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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      gated.config - GateDaemon Configuration Guide

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
    Configuration Overview
           +  Introduction

           +  Statement Summary

           +  Preferences and Route Selection

           +  Trace Statements and Global Options

           +  Directive Statements

           +  Options Statements

           +  Interface Statements and Configuration

           +  Definition Statements

    Protocol Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
           +  Protocol Overview

           +  Interior gateway protocols (igps)

              +  RIP, HELLO, OSPF

           +  Exterior gateway protocols (egps)

              +  EGP, BGP

           +  ICMP Statement

           +  Redirect Statement

           +  Router Discovery Statement

           +  Kernel Interface

           +  Static Routes

    Control Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
           +  Route filtering

           +  Matching AS paths

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           +  Route Importation

           +  Route Exportation

           +  Route Aggregation

    Appendices    [Toc]    [Back]
           +  Glossary of Terms

           +  References

 Introduction to Configuring GateD    [Toc]    [Back]
      The gated configuration file consists of a sequence of statements
      terminated by a semi-colon (`;'). Statements are composed of tokens
      separated by white space, which can be any combination of blanks, tabs
      and newlines. This structure simplifies identification of the parts of
      the configuration associated with each other and with specific
      protocols. Comments may be specified in either of two forms. One form
      begins with a pound sign (`#') and runs to the end of the line. The
      other form, C style, starts with a `/*' and continues until it reaches

    Syntax description conventions    [Toc]    [Back]
      Keywords and special characters that the parser expects exactly are
      displayed using bold type. Parameters are displayed in italic variable
      definition style.  Parameters shown in square brackets (`[' and `]')
      are used to show optional keywords and parameters.  The vertical bar
      (`|') is used to indicate between a choice of optional parameters.
      Parentheses (`(' and `)') are used to group keywords and parameters
      when necessary.

      For example, in the syntax description:

           [ backbone | ( area area ) ]

      The square brackets say that either parameter is optional. The
      keywords are backbone and area.  The vertical bar indicates that
      either ``backbone'' or ``area area'' may be specified. Since area is
      in the variable definition style, it is a parameter that needs to be

    Statement Grouping    [Toc]    [Back]
      The configuration statements and the order in which these statements
      appear divide gated.conf into options statements, interface
      statements, definition statements, protocol statements, static
      statements, control statements, and aggregate statements. Entering a
      statement out of order causes an error when parsing the configuration

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

      Two other types of statements do not fit in these categories:
      %directive statements and %trace statements. These statements provide
      instructions to the parser and control tracing from the configuration
      file. They do not relate to the configuration of any protocol and may
      occur anywhere in the gated.conf file.

    Statement Summary    [Toc]    [Back]
      A summary table of the configuration statements (in the configuration
      statement summary) lists each GateD configuration statement by name,
      identifies the statement type, and provides a short synopsis of the
      command function. More detailed definitions and descriptions of each
      of the eight classes of GateD statements follow in separate sections.

 GateD Configuration Statement Summary    [Toc]    [Back]
      The GateD configuration commands are summarized below. The table lists
      each command by name, identifies the statement type, and gives a
      synopsis of the statement function:

    Summary of GateD Configuration Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
           %directory (directive)        sets the directory for include

           %include (directive)          includes a file into gated.conf.

           traceoptions (trace)          specifies which events are traced.

           options (definition)          defines GateD options.

           interfaces (definition)       defines GateD interfaces.

           autonomoussystem (definition) defines the AS number.

           routerid (definition)         defines the originating router
                                         (BGP, OSPF).

           martians (definition)         defines invalid destination

           rip (protocol)                enables RIP protocol.

           hello (protocol)              enables HELLO protocol.

           isis (protocol)               enables ISIS protocol.

           kernel (protocol)             configures kernel interface

           ospf (protocol)               enables OSPF protocol.

           egp (protocol)                enables EGP protocol.

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           bgp (protocol)                enables BGP protocol.

           redirect (protocol)           configures the processing of ICMP

           icmp (protocol)               configures the processing of
                                         general ICMP packets.

           static (static)               defines static routes.

           import (control)              defines which routes to import.

           export (control)              defines which routes to export.

           aggregate (control)           defines which routes to aggregate.

           generate (control)            defines which routes to generate.

 Preference    [Toc]    [Back]
      Preference is the value GateD uses to order preference of routes from
      one protocol or peer over another. Preference can be set in the GateD
      configuration files in several different configuration statements.
      Preference can be set based on network interface over another, from
      one protocol over another, or from one remote gateway over another.
      Preference may not be used to control the selection of routes within
      an igp, this is accomplished automatically by the protocol based on
      metric. Preference may be used to select routes from the same egp
      learned from different peers or autonomous systems.  Each route has
      only one preference value associated with it, even though preference
      can be set at many places in the configuration file.  Simply, the last
      or most specific preference value set for a route is the value used.
      (See Glossary of Terms: Preference.) The preference value is an
      arbitrarily assigned value used to determine the order of routes to
      the same destination in a single routing database. The active route is
      chosen by the lowest preference value.  Some protocols implement a
      second preference (preference2), sometimes referred to as a tiebreaker.

    Selecting a route    [Toc]    [Back]
           +  The route with the best (numerically smallest) preference is

           +  If the two routes have the same preference, the route with the
              best (numerically smallest) preference2 (also known as a tiebreaker)
 is preferred.

           +  A route learned from a igp is preferred to a route learned
              from an egp. Least preferred is a route learned indirectly by
              an igp from an egp.

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           +  If AS path information is available, it is used to help
              determine the most preferred route.

              +  A route with an AS path is preferred over one without an AS

              +  If the AS paths and origins are identical, the route with
                 the lower metric is preferred.

              +  A route with an AS path origin of igp is preferred over a
                 route with an AS path origin of egp. Least preferred is an
                 AS path with an unknown origin.

              +  A route with a shorter AS path is preferred.

           +  If both routes are from the same protocol and AS, the one with
              the lowest metric is preferred.

           +  The route with the lowest numeric next-hop address is used.

    Assigning preferences    [Toc]    [Back]
      A default preference is assigned to each source from which GateD
      receives routes. Preference values range from 0 to 255 with the lowest
      number indicating the most preferred route.

      The following table summarizes the default preference values for
      routes learned in various ways. The table lists the statements (some
      of these are clauses within statements) that set preference, and shows
      the types of routes to which each statement applies. The default
      preference for each type of route is listed, and the table notes
      preference precedence between protocols. The narrower the scope of the
      statement, the higher precedence its preference value is given, but
      the smaller the set of routes it affects.

      Preference Of                        Defined by Statement   Default
      direct connected networks            interface                  0
      OSPF routes                          ospf                      10
      IS-IS level 1 routes                 isis level 1              15
      IS-IS level 2 routes                 isis level 2              18
      internally generated default         gendefault                20
      redirects                            redirect                  30
      routes learned via route socket      kernel                    40
      static routes from config            static                    60
      ANS SPF (SLSP) routes                slsp                      70
      HELLO routes                         hello                     90
      RIP routes                           rip                      100
      point-to-point interface                                      110
      routes to interfaces that are down   interfaces               120
      aggregate/generate routes            aggregate/generate       130
      OSPF AS external routes              ospf                     150

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      BGP routes                           bgp                      170
      EGP                                  egp                      200

    Sample Preference Specifications    [Toc]    [Back]
      interfaces {
          interface preference 10 ;
      } ;
      rip yes {
          preference 90 ;
      } ;
      import proto rip gateway preference 75 ;

      In these statements the preference applicable to routes learned via
      RIP from gateway is 75. The last preference applicable to
      routes learned via RIP from gateway is defined in the
      accept statement. The preference applicable to other RIP routes is
      found in the rip statement. The preference set on the interface
      statement applies only to the route to that interface.

 Trace Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
      Trace statements control tracing options. The GateD tracing options
      may be configured at many levels. Tracing options include the file
      specifications, control options, and global and protocol specific
      tracing options. Unless overridden, tracing options from the next
      higher level are inherited by lower levels. For example, BGP peer
      tracing options are inherited from BGP group tracing options, which
      are inherited from global BGP tracing options, which are inherited
      from global GateD tracing options. At each level tracing
      specifications override the inherited options.

    Global tracing options    [Toc]    [Back]
      There are two types of global options, those which only affect global
      operations and those which have potential significance to protocols.

    Global significance only    [Toc]    [Back]
      The trace flags that only have global significance are:

           parse     Trace the lexical analyzer and parser. Mostly used by
                     GateD developers for debugging.

           adv       Trace the allocation of and freeing of policy blocks.
                     Mostly used by the GateD developers for debugging.

           symbols   Used to trace symbols read from the kernel at startup.
                     The only useful way to specify this level of tracing is
                     via the -t option on the command line since the symbols
                     are read from the kernel before parsing the
                     configuration file.

           iflist    Used to trace the reading of the kernel interface list.
                     It is useful to specify this with the -t option on the

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

                     command line since the first interface scan is done
                     before reading the configuration file.

    Protocol significance    [Toc]    [Back]
      The options flags that have potential significance to protocols are:

           all       Turn on all of the following.

           general   A shorthand notation for specifying both normal and

           state     Trace state machine transitions in the protocols.

           normal    Trace normal protocols occurrences. Abnormal protocol
                     occurrences are always traced.

           policy    Trace application of protocol and user-specified policy
                     to routes being imported and exported.

           task      Trace system interface and processing associated with
                     this protocol or peer.

           timer     Trace timer usage by this protocol or peer.

           route     Trace routing table changes for routes installed by
                     this protocol or peer.

      Not all of the above options apply to all of the protocols. In some
      cases their use does not make sense (for instance, RIP does not have a
      state machine) and in some instances the requested tracing has not
      been implemented (such as RIP support of the policy option).

      It is not currently possible to specify packet tracing from the
      command line. This is because a global option for packet tracing would
      potentially create too much output.

      When protocols inherit their tracing options from the global tracing
      options, tracing levels that do not make sense (such as parse, adv and
      packet tracing options) are masked out.

      Global tracing statements have an immediate effect, especially parsing
      options that effect the parsing of the configuration file. Tracing
      values inherited by protocols specified in the configuration file are
      initially inherited from the global options in effect as they are
      parsed, unless they are overridden by more specific options. After the
      configuration file is read, tracing options that were not explicitly
      specified are inherited from the global options in effect at the end
      of the configuration file.

    Packet tracing    [Toc]    [Back]
      Tracing of packets is very flexible. For any given protocol there are

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

      one or more options for tracing packets. all protocols allow use of
      the packets keyword allows for tracing all packets sent and received
      by the protocol. most protocols have other options for limiting
      tracing to a useful subset of packet types.  These tracing options can
      be further controlled with the following modifiers:

           detail    detail must be specified before send or recv. Normally
                     packets are traced in a terse form of one or two lines.
                     When detail is specified, a more verbose format is used
                     to provide further detail on the contents of the

           recv      These options limit the tracing to packets sent or
                     received. Without these options both sent and received
                     packets will be traced.

      Detail, if specified, must be before send or recv. If a protocol
      allows for several different types of packet tracing, modifiers may be
      applied to each individual type.  But be aware that within one tracing
      specification the trace flags are summed up, so specifying detail
      packets will turn on full tracing for all packets.

    Traceoptions syntax    [Toc]    [Back]
      traceoptions ["trace_file" [replace] [size size[k|m] files files]]
              [control_options] trace_options [except trace_options] ;

      traceoptions none ;

                     Specifies the file to receive tracing information. If
                     this file name does not begin with a slash (/), the
                     directory where gated was started in prepended to the

           replace   Tracing should start by replacing an existing file. The
                     default is to append to an existing file.

           size size[k|m] files files
                     Limit the maximum size of the trace file to the
                     specified size (minimum 10k). When the trace file
                     reaches the specified size, it is renamed to file.0,
                     then file.1, file.2 up to the maximum number of files
                     (minimum specification is 2).

                     Specifies options that control the appearance of
                     tracing. Valid values are:

                          Specifies that a timestamp should not be prepended

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                          to all trace lines.

           except trace_options
                     Used to enable a broad class of tracing and then
                     disable more specific options.

           none      Specifies that all tracing should be turned off for
                     this protocol or peer.

 Directive Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
      Directive statements provide direction to the GateD configuration
      language parser about included files and the directories in which
      these files reside. Directive statements are immediately acted upon by
      the parser. Other statements terminate with a semi-colon (;), but
      directive statements terminate with a newline. The two directive
      statements are:

           %directory "directory"
                Defines the directory where the include files are stored.
                When it is used, GateD looks in the directory identified by
                pathname for any included files that do not have a fully
                qualified filename, such as files that do not begin with
                "/". This statement does not actually change the current the
                directory, it just specifies the prefix applied to included
                file names.

           %include "filename"
                Identifies an include file. The contents of the file is
                included in the gated.conf file at the point in the
                gated.conf file where the %include directive is encountered.
                If the filename is not fully qualified (does not begin with
                "/"), it is considered to be relative to the directory
                defined in the %directory directive. The %include directive
                statement causes the specified file to be parsed completely
                before resuming with this file.  Nesting up to ten levels is
                supported. The maximum nesting level may be increased by
                changing the definition of FI_MAX in parse.h.

      In a complex environment, segmenting a large configuration into
      smaller more easily understood segments might be helpful, but one of
      the great advantages of GateD is that it combines the configuration of
      several different routing protocols into a single file. Segmenting a
      small file unnecessarily complicates routing configurations.

 Options Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
      Options statements allow specification of some global options. If
      used, options must appear before any other type of configuration
      statement in the gated.conf file.

      The options statement syntax is:

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

               [ nosend ]
               [ noresolv ]
               [ gendefault [ preference preference ] [ gateway gateway] ]
               [ syslog [ upto ] log_level ]
               [ mark time ]

      The options list can contain one or more of the following options:

           gendefault [ preference preference ] [ gateway gateway]
                When gendefault is enabled, when a BGP or EGP neighbor is up
                it causes the creation of a default route with the special
                protocol default. This can be disabled per BGP/EGP group
                with the nogendefault option. By default, this route has a
                preference of 20. This route is normally not installed in
                the kernel forwarding table, it is only present so it can be
                announced to other protocols. If a gateway is specified, the
                default route will be installed in the kernel forwarding
                table with a next hop of the listed gateway.

                Note that the use of the more general option is preferred to
                the use of this gendefault option. The gendefault option may
                go away in future releases. The the section on Route
                Aggregation for more information on the generate statement.

                Do not send any packets. This option makes it possible to
                run GateD on a live network to test protocol interactions
                without actually participating in the routing protocols. The
                packet traces in the GateD log can be examined to verify
                that GateD is functioning properly. This is most useful for
                RIP and HELLO and possibly the SMUX SNMP interface. This
                option does not yet apply to BGP and is less than useful
                with EGP and OSPF.

                By default GateD will try to resolve symbolic names into IP
                addresses by using the gethostbyname() and getnetbyname()
                library calls. These calls usually use the Domain Name
                System (DNS) instead of the hosts local host and network
                tables. If there is insufficient routing information to send
                DNS queries, GateD will deadlock during startup. This option
                can be used to prevent these calls, symbolic names will
                result in configuration file errors.

           syslog [ upto ] log_level
                Controls the amount of data GateD logs via syslog on systems
                where setlogmask() is supported. The available logging
                levels and other terminology are as defined in the
                setlogmask(3) man page. The default is equivalent to syslog

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

                upto info.

           mark time
                Specifying this option causes gated to output a message to
                the trace log at the specified interval. This can be used as
                one method of determining if gated is still running.

 Interfaces Statement    [Toc]    [Back]
    Interface Syntax
      interfaces {
              [ strictinterfaces ]
              [ scaninterval time ]
              [ aliases-nh ( primary | lowestip | keepall ) ]
          interface interface_list
              [ preference preference ]
              [ down preference preference ]
              [ passive ]
              [ simplex ]
              [ reject ]
              [ blackhole ]
              [ alias  primary address ]
              [ aliases-nh ( primary | lowestip | keepall ) ]
          define address
              [ broadcast address ] | [ pointtopoint address ]
              [ netmask mask ]
              [ multicast ]
      } ;

      An interface is the connection between a router and one of its
      attached networks. A physical interface may be specified by interface
      name, by IP address, or by domain name, (unless the network is an
      unnumbered point-to-point network.) Multiple levels of reference in
      the configuration language allow identification of interfaces using
      wildcard, interface type name, or delete word address. Be careful with
      the use of interface names as future Unix operating systems may allow
      more than one address per interface. The interface_list is a list of
      one or more interface names including wildcard names (names without a
      number) and names which may specify more than one interface or
      address, or the token all for all interfaces.

                Allows configuration of some global options related to
                interfaces. These are:

                     Indicates that it is a fatal error to reference an
                     interface in the configuration file that is not present

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                     when GateD is started and not listed in a define
                     statement. Without this option a warning message will
                     be issued but GateD will continue.

                scaninterval time
                     Specifies how often GateD scans the kernel interface
                     list for changes. The default is every 15 seconds on
                     most systems, and 60 seconds on systems that pass
                     interface status changes through the routing socket
                     (BSD 4.4).  Note that GateD will also scan the
                     interface list on receipt of a SIGUSR2.

                aliases-nh ( primary | lowestip | keepall )
                     Specifies which address GateD will install as the next
                     hop for interface routes when multiple addresses are
                     assigned to an interface like the Service Guard
                     environment. If primary is used, the primary interface
                     address (default) will be installed. If lowestip is
                     used, the address with the lowest IP address will be
                     installed. If keepall is used, all interface routes are
                     kept in the  kernel up to a maximum of RT_N_MULTIPATH
                     routes. This is a compile-time constant.  This is a
                     global parameter that may be overridden for interfaces
                     using the interface option.

                     Note: The keepall option is mandatory when gated is
                     being used in a Service Guard environment.

           interface interface_list
                Sets interface options on the specified interfaces. An
                interface list is all or a list of interface names (see
                warning about interface names), domain names, or numeric
                addresses. Options available on this statement are:

                preference preference
                     Sets the preference for routes to this interface when
                     it is up and appears to be functioning properly. The
                     default preference is 0.

                down preference preference
                     Sets the preference for routes to this interface when
                     GateD does not believe it to be functioning properly,
                     but the kernel does not indicate it is down. The
                     default value is 120.

                     Prevents GateD from changing the preference of the
                     route to this interface if it is not believed to be
                     functioning properly due to lack of received routing
                     information.  GateD will only perform this check if the
                     interface is actively participating in a routing

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                     Defines an interface as unable to hear its own
                     broadcast packets. Some systems define an interface as
                     simplex with the IFF_SIMPLEX flag, on others it needs
                     to be specified in the configuration file. On simplex
                     interfaces, packets from myself are assumed to have
                     been looped back in software and are not used as an
                     indication that the interface is functioning properly.

                     Specifies that the address of the interface which
                     matches these criteria will be used as the local
                     address when installing reject routes in the kernel.
                     Should only be used with systems based on BSD 4.3 Tahoe
                     or earlier which have installed a reject/blackhole
                     pseudo interface.

                     Specifies that the address of the interface which
                     matches these criteria will be used as the local
                     address when installing reject routes in the kernel.
                     Should only be used with systems based on BSD 4.3 Tahoe
                     or earlier which have installed a reject/blackhole
                     pseudo interface.

                alias  primary address
                     Specifies a primary address for this interface. This
                     option overrides the address that GateD determines to
                     be primary.

                aliases-nh ( primary | lowestip | keepall )
                     Specifies which address GateD will install as the next
                     hop for the route associated with this interface when
                     multiple addresses are assigned to an interface like
                     the Service Guard environment. If primary is used, the
                     primary interface address (default) will be installed.
                     If lowestip is used, the address with the lowest IP
                     address will be installed. If keepall is used, all
                     interface routes are kept in the  kernel up to a
                     maximum of RT_N_MULTIPATH routes. This is a compiletime
 constant. This parameter overrides the global
                     option for this interface.

                     Note: The keepall option is mandatory when gated is
                     being used in a Service Guard environment.

           define address
                Defines interfaces that might not be present when GateD is
                started so they may be referenced in the configuration file

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                when strictinterfaces is defined. Possible define keywords

                broadcast address
                     Defines the interface as broadcast capable (Ethernet or
                     Token Ring) and specifies the broadcast address.

                pointtopoint address
                     Defines the interface as a point-to-point interface
                     (SLIP or PPP) and specifies the address on the local
                     side.  The first address on the define statement
                     references the address of the host on the remote end of
                     the interface, the address specified after this
                     pointtopoint keyword defines the address on the local
                     side of the interface.

                An interface not defined as broadcast or point-to-point is
                assumed to be non-broadcast multiaccess (NBMA), such as an
                X.25 network.

                netmask mask
                     Specifies the subnetmask to be used on this interface.
                     This is ignored on pointtopoint interfaces.

                     Specifies that the interface is multicast capable.

    Interface lists    [Toc]    [Back]
      An interface list is a list of references to interfaces or groups of
      interfaces. There are four methods available for referring to
      interfaces. They are listed here from most general to most specific.

           all  This refers to all available interfaces.

           Interface name wildcard
                This refers to all the interfaces of the same type. Unix
                interfaces consist of the name of the device driver, like
                ie, and a unit number, like 0, 5 or 22. Reference to the
                name contain only alphabetic characters and match any
                interfaces that have the same alphabetic part.

                For example, ie on a Sun would refer to all Interlan
                Ethernet interfaces, le would refer to all Lance Ethernet
                interfaces. But ie would not match iel0.

           Interface name
                This refers to a specific interface, usually one physical
                interface. These are specified as an alphabetic part
                followed by a numeric part. This will match one specific
                interface. But be aware that on many systems, there can be
                more than one protocol (IP) address on a given physical

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                interface.  For example, ef1 will match an interface named
                ef1, but not an interface named ef10.

           Interface address
                This matches one specific interface. The reference can be by
                protocol address (, or by symbolic hostname
                (nic.ddn.mil). Note that a symbolic hostname reference is
                only valid when it resolves to only one address. Use of
                symbolic hostnames is not recommended.

      If many interface lists are present in the configuration file with
      more than one parameter, these parameters are collected at run-time to
      create the specific parameter list for a given interface. If the same
      parameter is specified on more than one list, the parameters with the
      most specific interface is used.

      For example, consider a system with three interfaces, le0, le1 and

           rip yes {
               interface all noripin noripout ;
               interface le ripin ;
               interface le1 ripout ;
           } ;
      RIP packets would only be accepted from interfaces le0 and le1, but
      not from du0. RIP packets would only be sent on interface le1.

    IP Interface addresses and routes    [Toc]    [Back]
      The BSD 4.3 and later networking implementations allow four types of
      interfaces. Some implementations allow multiple protocol addresses per
      physical interface, these are mostly based on BSD 4.3 Reno or later.

                This interface must have the address of Packets
                sent to this interface are sent back to the originator. This
                interface is also used as a catch all interface for
                implementing other features, such as reject and blackhole
                routes. Although a netmask is reported on this interface, it
                is ignored. It is useful to assign an additional address to
                this interface that is the same as the OSPF or BGP router
                id; this allows routing to a system based on the router id
                which will work if some interfaces are down.

                This is a multi-access interface capable of a physical level
                broadcast, such as Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI. This
                interface has an associated subnet mask and broadcast
                address. The interface route to an broadcast network will be
                a route to the complete subnet.

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

                This is a tunnel to another host, usually on some sort of
                serial link. This interface has a local address, and a
                remote address. Although it may be possible to specify
                multiple addresses for a point-to-point interface, there
                does not seem to be a useful reason for doing so.

                The remote address must be unique among all the interface
                addresses on a given router. The local address may be shared
                among many point-to-point and up to one non-point-to-point
                interface. This is technically a form of the router id
                method for addressless links. This technique conserves
                subnets as none are required when using this technique.

                If a subnet mask is specified on a point-to-point interface,
                it is only used by RIP version 1 and HELLO to determine
                which subnets may be propagated to the router on the other
                side of this interface.

           non-broadcast multi-access or nbma
                This type of interface is multi-access, but not capable of
                broadcast. And example would be frame relay and X.25. This
                type of interface has a local address and a subnet mask.

      GateD insures that there is a route available to each IP interface
      that is configured and up. Normally this this done by the ifconfig
      command that configures the interface; GateD does it to insure

      For point-to-point interfaces, gated installs some special routes. If
      the local address on one or more point-to-point interfaces is not
      shared with a non-point-to-point interface, gated installs a route to
      the local address pointing at the loopback interface with a preference
      of 110. This insures that packets originating on this host destined
      for this local address are handled locally. OSPF prefers to route
      packets for the local interface across the point-to-point link where
      they will be returned by the router on the remote end. This is used to
      verify operation of the link. Since OSPF installs routes with a
      preference of 10, these routes will override the route installed with
      a preference of 110.

      If the local address of one or more point-to-point interfaces is
      shared with a non-point-to-point interface, gated installs a route to
      the local with a preference of 0 that will not be installed in the
      forwarding table. This is to prevent protocols like OSPF from routing
      packets to this address across a serial interface when this system
      could be functioning as a host.

      When the status of an interface changes, GateD notifies all the
      protocols, which take the appropriate action. GateD assumes that
      interfaces which are not marked UP do not exist. While this might not

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

      be the most correct action, it is the way things currently work.

      GateD ignores any interfaces that have invalid data for the local,
      remote or broadcast addresses or the subnet mask. Invalid data
      includes zeros in any field.  GateD will also ignore any point-to-
      point interface that has the same local and remote addresses, it
      assumes it is in some sort of loopback test mode.

 Definition Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
      Definition statements are general configuration statements that relate
      to all of GateD or at least to more than one protocol. The three
      definition statements are autonomoussystem, routerid and martians. if
      used, autonomoussystem, routerid and martians must appear before any
      other type of configuration statement in gated.conf file.

    Autonomous System configuration    [Toc]    [Back]
      autonomoussystem autonomous_system [ loops number ] ;

      Sets the autonomous system number of this router to be autonomous
      system. This option is required if BGP or EGP are in use. The AS
      number is assigned by the Network Information Center (NIC).

      Loops is only for protocols supporting AS paths, such as BGP. It
      controls the number of times this autonomous system may appear in an
      AS path and defaults to 1 (one).

    Router ID configuration    [Toc]    [Back]
      routerid host ;

      Sets the router identifier for use by the BGP and OSPF protocols.  The
      default is the address of the first interface encountered by GateD.
      The address of a non-point-to-point interface is preferred over the
      local address of a point-to-point interface and an address on a
      loopback interface that is not the loopback address ( is
      most preferred.

    Martian configuration    [Toc]    [Back]
      martians {
          host host [ allow ] ;
              network [ allow ] ;
              network mask mask [ allow ] ;
              network masklen number [ allow ] ;
          default [ allow ] ;
      } ;

      Defines a list of martian addresses about which all routing
      information is ignored. Sometimes a misconfigured system sends out
      obviously invalid destination addresses. These invalid addresses,
      called martians, are rejected by the routing software. This command
      allows additions to the list of martian addresses. See the section on
      Route Filtering for more information on specifying ranges. Also, the

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 gated.conf(4)                                                 gated.conf(4)

      allow parameter may be specified to explicitly allow a subset of a
      range that was disallowed.

    Sample Definition Statements    [Toc]    [Back]
      options gendefault ;
      autonomoussystem 249 ;

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