ogated - The gateway routing daemon
/usr/sbin/ogated [-t [i] [e] [r] [p] [u] [R] [H]] [logfile]
The ogateddaemon processes multiple routing protocols
according to the configuration set in ogated.conf file.
Logs all external errors due to EGP, exterior routing
errors, and EGP state changes. Traces all HELLO packets
received. Logs all internal errors and interior routing
errors. Traces all EGP packets sent and received. Traces
all RIP packets received. Logs all routing changes. If
used alone, the -t option starts the -i, -e, -r, and -p
trace options. When used with another option, the -t
option has no effect and only the accompanying options are
recognized. Note that when other options are used, the -t
option must be used with them and must be the first option
given in the command line. Logs all routing updates sent.
The ogated daemon always logs fatal errors. If no log file
is specified and none of the preceding trace options are
set, all messages are sent to the /dev/null file.
The ogated daemon manages multiple routing protocols,
including the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Exterior
Gateway Protocol (EGP), and Local Network Protocol
(HELLO). The ogated process can be configured to perform
all or any combination of these routing protocols. It
replaces daemons that use the HELLO routing protocol; for
example, routed (8) and egpup (8). The configuration for
the ogated daemon is by default stored in the
/etc/ogated.conf file, and can be changed at compile time
in the file defs.h. The ogated daemon stores its process
ID in the /var/run/ogated.pid file.
When a routing update indicates that the route in use is
being deleted, the ogated daemon waits for 2 minutes
before deleting the route. Be aware that unpredictable
results may occur when the ogated and routed daemons are
run together on the same host.
Start the ogated daemon with a log file that you specify
on the command line. You can also enter one or more trace
options on the command line or specify the options in the
traceoptions stanza of the ogated.conf configuration file.
When trace options are specified without a log file, all
trace output is sent to the controlling terminal.
By default, the ogated daemon forks and detaches itself
from the controlling terminal.
When certain networks are restricted from using the Internet
network, the ogated daemon uses both the syslogd daemon
at the LOG_WARNING log level and the LOG_DAEMON facility
to record all invalid networks.
If you use the EGP when you supply the default route (by
the RIP or HELLO gateway) and all EGP neighbors are lost,
the default route is not advertised until at least one EGP
neighbor is regained.
The RIP both propagates and listens to host routes. This
allows the ogated daemon to handle point-to-point links
with consistency. The ogated daemon also supports the
The ogated daemon detects changes made to the network
interfaces and its own start-up options while it is running.
Thus, you need not restart the ogated daemon if you
change the configuration. However, if the net mask, subnet
mask, broadcast address, or interface metric is
changed, use the ifconfig(8) command to mark the interface
down and then up 30 seconds later.
Subnet interfaces are supported. Subnet information is
passed through interfaces to other subnets of the same
The ogated daemon listens to host and network REDIRECT
signals. The daemon tries to take an action for its own
internal tables. This action is parallel to the action the
kernel takes on the REDIRECT signal.
In addition, the ogated daemon cancels (times out) all
routes learned from REDIRECT signals in 6 minutes. The
daemon then deletes the route from the kernel routing
tables, which keeps the routing tables consistent.
No routing protocol announces routes learned from REDIRECT
The ogated EGP code verifies that all networks sent and
received are valid class A, B, or C networks as specified
by the EGP. The ogated daemon does not contribute information
about networks that do not meet EGP specifications.
If an EGP update packet contains information about a network
that is not class A, B, or C, the ogated daemon considers
the update to be in error and ignores it.
Signals [Toc] [Back]
The ogated server performs the following actions when you
use the kill(1) command to send it the SIGHUP and SIGINT
signals. When a SIGHUP signal is sent to a ogated daemon
that was invoked with trace options and a log file, tracing
is toggled off and the log file is closed. At this
point the log file can be moved or deleted. When the next
SIGHUP signal is sent to the ogated daemon, tracing is
toggled on. The ogated daemon reads the /etc/ogated.conf
configuration file and sets the trace options to those
specified by the traceoptions stanza.
If no traceoptions stanza exists, tracing resumes
and uses any trace options specified on the command
line. Trace output is sent to the log file specified
on the command line. The output is appended if
the log file already exists, and the file is created
if it does not exist. Sending the ogated daemon
a SIGINT signal causes a memory dump to be
scheduled within the next 60 seconds. The memory
dump is written to a file named
/usr/tmp/ogated_dump. The ogated daemon processes
all pending routing updates before performing the
The memory dump contains a snapshot of the current
ogated daemon status, including the interface configurations,
EGP neighbor status, and the routing
tables. If the /usr/tmp/ogated_dump file already
exists, the memory dump is appended to the existing
Internal Metrics for the ogated Daemon [Toc] [Back]
The ogated daemon stores all metrics internally as a time
delay in milliseconds to preserve the granularity of HELLO
time delays. The internal delay ranges from 0 to 30,000
milliseconds, with 30,000 representing infinity. Metrics
from other protocols are translated to and from a time
delay as they are received and transmitted. EGP distances
are not comparable to HELLO and RIP metrics but are stored
as time delays internally for comparison with other EGP
metrics. The conversion factor between EGP distances and
time delays is 100.
RIP and interface metrics are translated to and from the
internal time delays with the use of the following translation
tables. The first two columns represent the time
delay to RIP metric translation, while the second two
columns represent the RIP metric to time delay translation.
Minimum Maximum RIP Metric RIP Metric Time Delay
0 0 0 0 0
1 100 1 1 100
101 148 2 2 148
149 219 3 3 219
220 325 4 4 325
326 481 5 5 481
482 713 6 6 713
714 1057 7 7 1057
1058 1567 8 8 1567
1568 2322 9 9 2322
2323 3440 10 10 3440
3441 5097 11 11 5097
5098 7552 12 12 7552
7553 11,190 13 13 11,190
11,191 16,579 14 14 16,579
16,580 24,564 15 15 24,564
24,565 30,000 16 16 30,000
Unpredictable results may occur when the ogated and routed
daemons are run together on the same host.
Specifies the command path Contains the ogated configuration
information Contains the ogated process ID Specifies
the memory dump file
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