file group class
                     A process is in the file group class of a file if the
                     process is not the file owner class and if the
                     effective group ID or one of the supplementary group
                     IDs of the process matches the group ID associated with
                     the file.

      file hierarchy The collection of one or more file systems available on
                     a system.  All files in these file systems are
                     organized in a single hierarchical structure in which
                     all of the nonterminal nodes are directories.  Because
                     multiple links can refer to the same file, the
                     directory is properly described as a directed graph.

      file name      A string of up to 14 bytes (or 255 bytes on file
                     systems that support long file names) used to refer to
                     an ordinary file, special file, or directory.  The byte
                     values NUL (null) and slash (/) cannot be used as
                     characters in a file name.  Note that it is generally
                     unwise to use *, ?, ,, [, or ] as part of file names
                     because the shell attaches special meaning to these
                     characters (see sh(1), csh(1), or ksh(1)).  Avoid
                     beginning a file name with -, +, or =, because to some
                     programs, these characters signify that a command
                     argument follows.  A file name is sometimes called a
                     path name component.  Although permitted, it is
                     inadvisable to use characters that do not have a
                     printable graphic on the hardware you commonly use, or
                     that are likely to confuse your terminal.

      file name portability
                     File names should be constructed from the portable file
                     name character set because the use of other characters
                     can be confusing or ambiguous in certain contexts.

      file offset    The file offset specifies the position in the file
                     where the next I/O operation begins.  Each open file
                     description associated with either a regular file or

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                     special file has a file offset.  There is no file
                     offset specified for a pipe or FIFO.

      file other class
                     A process is in the file other class if the process is
                     not in the file owner class or file group class.

      file owner class
                     A process is in the file owner class if the effective
                     user ID of the process matches the user ID of the file.

      file permission bits
                     See permission bits.

      file pointer   A data element obtained through any of the fopen(3S)
                     standard I/O library routines that ``points to''
                     (refers to) a file opened for reading and/or writing,
                     and which keeps track of where the next I/O operation
                     will take place in the file (in the form of a byte
                     offset relative to the beginning of the file).  After
                     obtaining the file pointer, it must thereafter be used
                     to refer to the open file when using any of the
                     standard I/O library routines.  (See stdio(3S) for a
                     list of these routines.)

      file serial number
                     A file-system-unique identifier for a given file, also
                     known as the file's inode number.  Each file serial
                     number identifies exactly one inode.  File serial
                     numbers are not necessarily unique across file systems
                     in the file hierarchy.

      file status flags
                     Part of an open file description.  These flags can be
                     used to modify the behavior of system calls that access
                     the file described by the open file description.

      file system    A collection of files and supporting data structures
                     residing on a mass storage volume.  A file system
                     provides a name space for file serial numbers referring
                     to those files.  Refer to the System Administrator
                     manuals supplied with your system for details
                     concerning file system implementation and maintenance.

      file times update
                     Each file has three associated time values that are
                     updated when file data is accessed or modified, or when
                     the file status is changed.  These values are returned
                     in the file characteristics structure, as described in
                     <sys/stat.h>.  For each function in HP-UX that reads or
                     writes file data or changes the file status, the

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                     appropriate time-related files are noted as ``markedfor-update''.
  When an update point occurs, any marked
                     fields are set to the current time and the update marks
                     are cleared.  One such update point occurs when the
                     file is no longer open for any process.  Updates are
                     not performed for files on read-only file systems.

      filter         A command that reads data from the standard input,
                     performs a transformation on the data, and writes it to
                     the standard output.

      foreground process group
                     Each session that has established a connection with a
                     controlling terminal has exactly one process group of
                     the session as a foreground process group of that
                     controlling terminal.  The foreground process group has
                     certain privileges when accessing its controlling
                     terminal that are denied to background process groups.
                     See read(2) and write(2).

      foreground process group ID
                     The process group ID of the foreground process group.

      fork           An HP-UX system call (see fork(2)), which, when invoked
                     by an existing process, causes a new process to be
                     created.  The new process is called the child process;
                     the existing process is called the parent process.  The
                     child process is created by making an exact copy of the
                     parent process.  The parent and child processes are
                     able to identify themselves by the value returned by
                     their corresponding fork call (see fork(2) for

      function number
                     On Series 700 systems, when two or more interfaces
                     reside on a single interface card, each interface is
                     treated as a separate function and is assigned a
                     corresponding unique function number.

      graphic character
                     A character other than a control character that has a
                     visual representation when hand-written, printed, or

      group          See group ID.

      group ID       Associates zero or more users who must all be permitted
                     to access the same set of files.  The members of a
                     group are defined in the files /etc/passwd and
                     /etc/logingroup (if it exists) via a numerical group ID
                     that must be between zero and UID_MAX, inclusive.

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                     Users with identical group IDs are members of the same
                     group.  An ASCII group name is associated with each
                     group ID in the file /etc/group.  A group ID is also
                     associated with every file in the file hierarchy, and
                     the mode of each file contains a set of permission bits
                     that apply only to this group.  Thus, if you belong to
                     a group that is associated with a file, and if the
                     appropriate permissions are granted to your group in
                     the file's mode, you can access the file.  When the
                     identity of a group is associated with a process, a
                     group ID value is referred to as a real group ID, an
                     effective group ID, a supplementary group ID, or a
                     saved group ID.  See also privileged group and set-
                     group-ID bit.

      group access list
                     A set of supplementary group IDs used in determining
                     resource accessibility.  Access checks are performed as
                     described in file access permissions.

      hierarchical directory
                     A directory (or file system) structure in which each
                     directory can contain other directories as well as

      home directory The directory name given by the value of the
                     environment variable HOME.  When you first log in,
                     login(1) automatically sets HOME to your login
                     directory.  You can change its value at any time.  This
                     is usually done in the .profile file contained in your
                     login directory.  Setting HOME does not affect your
                     login directory; it simply gives you a convenient way
                     of referring to what is probably your most commonly
                     used directory.

      host name      An ASCII string of at most 8 characters (of which only
                     6 are supported by all the various manufacturers'
                     UNIX-like operating systems) which uniquely identifies
                     an HP-UX system on a uucp(1) network.  The host name
                     for your system can be viewed and/or set with the
                     hostname(1) command.  Systems without a defined host
                     name are described as ``unknown'' on the uucp(1)
                     network.  Do not confuse a host name with a node name,
                     which is a string that uniquely identifies an HP-UX
                     system on a Local Area Network (LAN).  Although your
                     host and node names may be identical, they are set and
                     used by totally different software.  See node name.

      image          The current state of your computer (or your portion of
                     the computer, on a multiuser system) during the
                     execution of a command.  Often thought of as a

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                     ``snapshot'' of the state of the machine at any
                     particular moment during execution.

      init           A system process that performs initialization, is the
                     ancestor of every other process in the system, and is
                     used to start login processes.  init usually has a
                     process ID of 1.  See init(1M).

      interleave factor
                     A number that determines the order in which sectors on
                     a mass storage medium are accessed.  It can be
                     optimized to make data acquisition more efficient.

      inode          An inode is a structure that describes a file and is
                     identified in the system by a file serial number.
                     Every file or directory has associated with it an
                     inode.  Permissions that specify who can access the
                     file and how are kept in a 9-bit field that is part of
                     the inode.  The inode also contains the file size, the
                     user and group ID of the file, the number of links, and
                     pointers to the disk blocks where the file's contents
                     can be found.  Each connection between an inode and its
                     entry in one or more directories is called a link.

      inode number   See file serial number.

      Internal Terminal Emulator (ITE)    [Toc]    [Back]
                     The ``device driver'' code contained in the HP-UX
                     kernel that is associated with the computer's built-in
                     keyboard and display or with a particular keyboard and
                     display connected to the computer, depending on the
                     Series and Model of system processor.  See system
                     console and the System Administrator manuals supplied
                     with your system for details.

                     The concept of providing software with the ability to
                     support the native language, local customs, and coded
                     character set of the user.

      interrupt signal
                     The signal sent by SIGINT (see signal(2)).  This signal
                     generally terminates whatever program you are running.
                     The key which sends this signal can be redefined with
                     ioctl(2) or stty(1) (see termio(7)).  It is often the
                     ASCII DEL (rubout) character (the DEL key) or the BREAK
                     key.  Ctrl-C is often used instead.

      intrinsic      See system call.

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      I/O redirection
                     A mechanism provided by the HP-UX shell for changing
                     the source of data for standard input and/or the
                     destination of data for standard output and standard
                     error.  See sh(1).

      ITE            See Internal Terminal Emulator.

      job control    Job control allows users to selectively stop (suspend)
                     execution of processes and continue (resume) their
                     execution at a later time.

                     The user employs this facility via the interactive
                     interface jointly supplied by the system terminal
                     driver and certain shells (see sh(1)).  The terminal
                     driver recognizes a user-defined ``suspend character'',
                     which causes the current foreground process group to
                     stop and the user's job control shell to resume.  The
                     job control shell provides commands that continue
                     stopped process groups in either the foreground or
                     background.  The terminal driver also stops a
                     background process group when any member of the
                     background process group attempts to read from or write
                     to the user's terminal.  This allows the user to finish
                     or suspend the foreground process group without
                     interruption and continue the stopped background
                     process group at a more convenient time.

                     See stty(1), sh(1), and related shell entries for usage
                     and installation details, and the shell entries plus
                     signal(2) and termio(7) for implementation details.

      kernel         The HP-UX operating system.  The kernel is the
                     executable code responsible for managing the computer's
                     resources, such as allocating memory, creating
                     processes, and scheduling programs for execution.  The
                     kernel resides in RAM (random access memory) whenever
                     HP-UX is running.

      LANG           An environment variable used to inform a computer
                     process of the user's requirements for native language,
                     local customs, and coded character set.

      library        A file containing a set of subroutines and variables
                     that can be accessed by user programs.  Libraries can
                     be either archives or shared libraries.  For example,
                     /usr/lib/libc.a and /usr/lib/libc.sl are libraries
                     containings all functions of Section 2 and all
                     functions of Section 3 that are marked (3C) and (3S) in
                     the HP-UX Reference.  Similarly, /usr/lib/libm.a and
                     /usr/lib/libm.sl are libraries containing all functions

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                     in Section 3 that are marked

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