NAME [Toc] [Back]
gated - gateway routing daemon
SYNOPSIS [Toc] [Back]
gated [-b buffer_size] [-c] [-C] [-n] [-N] [-r] [-ttrace_options]
[-f config_file] [trace_file]
DESCRIPTION [Toc] [Back]
gated is a routing daemon that handles multiple routing protocols and
replaces routed, egpup, and any routing daemon that speaks the HELLO
routing protocol. gated currently handles the RIP, BGP, EGP, HELLO,
and OSPF routing protocols. The gated process can be configured to
perform all routing protocols or any subset of them (see WARNINGS
Options [Toc] [Back]
The command-line options are:
Specifies a buffer size for the socket read/write buffer.
The buffer size should not be less than one MB (megabyte)
and should not exceed the available system memory. If this
option is not specified, the buffer size will be set to
the available system memory.
-c Specifies that the configuration file will be parsed for
syntax errors and then gated will exit. gated will leave
a dump file in /var/tmp/gated_dump if there were no
errors. gated does not need to be run as the superuser to
use the -c option but it may not be possible to read the
kernel forwarding table and interface configuration if not
run as superuser. The -c option implies -tgeneral. All
trace_option clauses in the configuration file will be
-C Specifies that the configuration file will just be parsed
for syntax errors. gated will exit with a status 1 if
there were any errors and 0 (zero) if there were not.
gated does not need to be run as the superuser to use the
-C option but it may not be possible to read the kernel
forwarding table and interface configuration if not run as
-n Specifies that gated will not modify the kernel forwarding
table. This is used for testing gated configurations with
actual routing data.
-N Specifies that gated will not daemonize. Normally, if
tracing to stderr is not specified gated will daemonize if
the parent process ID is not 1. This allows the use of an
/etc/inittab-like method of invoking gated that does not
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have a PID of 1.
-r Specifies that gated will add routes to the kernel in the
decreasing order of IP addresses of gateways when there
are multiple routes to a destination.
Specifies a comma separated list of trace options to be
enabled on startup. If no flags are specified, general is
assumed. No space is allowed between this option and it's
This option must be used to trace events that take place
before the configuration file is parsed, such as
determining the interface configuration and reading routes
from the kernel.
See the GateD Configuration Guide for valid trace options
and a more detailed explanation of tracing.
Use an alternate config file. By default, gated uses
trace_file Trace file in which to place trace information.
If a trace file is specified on the command line, or no
trace flags are specified on the command line, gated
detaches from the terminal and runs in the background. If
trace flags are specified without specifying a trace file,
gated assumes that tracing is desired to stderr and
remains in the foreground.
Signal Processing [Toc] [Back]
The following signals may be used to control gated:
SIGHUP Re-read configuration. A SIGHUP causes gated to
reread the configuration file. gated first performs
a clean-up of all allocated policy structures. All
BGP and EGP peers are flagged for deletion and the
configuration file is re-parsed.
If the re-parse is successful, any BGP and EGP peers
that are no longer in the configuration are shut
down, and new peers are started. gated attempts to
determine if changes to existing peers require a
shutdown and restart. OSPF is not capable of
reconfiguring; it is shutdown and restarted during a
reconfiguration. This may have an adverse impact on
the routing system.
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It should also be possible to enable/disable any
protocol without restarting gated.
SIGINT Snap-shot of current state.
The current state of all gated tasks, timers,
protocols and tables are written to
On systems supporting fork(), this is done by forking
a subprocess to dump the table information so as not
to impact gated's routing functions. On systems
where memory management does not support copy-onwrite,
this will cause the gated address space to be
duplicated; this may cause a noticeable impact on the
system. On system not supporting fork(), the main
process immediately processes the dump, which may
impact gated's routing functions.
SIGTERM Graceful shutdown.
On receipt of a SIGTERM, gated attempts a graceful
shutdown. All tasks and protocols are asked to
shutdown. Most will terminate immediately, the
exception being EGP peers which wait for
confirmation. It may be necessary to repeat the
SIGTERM once or twice if it this process takes too
All protocol routes are removed from the kernel's
routing table on receipt of a SIGTERM. Interface
routes, routes with RTF_STATIC set (from the route
command where supported) and static routes specifying
retain will remain. To terminate gated with the
exterior routes intact, use SIGKILL.
SIGUSR1 Toggle tracing.
On receipt of a SIGUSR1, gated will close the trace
file. A subsequent SIGUSR1 will cause it to be
reopened. This will allow the file to be moved
It is not possible to use SIGUSR1 if a trace file has
not been specified, or tracing is being performed to
SIGUSR2 Check for interface changes.
On receipt of a SIGUSR2, gated will rescan the kernel
interface list looking for changes.
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WARNINGS [Toc] [Back]
gated contains provisions for BGP protocol, but it is not officially
supported by HP at the present time. Some RIP version 2 features
(RFC1388) are not currently supported: MIB and route tag. The
optional OSPF version 2 (RFC1247) feature of TOS (type of service)
based routing is not supported. The route aggregation, generating a
more general route from compressing the specific routes through the
explicit configuration, is not supported in this release.
AUTHOR [Toc] [Back]
gated was primarily developed by Cornell University which includes
code from the Regents of the University of California and the
University of Maryland.
This software and associated documentation is Copyright 1990, 1991,
1992 by Cornell University.
SEE ALSO [Toc] [Back]
gated.conf(4), arp(1M), fork(2), gdc(1M), ifconfig(1M), netstat(1),
ospf_monitor(1M), ripquery(1M), GateD Documentation, GateD
RFC 891 DCN Local-Network Protocols (HELLO)
RFC 904 Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification
RFC 1058 Routing Information Protocol
RFC 1163 A Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
RFC 1164 Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the
RFC 1247 OSPF Specification, Version 2.
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