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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      environ - user environment

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      An array of strings called the environment is made available by
      exec(2) when a process begins.  By convention, these strings have the
      form name=value.  The following names are used by various commands
      (listed in alphabetical order):

      HOME        Name of the user's login directory, set by login(1) from
                  the password file (see passwd(4)).

      LANG        Identifies the user's requirements for native language,
                  local customs and coded character set, if the environment
                  variables LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
                  LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, and LC_TIME are unset or null.

                  The format of LANG is:


                  The valid values for LANG are supported locales.  (See
                  lang(5).) Native Language Support (NLS) is initiated at
                  run-time by calling setlocale(3C).  The following call to
                  setlocale() binds the execution of a program to the user's
                  language requirements:


                  This setlocale() call initializes the program locale from
                  the environment variables associated with setlocale().
                  LANG provides the necessary defaults if any of the
                  category-specific environment variables are not set or set
                  to the empty string.

                  The LANG environment variable can have a maximum length of
                  SL_NAME_SIZE bytes (see header file <locale.h>).

      LANGOPTS    Defines language options for mode and data order in the


                  LANGOPTS values are given in English as an ASCII character
                  string.  mode describes the mode of a file where l (ell)
                  represents Latin mode and n represents non-Latin mode.
                  Non-Latin mode is assumed for values other than l and n.
                  order describes the data order of a file where k is
                  keyboard order and s is screen order.

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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

      LC_ALL      Determines the values for all locale categories.  The
                  value of LC_ALL has precedence over any of the other
                  environment variables LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
                  LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, and LANG.

                  Determines the user's requirements for language,
                  territory, and codeset with respect to character
                  collation, character classification and conversion, output
                  messages, currency symbol and monetary value format,
                  numeric data presentation, and time formats, respectively.
                  If LC_ALL and any of these are not defined in the
                  environment, LANG provides the defaults.

                  Syntax for the environment variables LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE,
                  LC_MESSAGES, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, and LC_TIME is:


                  The language field conforms with ISO 639 standard for
                  language names and the territory field conforms with the
                  ISO 3166 territory names.  For a list of the locale names,
                  see lang(5).

                  The @modifier field allows the user to select between more
                  than one value of a category within the same language
                  definition.  HP-UX does not currently provide locales with

                  The values of the locale categories are determined by a
                  precedence order; the first condition met below determines
                  the value:

                  1. If the LC_ALL environment variable is defined and is
                     not null, the value of LC_ALL is used.

                  2. If the LC_* environment variable (LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE,
                     LC_MESSAGES, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME) is
                     defined and is not null, the value of the environment
                     variable is used to initialize the category that
                     corresponds to the environment variable.

                  3. If the LANG environment variable is defined and is not
                     null, the value of the LANG environment variable is

                  4. If the LANG environment variable is not set or is set
                     to the empty string, the POSIX/C default locale is
                     used.  (See lang(5).)

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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

      LC_COLLATE  Determines the locale category for character collation.
                  It determines collation information for regular
                  expressions and sorting, including equivalence classes and
                  multi-character collating elements, in various utilities
                  and strcoll(3C) and strxfrm(3C) (see string(3C)).

      LC_CTYPE    Determines the locale category for character
                  classification (such as alphabetic, digit, upper-case.)
                  See isalpha(3C), isdigit(3C), and isupper(3C), character
                  conversion in ctype(3C).  See toupper(3C), tolower(3C),
                  and the interpretation of text as single-byte or multibyte
 characters in conv(3C).

      LC_MESSAGES Determines the locale category for processing affirmative
                  and negative responses and the language and cultural
                  conventions in which diagnostic and informative messages
                  should be written.  It may also affect the behavior of
                  catopen(3C) in determining the message catalog to open.

      LC_MONETARY Determines the locale category for monetary-related
                  numeric formatting information.

      LC_NUMERIC  Determines the locale category for numeric formatting
                  information (such as the thousands separator and the radix
                  character) in various utilities as well as the formatted
                  I/O operations in print
 and the string
                  conversion functions in strtod(3C).

      LC_TIME     Determines the locale category for date and time
                  formatting information.  It affects the behavior of time
                  functions in strftime(3C).

      MANPATH     Contains a colon-separated list of directory prefixes to
                  be searched by man(1) for manual entries.  Upon logging
                  in, /etc/profile (or /etc/csh.login) sets
                  MANPATH=/usr/share/man:/usr/contrib/man:usr/local/man.  If
                  the file /etc/MANPATH exists, the default settings are
                  taken from this file.

                  MANPATH uses the same syntax as the PATH environment
                  variable, with the addition of recognizing the specifiers
                  %L, %l, %t, and %c as used in the NLSPATH environment
                  variable.  See NLSPATH below for a description of these
                  specifiers.  This provides a way to specify paths to
                  locale-specific manual entries.

                  It is assumed that each of the prefixes given in MANPATH
                  contain subdirectories of the form man*, man*.Z, cat* and
                  cat*.Z.  (See man(1), catman(1M), and fixman(1M).)

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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

      NLSPATH     Contains a sequence of pseudo-pathnames used by
                  catopen(3C) when attempting to locate message catalogs.
                  Each pseudo-pathname contains a name template consisting
                  of an optional path prefix, one or more substitution field
                  descriptors, a file name and an optional file name suffix.
                  For example:


                  defines that catopen(3C) should look for all message
                  catalogs in the directory /system/nlslib , where the
                  catalog name should be constructed from the name parameter
                  passed to catopen (3C) (%N) with the suffix .cat.

                  Field descriptors consist of a % followed by a single
                  character.  Field descriptors and their substitution
                  values are:

                     %N      The value of the name parameter passed to
                     %L      The value of LC_MESSAGES.
                     %l      The language element from LC_MESSAGES.
                     %t      The territory element from LC_MESSAGES.
                     %c      The codeset element from LC_MESSAGES.
                     %%      Replaced by a single %.

                  For example, given:


                  catopen(3C) attempts to open the file
                  /system/nlslib/$LC_MESSAGES/name.cat as a message catalog.

                  A null string is substituted if the specified value is not
                  defined.  Separators are not included in %t and %c
                  substitutions.  Note that a default value is not supplied
                  for %L.  If LC_MESSAGES is not set and NLSPATH had the
                  value in the previous example, catopen(3C) would attempt
                  to open the file /system/nlslib/name.cat as a message

                  Path names defined in NLSPATH are separated by colons (:).
                  A leading colon or two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent
                  to specifying %N.  For example, given:


                  catopen(3C) with the oflag parameter set to NL_CAT_LOCALE
                  will attempt to open the following files in the indicated
                  order: ./name, ./name.cat, and
                  /nlslib/$LC_MESSAGES/name.cat.  The first file

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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

                  successfully opened is taken as the message catalog.

                  A default pseudo-pathname defined by the system is
                  effectively appended to NLSPATH and used by catopen(3C)
                  whenever a message catalog cannot be opened in any of the
                  user defined pseudo-pathnames.  This system-wide default
                  path is:


                  If catopen(3C) is invoked from a setuid or setgid
                  application with owner root, the environment variable
                  NLSPATH is not used.  Instead the system file
                  /etc/default/nlspath is used to locate the message
                  catalogs.  See nlspath(4) for details.

      PAGER       PAGER indicates the paginator through which output from
                  certain commands is piped.  Its value must be a string
                  specifying the complete command line of the desired
                  paginator.  Two examples are:

                       PAGER="more -cs"
                       PAGER="pg -c"

                  PAGER affects several commands, including man(1) and the
                  interactive mailers.  Some of the affected commands
                  provide alternate means of selecting a pager in case there
                  is a conflict.  See the individual manual entries for

      PATH        PATH indicates the sequence of directory prefixes that
                  sh(1), time(1), nice(1), nohup(1), and others search when
                  looking for a file known by an incomplete path name.
                  Prefixes are separated by colons (:).  The login(1)
                  command sets PATH/usr/bin.

      TERM        TERM identifies the kind of terminal for which output is
                  to be prepared.  This information is used by commands such
                  as vi(1) and mm(1), which can exploit special capabilities
                  of that terminal.

      TZ          TZ sets time zone information.  TZ can be set using the



                  STD and DST Three or more bytes that designate the
                              standard time zone (STD) and summer (or
                              daylight-savings) time zone (DST).  STD is

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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

                              required.  If DST is not specified, summer
                              time does not apply in this locale.  Any
                              characters other than digits, comma (,), minus
                              (-), plus (+), or ASCII NUL are allowed.

                  offset      offset is the value that must be added to
                              local time to arrive at Coordinated Universal
                              Time (UTC).  Offset is of the form :


                              Hour (hh) is any value from 0 through 23.  The
                              optional minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) fields
                              are a value from 0 through 59.  The hour field
                              is required.  If offset is preceded by a -,
                              the time zone is east of the Prime Meridian.
                              A + preceding offset indicates that the time
                              zone is west of the Prime Meridian.  The
                              default case is west of the Prime Meridian.

                  rule        rule indicates when to change to and from
                              summer (daylight-savings) time.  The rule has
                              the form :


                              where the first date/time specifies when to
                              change from standard to summer time, and the
                              second date/time specifies when to change
                              back.  The time field is expressed in current
                              local time.

                              The form of date should be one of the
                              following :

                              Jn      Julian day n (1 through 365).  Leap
                                      days are not counted.  February 29
                                      cannot be referenced.

                              n       The zero-based Julian day (0 through
                                      365).  Leap days are counted.
                                      February 29 can be referenced.

                              Mm.n.d  The d day (0 through 6) of week n (1
                                      through 5) of month m (1 through 12)
                                      of the year.  Week 5 refers to the
                                      last day d of month m.  Week 1 is the
                                      week in which the first day of the
                                      month falls.  Day 0 is Sunday.

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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

                              time    Time has the same format as offset
                                      except that no leading sign ("-" or
                                      "+") is allowed.  The default, if time
                                      is not given, is 02:00:00.

                              While the STD field and the offset field for
                              STD must be specified, if the DST field is
                              also provided, the system will supply default
                              values for other fields not specified.  These
                              default values come from file /usr/lib/tztab
                              (see tztab(4)), and, in general, reflect the
                              various historical dates for start and end of
                              summer time.

      Additional names may be placed in the environment by the export
      command and name=value arguments in sh(1), or by exec(2).  It is
      unwise to add names that conflict with the following shell variables
      frequently exported by .profile files: MAIL, PS1, PS2 and IFS.

      The environment of a process is accessible from C by using the global

           #include <unistd.h>

           extern char **environ;

      which points to an array of pointers to the strings that comprise the
      environment.  The array is terminated by a null pointer.

    Notes    [Toc]    [Back]
      Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is equivalent to Greenwich Mean Time

    International Code Set Support
      LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH environment variables provide support
      for internationalized applications.  The standard utilities make use
      of these environment variables as described here and in the individual
      Environment Variables subsection of the utilities.

      If these variables specify locale categories that are not based upon
      the same underlying codeset, the results are unspecified, and the
      behavior of regular expressions APIs', such as, regcomp, glob, and
      fnmatch may be affected.

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Some HP-UX commands and library routines do not use the LANG,
      environment variables.  Some commands do not use message catalogs, so
      NLSPATH does not affect their behavior.  See the EXTERNAL INFLUENCES

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 environ(5)                                                       environ(5)

      section of specific commands and library routines for implementation

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      environ was developed by AT&T and HP.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      env(1), login(1), sh(1), exec(2), catopen(3C), ctime(3C), getenv(3C),
      setlocale(3C), nlspath(4), profile(4), lang(5), term(5), tztab(4).

      environ: AES, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, FIPS 151-2, POSIX.1

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[ Back ]
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