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 gated(1M)                                                         gated(1M)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      gated - gateway routing daemon

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      gated [-b buffer_size] [-c] [-C] [-n] [-N] [-r] [-ttrace_options]
           [-f config_file] [trace_file]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      gated is a routing daemon that handles multiple routing protocols and
      replaces routed, egpup, and any routing daemon that speaks the HELLO
      routing protocol.  gated currently handles the RIP, BGP, EGP, HELLO,
      and OSPF routing protocols.  The gated process can be configured to
      perform all routing protocols or any subset of them (see WARNINGS

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      The command-line options are:

      -b buffer_size
                  Specifies a buffer size for the socket read/write buffer.
                  The buffer size should not be less than one MB (megabyte)
                  and should not exceed the available system memory. If this
                  option is not specified, the buffer size will be set to
                  the available system memory.

      -c          Specifies that the configuration file will be parsed for
                  syntax errors and then gated will exit.  gated will leave
                  a dump file in /var/tmp/gated_dump if there were no
                  errors.  gated does not need to be run as the superuser to
                  use the -c option but it may not be possible to read the
                  kernel forwarding table and interface configuration if not
                  run as superuser.  The -c option implies -tgeneral.  All
                  trace_option clauses in the configuration file will be

      -C          Specifies that the configuration file will just be parsed
                  for syntax errors.  gated will exit with a status 1 if
                  there were any errors and 0 (zero) if there were not.
                  gated does not need to be run as the superuser to use the
                  -C option but it may not be possible to read the kernel
                  forwarding table and interface configuration if not run as
                  the superuser.

      -n          Specifies that gated will not modify the kernel forwarding
                  table.  This is used for testing gated configurations with
                  actual routing data.

      -N          Specifies that gated will not daemonize.  Normally, if
                  tracing to stderr is not specified gated will daemonize if
                  the parent process ID is not 1.  This allows the use of an
                  /etc/inittab-like method of invoking gated that does not

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 1 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 gated(1M)                                                         gated(1M)

                  have a PID of 1.

      -r          Specifies that gated will add routes to the kernel in the
                  decreasing order of IP addresses of gateways when there
                  are multiple routes to a destination.

                  Specifies a comma separated list of trace options to be
                  enabled on startup.  If no flags are specified, general is
                  assumed.  No space is allowed between this option and it's

                  This option must be used to trace events that take place
                  before the configuration file is parsed, such as
                  determining the interface configuration and reading routes
                  from the kernel.

                  See the GateD Configuration Guide for valid trace options
                  and a more detailed explanation of tracing.

      -f config_file
                  Use an alternate config file.  By default, gated uses

      trace_file  Trace file in which to place trace information.

                  If a trace file is specified on the command line, or no
                  trace flags are specified on the command line, gated
                  detaches from the terminal and runs in the background.  If
                  trace flags are specified without specifying a trace file,
                  gated assumes that tracing is desired to stderr and
                  remains in the foreground.

    Signal Processing    [Toc]    [Back]
      The following signals may be used to control gated:

           SIGHUP      Re-read configuration.  A SIGHUP causes gated to
                       reread the configuration file.  gated first performs
                       a clean-up of all allocated policy structures.  All
                       BGP and EGP peers are flagged for deletion and the
                       configuration file is re-parsed.

                       If the re-parse is successful, any BGP and EGP peers
                       that are no longer in the configuration are shut
                       down, and new peers are started.  gated attempts to
                       determine if changes to existing peers require a
                       shutdown and restart.  OSPF is not capable of
                       reconfiguring; it is shutdown and restarted during a
                       reconfiguration. This may have an adverse impact on
                       the routing system.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 2 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 gated(1M)                                                         gated(1M)

                       It should also be possible to enable/disable any
                       protocol without restarting gated.

           SIGINT      Snap-shot of current state.

                       The current state of all gated tasks, timers,
                       protocols and tables are written to

                       On systems supporting fork(), this is done by forking
                       a subprocess to dump the table information so as not
                       to impact gated's routing functions.  On systems
                       where memory management does not support copy-onwrite,
 this will cause the gated address space to be
                       duplicated; this may cause a noticeable impact on the
                       system.  On system not supporting fork(), the main
                       process immediately processes the dump, which may
                       impact gated's routing functions.

           SIGTERM     Graceful shutdown.

                       On receipt of a SIGTERM, gated attempts a graceful
                       shutdown.  All tasks and protocols are asked to
                       shutdown.  Most will terminate immediately, the
                       exception being EGP peers which wait for
                       confirmation.  It may be necessary to repeat the
                       SIGTERM once or twice if it this process takes too

                       All protocol routes are removed from the kernel's
                       routing table on receipt of a SIGTERM.  Interface
                       routes, routes with RTF_STATIC set (from the route
                       command where supported) and static routes specifying
                       retain will remain.  To terminate gated with the
                       exterior routes intact, use SIGKILL.

           SIGUSR1     Toggle tracing.

                       On receipt of a SIGUSR1, gated will close the trace
                       file.  A subsequent SIGUSR1 will cause it to be
                       reopened.  This will allow the file to be moved

                       It is not possible to use SIGUSR1 if a trace file has
                       not been specified, or tracing is being performed to

           SIGUSR2     Check for interface changes.

                       On receipt of a SIGUSR2, gated will rescan the kernel
                       interface list looking for changes.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 3 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 gated(1M)                                                         gated(1M)

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      gated contains provisions for BGP protocol, but it is not officially
      supported by HP at the present time.  Some RIP version 2 features
      (RFC1388) are not currently supported: MIB and route tag.  The
      optional OSPF version 2 (RFC1247) feature of TOS (type of service)
      based routing is not supported.   The route aggregation, generating a
      more general route from compressing the specific routes through the
      explicit configuration, is not supported in this release.

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      gated was primarily developed by Cornell University which includes
      code from the Regents of the University of California and the
      University of Maryland.

      This software and associated documentation is Copyright 1990, 1991,
      1992 by Cornell University.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      gated.conf(4), arp(1M), fork(2), gdc(1M), ifconfig(1M), netstat(1),
      ospf_monitor(1M), ripquery(1M), GateD Documentation, GateD
      Configuration Guide.

      RFC 891        DCN Local-Network Protocols (HELLO)
      RFC 904        Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification
      RFC 1058       Routing Information Protocol
      RFC 1163       A Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
      RFC 1164       Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the
      RFC 1247       OSPF Specification, Version 2.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 4 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003
[ Back ]
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