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 cpio(1)                                                             cpio(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      cpio - copy file archives in and out; duplicate directory trees

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      cpio -o [-e extarg] [achvxABC]

      cpio -i[bcdfmrstuvxBPRSU6] [pattern...]

      cpio -p [-e extarg] [adlmruvxU] directory

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      The cpio command saves and restores archives of files on magnetic
      tape, other devices, or a regular file, and copies files from one
      directory to another while replicating the directory tree structure.
      When cpio completes processing the files, it reports the number of
      blocks written.

      cpio -o     (copy out, export)  Read standard input to obtain a list
                  of path names, and copy those files to standard output
                  together with path name and status information.  The
                  output is padded to a 512-byte boundary.

      cpio -i     (copy in, import)  Extract files from standard input,
                  which is assumed to be the result of a previous cpio -o.

                  If pattern..., is specified, only the files with names
                  that match a pattern according to the rules of Pattern
                  Matching Notation (see regexp(5)) are selected.  A leading
                  !  on a pattern indicates that only those names that do
                  not match the remainder of the pattern should be selected.
                  Multiple patterns can be specified.  The patterns are
                  additive.  If no pattern is specified, the default is *
                  (select all files).  See the f option, as well.

                  Extracted files are conditionally created and copied into
                  the current directory tree, as determined by the options
                  described below.  The permissions of the files match the
                  permissions of the original files when the archive was
                  created by cpio -o unless the U option is used.  File
                  owner and group are that of the current user unless the
                  user has appropriate privileges, in which case cpio
                  retains the owner and group of the files of the previous
                  cpio -o.

      cpio -p     (pass through)  Read standard input to obtain a list of
                  path names of files which are then conditionally created
                  and copied into the destination directory tree as
                  determined by the options described below.  directory must
                  exist.  Destination path names are interpreted relative to

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 cpio(1)                                                             cpio(1)

                  With the -p option, when handling a link, only the link is
                  passed and no data blocks are actually read or written.
                  This is especially noteworthy with cpio -pl, where it is
                  very possible that all the files are created as links,
                  such that no blocks are written and "0 blocks" is reported
                  by cpio.  (See below for a description of the -l option.)

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      cpio recognizes the following options, which can be appended as
      appropriate to -i, -o, and -p.  White space and hyphens are not
      permitted between these options and -i, -o, or -p.

           a         Reset access times of input files after they are

           b         Swap both bytes and half-words.  Use only with -i.  See
                     the P option for details; see also the s and S options.

           c         Write or read header information in ASCII character
                     form for portability.

           d         Create directories as needed.

           -e extarg Specifies the handling of any extent attributes of the
                     file(s) to be archived or copied.  extarg takes one of
                     the following values.

                     warn      Archive or copy the file and issue a warning
                               message if extent attributes cannot be

                     ignore    Do not issue a warning message even if extent
                               attributes cannot be preserved.

                     force     Any file(s) with extent attributes will not
                               be archived and a warning message will be

                     When using the -o option, extent attributes are not
                     preserved in the archive.  Furthermore, the -p option
                     will not preserve extent attributes if the files are
                     being copied to a file system that does not support
                     extent attributes.  If -e is not specified, the default
                     value for extarg is warn.

           f         Copy in all files except those selected by pattern....

           h         Follow symbolic links as though they were normal files
                     or directories.  Normally, cpio archives the link.

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 cpio(1)                                                             cpio(1)

           l         Whenever possible, link files rather than copying them.
                     This option does not destroy existing files.  Use only
                     with -p.

           m         Retain previous file modification time.  This option
                     does not affect directories that are being copied.

           r         Rename files interactively.  If the user types a null
                     line, the file is skipped.

           s         Swap all bytes of the file.  Use only with -i.  See the
                     P option for details; see also the s and S options.

           t         Print only a table of contents of the input.  No files
                     are created, read, or copied.

           u         Copy unconditionally (normally, an older file does not
                     replace a newer file with the same name).

           v         Print a list of file names as they are processed.  When
                     used with the t option, the table of contents has the

                        numeric-mode owner-name blocks date-time filename

                     where numeric-mode is the file privileges in numeric
                     format, owner-name is the name of the file owner,
                     blocks is the size of the file in 512-byte blocks,
                     date-time is the date and time the file was last
                     modified, and filename is the path name of the file as
                     recorded in the archive.

           x         Save or restore device special files.  Since mknod() is
                     used to recreate these files on a restore, -ix and -px
                     can be used only by users with appropriate privileges
                     (see mknod(2)).  This option is intended for
                     intrasystem (backup) use only.  Restoring device files
                     from previous versions of the OS, or from different
                     systems can be very dangerous.  cpio may prevent the
                     restoration of certain device files from the archive.

           A         Suppress warning messages regarding optional access
                     control list entries.  cpio does not back up optional
                     access control list entries in a file's access control
                     list (see acl(5)).  Normally, a warning message is
                     printed for each file that has optional access control
                     list entries.

           B         Block input/output at 5120 bytes to the record (does
                     not apply to cpio -p).  This option is meaningful only
                     with data directed to or from devices that support

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 cpio(1)                                                             cpio(1)

                     variable-length records such as magnetic tape.

           C         Have cpio checkpoint itself at the start of each
                     volume.  If cpio is writing to a streaming tape drive
                     with immediate-report mode enabled and a write error
                     occurs, it normally aborts and exits with return code
                     2.  With this option specified, cpio instead
                     automatically restarts itself from the checkpoint and
                     rewrites the current volume.  Alternatively, if cpio is
                     not writing to such a device and a write error occurs,
                     cpio normally continues with the next volume.  With
                     this option specified, however, the user can choose to
                     either ignore the error or rewrite the current volume.

           P         Read a file written on a PDP-11 or VAX system (with
                     byte-swapping) that did not use the c option.  Use only
                     with -i.  Files copied in this mode are not changed.
                     Non-ASCII files are likely to need further processing
                     to be readable.  This processing often requires
                     knowledge of file contents, and thus cannot always be
                     done by this program.  The b, s, and S options can be
                     used when swapping all the bytes on the tape (rather
                     than just in the headers) is appropriate.  In general,
                     text is best processed with P and binary data with one
                     of the other options.

           R         Resynchronize automatically when cpio goes "out of
                     phase", (see the DIAGNOSTICS section).

           S         Swap all half-words in the file.  Use only with -i.
                     See the P option for details; see also the b and s

           U         Use the process's file-mode creation mask (see
                     umask(2)) to modify the mode of files created, in the
                     same manner as creat(2).

           6         Process a UNIX Sixth-Edition-format file.  Use only
                     with -i.

      Note that cpio archives created using a raw device file must be read
      using a raw device file.

      When the end of the tape is reached, cpio prompts the user for a new
      special file and continues.

      If you want to pass one or more metacharacters to cpio without the
      shell expanding them, be sure to precede each of them with a backslash

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 cpio(1)                                                             cpio(1)

      Device files written with the -ox option (such as /dev/tty03) do not
      transport to other implementations of HP-UX.

    Environment Variables
      LC_COLLATE determines the collating sequence used in evaluating
      pattern matching notation for file name generation.

      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
      multi-byte characters, and the characters matched by character class
      expressions in pattern matching notation.

      LC_TIME determines the format and content of date and time strings
      output when listing the contents of an archive with the v option.

      LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, or LC_TIME is not specified in the
      environment or is set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used
      as a default for each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not
      specified or is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see
      lang(5)) is used instead of LANG.  If any internationalization
      variable contains an invalid setting, cpio behaves as if all
      internationalization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

    International Code Set Support    [Toc]    [Back]
      Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

 RETURN VALUE    [Toc]    [Back]
      cpio returns the following exit codes:

           0    Successful completion.  Review standard error for files that
                could not be transferred.

           1    Error during resynchronization.  Some files may not have
                been recovered.

           2    Out-of-phase error.  A file header is corrupt or in the
                wrong format.

 DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Out of phase--get help
      Perhaps the "c" option should[n't] be used

           cpio -i could not read the header of an archived file.  The
           header is corrupt or it was written in a different format.
           Without the R option, cpio returns an exit code of 2.

           If no file name has been displayed yet, the problem may be the
           format.  Try specifying a different header format option: null
           for standard format; c for ASCII; b, s, P, or S, for one of the

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 cpio(1)                                                             cpio(1)

           byte-swapping formats; or 6 for UNIX Sixth Edition.

           Otherwise, a header may be corrupt.  Use the R option to have
           cpio attempt to resynchronize the file automatically.
           Resynchronizing means that cpio tries to find the next good
           header in the archive file and continues processing from there.
           If cpio tries to resynchronize from being out of phase, it
           returns an exit code of 1.

      Other diagnostic messages are self-explanatory.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      Copy the contents of a directory into a tape archive:

           ls | cpio -o > /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

      Duplicate a directory hierarchy:

           cd olddir
           find . -depth -print | cpio -pd newdir

      The trivial case

           find . -depth -print | cpio -oB >/dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

      can be handled more efficiently by:

           find . -cpio /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Because of industry standards and interoperability goals, cpio does
      not support the archival of files larger than 2 GB or files that have
      user/group IDs greater than 60 K.  Files with user/group IDs greater
      than 60 K are archived and restored under the user/group ID of the
      current process.

      Do not redirect the output of cpio to a named cpio archive file
      residing in the same directory as the original files belonging to that
      cpio archive.  This can cause loss of data.

      cpio strips any leading ./ characters in the list of file names piped
      to it.

      Path names are restricted to PATH_MAX characters (see <limits.h> and
      limits(5)).  If there are too many unique linked files, the program
      runs out of memory to keep track of them.  Thereafter, linking
      information is lost.  Only users with appropriate privileges can copy
      special files.

      cpio tapes written on HP machines with the -ox[c] options can
      sometimes mislead (non-HP) versions of cpio that do not support the x

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 cpio(1)                                                             cpio(1)

      option.  If a non-HP (or non-AT&T) version of cpio happens to be
      modified so that the (HP) cpio recognizes it as a device special file,
      a spurious device file might be created.

      If /dev/tty is not accessible, cpio issues a complaint and exits.

      The -pd option does not create the directory typed on the command

      The -idr option does not make empty directories.

      The -plu option does not link files to existing files.

      POSIX defines a file named TRAILER!!!  as an end-of-archive marker.
      Consequently, if a file of that name is contained in a group of files
      being written by cpio -o, the file is interpreted as end-of-archive,
      and no remaining files are copied.  The recommended practice is to
      avoid naming files anything that resembles an end-of-archive file

      To create a POSIX-conforming cpio archive, the c option must be used.
      To read a POSIX-conforming cpio archive, the c option must be used and
      the b, s, S, and 6 options should not be used.  If the user does not
      have appropriate privileges, the U option must also be used to get
      POSIX-conforming behavior when reading an archive.  Users with
      appropriate privileges should not use this option to get POSIXconforming

 DEPENDENCIES    [Toc]    [Back]
      If the path given to cpio contains a symbolic link as the last
      element, this link is traversed and path name resolution continues.
      cpio uses the symbolic link's target, rather than that of the link.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      ar(1), find(1), tar(1), cpio(4), acl(5), environ(5), lang(5),

      cpio: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3

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