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expand(1)							     expand(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     expand - convert tabs to spaces

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     expand [ -t tablist ] [ file ]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The expand	utility	writes files or	the standard input to the standard
     output with tab characters	replaced with one or more space	characters
     needed to pad to the next tab stop. Any backspace characters will be
     copied to the output and cause the	column position	count for tab stop
     calculations to be	decremented; the column	position count will not	be
     decremented below zero.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     expand may	be used	with the following options:

     -t	tablist
	  Specify the tab stops. The argument tablist must consist of a	single
	  positive decimal integer or multiple positive	decimal	integers,
	  separated by blank characters	or commas, in ascending	order. If a
	  single number	is given, tabs will be set tablist column positions
	  apart	instead	of the default 8.  If multiple numbers are given, the
	  tabs will be set at those specific column positions.

	  Each tab-stop	position N must	be an integer value greater than zero,
	  and the list must be in strictly ascending order. This is taken to
	  mean that, from the start of a line of output, tabbing to position N
	  causes the next character be in the (N+1)th column position on that

	  In the event of expand having	to process a tab character at a
	  position beyond the last of those specified in a multiple tab-stop
	  list,	the tab	character is replaced by a single space	character in
	  the output.

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following operand is supported:

     -t	file   The pathname of a text file to be used as input.

STDIN    [Toc]    [Back]


INPUT FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     Input files must be text files.


     The following environment variables affect	the execution of expand:

     LANG      Provide a default value for the internationalisation variables
     that are unset or null. If	LANG is	unset or null, the corresponding value

									Page 1

expand(1)							     expand(1)

     from the implementation-specific default locale will be used. If any of
     the internationalisation variables	contains an invalid setting, the
     utility will behave as if none of the variables had been defined.

     LC_ALL	 If set	to a non-empty string value, override the values of
     all the other internationalisation	variables.

     LC_CTYPE	   Determine the locale	for the	interpretation of sequences of
     bytes of text data	as characters (for example, single- as opposed to
     multi-byte	characters in arguments	and input files), the processing of
     tab and space characters, and for the determination of the	width in
     column positions each character would occupy on a constant-width font
     output device.

     LC_MESSAGES      Determine	the locale that	should be used to affect the
     format and	contents of diagnostic messages	written	to standard error.



STDOUT    [Toc]    [Back]

     The standard output is equivalent to the input files with tab characters
     converted into the	appropriate number of space characters.

STDERR    [Toc]    [Back]

     Used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES    [Toc]    [Back]




EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following exit	values are returned:

     0 Successful completion.

     >0	An error occurred.

     The expand	utility	will terminate with an error message and non-zero exit
     status upon encountering difficulties accessing one of the	file operands.

									Page 2

expand(1)							     expand(1)

APPLICATION USAGE    [Toc]    [Back]


EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]


FUTURE DIRECTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]


SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     tabs, unexpand

CHANGE HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     First released in Issue 4.

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 3333
[ Back ]
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