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 tabs(1)                                                             tabs(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      tabs - set tabs on a terminal

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      tabs [tabspec] [+m n] [-T type]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      tabs sets the tab stops on the user's terminal according to the tab
      specification tabspec, after clearing any previous settings.  The
      user's terminal must have remotely-settable hardware tabs.

      If you are using a non-HP terminal, you should keep in mind that
      behavior will vary for some tab settings.

      Four types of tab specification are accepted for tabspec: ``canned'',
      repetitive, arbitrary, and file.  If no tabspec is given, the default
      value is -8; i.e., UNIX ``standard'' tabs.  The lowest column number
      is 1.  Note that for tabs, column 1 always refers to the left-most
      column on a terminal, even one whose column markers begin at 0.

      -code   Gives the name of one of a set of ``canned'' tabs.  Recognized
              codes and their meanings are as follows:

                    -a    1,10,16,36,72
                          Assembler, IBM S/370, first format

                    -a2   1,10,16,40,72
                          Assembler, IBM S/370, second format

                    -c    1,8,12,16,20,55
                          COBOL, normal format

                    -c2   1,6,10,14,49
                          COBOL compact format (columns 1-6 omitted).  Using
                          this code, the first typed character corresponds
                          to card column 7, one space gets you to column 8,
                          and a tab reaches column 12.  Files using this tab
                          setup should have tabs specify a format
                          specification file as defined by --file below.
                          The file should have the following format

                               <:t-c2 m6 s66 d:>

                    -c3   1,6,10,14,18,22,26,30,34,38,42,46,50,54,58,62,67
                          COBOL compact format (columns 1-6 omitted), with
                          more tabs than -c2. This is the recommended format
                          for COBOL.  The appropriate format specification

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 1 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 tabs(1)                                                             tabs(1)

                               <:t-c3 m6 s66 d:>

                    -f    1,7,11,15,19,23

                    -p    1,5,9,13,17,21,25,29,33,37,41,45,49,53,57,61

                    -s    1,10,55

                    -u    1,12,20,44
                          UNIVAC 1100 Assembler

      In addition to these ``canned'' formats, three other types exist:

      -n          A repetitive specification requests tabs at columns 1+n,
                  1+2xn, etc.  Of particular importance is the value -8:
                  this represents the UNIX ``standard'' tab setting, and is
                  the most likely tab setting to be found at a terminal.
                  Another special case is the value -0, implying no tabs at

      n1,n2,...   The arbitrary format permits the user to type any chosen
                  set of numbers, separated by commas, in ascending order.
                  Up to 40 numbers are allowed.  If any number (except the
                  first one) is preceded by a plus sign, it is taken as an
                  increment to be added to the previous value.  Thus, the
                  tab lists 1,10,20,30 and 1,10,+10,+10 are considered

      --file      If the name of a file is given, tabs reads the first line
                  of the file, searching for a format specification.  If it
                  finds one there, it sets the tab stops according to it,
                  otherwise it sets them as -8.  This type of specification
                  can be used to ensure that a tabbed file is printed with
                  correct tab settings, and is suitable for use with the pr
                  command (see pr(1)):

                       tabs -- file; pr file

      Any of the following can be used also; if a given option occurs more
      than once, the last value given takes effect:

      -Ttype      tabs usually needs to know the type of terminal in order
                  to set tabs and always needs to know the type to set
                  margins.  type is a name listed in term(5).  If no -T
                  option is supplied, tabs searches for the $TERM value in
                  the environment (see environ(5)).  If TERM is not defined
                  in the environment, tabs tries a sequence that will work
                  for many terminals.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 2 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 tabs(1)                                                             tabs(1)

      +mn         The margin argument can be used for some terminals.  It
                  causes all tabs to be moved over n columns by making
                  column n+1 the left margin.  If +m is given without a
                  value of n, the value assumed is 10.  The normal (leftmost)
 margin on most terminals is obtained by +m0.  The
                  margin for most terminals is reset only when the +m option
                  is given explicitly.

      Tab and margin setting is performed via the standard output.

    Environment Variables
      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text within file as singleand/or
 multi-byte characters.

      LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_CTYPE or LC_MESSAGES is not specified in the environment or is
      set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default for
      each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not specified or is
      set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used
      instead of LANG.

      If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, tabs
      behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C".  See

    International Code Set Support    [Toc]    [Back]
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]
      illegal tabs
           Arbitrary tabs are ordered incorrectly.

      illegal increment
           A zero or missing increment found in an arbitrary specification.

      unknown tab code
           A ``canned'' code cannot be found.

      can't open
           --file option was used and file cannot be opened.

      file indirection
           --file option was used and the specification in that file points
           to yet another file.  Indirection of this form is not permitted.

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      There is no consistency among different terminals regarding ways of
      clearing tabs and setting the left margin.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 3 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 tabs(1)                                                             tabs(1)

      It is generally impossible to usefully change the left margin without
      also setting tabs.

      tabs clears only 20 tabs (on terminals requiring a long sequence), but
      is willing to set 64.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      nroff(1), pr(1), tset(1), environ(5), term(5).

      tabs: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 4 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003
[ Back ]
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