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 nroff(1)                                                           nroff(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      nroff - format text

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      nroff [options] file ...

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      nroff is a text formatting program that interprets source text
      contained in file and prepares it for printing on typewriter-like
      devices and line printers.  If file name is - or not specified,
      standard input is used as source text.

      If the file contains plain text with no formatter requests, nroff uses
      default line lengths and page dimensions to produce readable output,
      outputting a blank line for each blank line encountered in the input,
      and filling and adjusting text to both margins.  nroff ignores any
      lines in the source text that begin with a period (.) but are not
      valid nroff formatter requests.

      nroff formatting capabilities are described in the tutorial cited

    Source File Preparation    [Toc]    [Back]
      Document source file preparation is usually easier when text is coded
      using macro packages such as mm(1) which provide a high-level
      interface for headings, page footers, lists, and other features,
      rather than coding the file with inherently low-level nroff requests.

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      nroff recognizes the following command-line options, which can appear
      in any order but must appear before the file argument:

           -olist         Print only pages whose page numbers appear in the
                          list of numbers and ranges, separated by commas.
                          A range n-m means pages n through m; an initial -n
                          means from the beginning to page n; and a final n-
                          means from n to the end.  (See WARNINGS below.)

           -nn            Number first generated page n.

           -sn            Stop every n pages.  nroff halts after every n
                          pages (default n=1) to allow paper loading or
                          changing, and resumes upon receipt of a line-feed
                          or new-line (new-lines do not work in pipelines,
                          such as with mm).  When nroff halts between pages,
                          an ASCII BEL is sent to the terminal.

           -raN           Set register a (which must have a one-character
                          name) to N.

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 nroff(1)                                                           nroff(1)

           -i             Read standard input after files are exhausted.

           -q             Invoke the simultaneous input-output mode of the
                          .rd request.

           -z             Print only messages generated by .tm (terminal
                          message) requests.

           -mname         Precede the input files with the non-compiled (
                          ASCII text) macro file


                          where LANG is the value of the LANG environment
                          variable.  If LANG is not set or


                          does not exist, the following file is used


           -Tname         Prepare output for specified terminal.  Known
                          names are as follows:

                               37      for the (default) TELETYPE Model 37
                               tn300   for the GE TermiNet 300 (or any
                                       terminal without half-line
                               300s    for the DASI 300s
                               300     for the DASI 300
                               450     for the DASI 450
                               lp      for a (generic) ASCII line printer
                               382     for the DTC-382
                               4000A   for the Trendata 4000A
                               832     for the Anderson Jacobson 832
                               X       for a (generic) EBCDIC printer
                               2631    for the Hewlett-Packard 2631 line
                               klp     for a (generic) 16-bit character
                                       printer having ratio of 2 to 3 in 8-
                                       bit and 16-bit character width
                               lj      for Hewlett-Packard PCL3 and newer
                                       laser printers.

           -e             Produce equally-spaced words in adjusted lines,
                          using the full resolution of the particular

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 nroff(1)                                                           nroff(1)

           -h             Use output tabs during horizontal spacing to speed
                          output and reduce output character count.  Tab
                          settings are assumed to be every eight nominal
                          character widths.

           -un            Set the emboldening factor (number of character
                          overstrikes) for the third font position (bold) to
                          n, or to zero if n is missing.

           -P             If this option is specified on the command line,
                          it allows the use of the special feature provided
                          by some Asian printers which prints two column
                          wide characters in 3/2 column wide boxes.

    Environment Variables
      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
      multi-byte characters.

      LANG is used to determine the search path for the -m option.  LANG
      also determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_CTYPE is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty
      string, the value of LANG is used as a default for each unspecified or
      empty variable.  If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty
      string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used instead of LANG.  If
      any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, nroff
      behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C".  See

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      The following command prints the first five pages of the document
      whose nroff source file is filename:

           nroff -o-5 filename

      Note that there should not be a space between the o and the - or the -
      and the 5.

      To print only pages 1, 3, and 4 type:

           nroff -o1,3,4 filename

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      When nroff is used with the -olist option inside a pipeline, it may
      cause a harmless "broken pipe" diagnostic if the last page of the
      document is not specified in list.

 FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
      /usr/share/lib/macros/*                 Standard macro files

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 nroff(1)                                                           nroff(1)

      /usr/share/lib/term/*                   Terminal driving tables for
      /usr/share/lib/suftab                   Suffix hyphenation tables
      /usr/share/lib/tmac/tmac.*              Standard macro files and

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      col(1), mm(1), neqn(1), soelim(1), ul(1), man(5).

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