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 man(1)                                                               man(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      man - find manual information by keywords; print out a manual entry

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      man [-M path] -k keyword...

      man [-M path] -f file...

      man [-] [-M path] [-T macro-package] [section[subsection]]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      man accesses information from the HP-UX manual pages.  It can be used

           +  List all manual entries whose one-line description contains
              any of a specified set of keywords.

           +  Display or print one-line descriptions of entries specified by

           +  Search on-line manual directories by entry name and display or
              print the specified entry or entries.

           +  Search a specified on-line manual section (directory) and
              display or print the specified entry or entries in that

    Searching for Entry Names by Keyword (first form)    [Toc]    [Back]
      The first form above searches the one-line descriptions of individual
      entries for specified keywords.  Arguments are as follows:

           -k keyword     -k followed by one or more keywords causes man to
                          print the one-line description of each manual
                          entry whose one-line description contains text
                          matching one or more of the specified keywords
                          (similar to the behavior of grep(1)).  Keywords
                          are separated by blanks (space or tab).

                          Before this option can be used, file
                          /usr/share/lib/whatis must exist.
                          /usr/share/lib/whatis can be created by running

    Obtaining One-Line Description of an Entry (second form)    [Toc]    [Back]
      The second form above finds and displays or prints the one-line
      descriptions of specified individual entries.  Arguments are as

           -f file        -f followed by one or more file names causes man
                          to print the one-line description of each manual

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 man(1)                                                               man(1)

                          entry found whose name matches file.  When
                          specifying two or more files, file arguments are
                          separated by blanks (space or tab).  If entry
                          names matching file exist in two or more sections,
                          the one-line description of each matched file name
                          is output.

                          Before this option can be used, file
                          /usr/share/lib/whatis must exist.
                          /usr/share/lib/whatis can be created by running

    Viewing Individual Manual Entries (third form)    [Toc]    [Back]
      The third form shown above is used for viewing one or more individual
      manual entries.  man in this form recognizes the following arguments:

           -              (optional)  When the - argument is present, man
                          sends the formatted manual entry directly to
                          standard output without processing it through the
                          output filter specified by the PAGER environment

           -M path        Change the search path for manual pages.  path is
                          a colon-separated list of directories that contain
                          manual page directory subtrees.  When used with
                          the -k or -f options, the -M option must appear

           -T  macro-package
                          man uses macro-package rather than the standard
                          -man macros defined in /usr/share/lib/tmac/tmac.an
                          for formatting manual pages.

                          When specifying the -T option to man , the full
                          path must be given.  For example:

                          man -T /usr/share/lib/tmac/tmac.s ls

                          (optional) Search in the specified section for the
                          given entry_name.  section specifies a single
                          section number or one of the words local, new,
                          old, or public to search for one or more of the
                          entries indicated.  section corresponds to the
                          section number where the entry appears in the HP-
                          UX Reference.  It can be followed by an optional
                          uppercase/lowercase subsection identifier such as
                          3C which would indicate a library routine in
                          Section 3.  3, 3c, and 3C are interpreted as
                          equivalent, since all Section 3 manual entries are
                          stored in the same or in related directories (such

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 man(1)                                                               man(1)

                          as /usr/share/man/man3.Z and /usr/share/man/man3.
                          However, if an entry is in Section 1M, section
                          must be specified as 1m or 1M.

           entry_name     Search for a specific entry name where entry_name
                          is the name of the manual entry without its
                          section-number suffix.  Except for names exceeding
                          11 characters, entry_name is identical to the name
                          of the manual entry as listed at the top of each
                          page, or is the same as one of the keywords in the
                          left-hand part of the one-line description in the
                          corresponding manual entry.

                          If entry_name is longer than 11 characters, man
                          first searches for the full-length entry_name.  If
                          not found, entry_name is truncated to 11
                          characters to ensure that there is room for the
                          section suffix in 14-character source file names.
                          Files in the /usr/share/man/* directories are
                          normally installed with the filename truncated to
                          11 characters where necessary so that the name
                          plus a three-character section suffix does not
                          exceed the maximum filename length on short
                          filename systems.

                          If section is not specified (see previous argument
                          description), man searches all sections of the
                          manual in order: man1, man2, man1M, man3, man4,
                          man5, man6, man7, man8, man9, manlocal, mannew,
                          manold, then manpublic; and printing the first
                          matching entry it encounters.

                          If there is more than one manual entry among the
                          sections, the first manual entry is displayed.
                          For example, man intro will display only intro(1).
                          man 4 intro will display intro(4).

      If the standard output is a teletype, and if the - flag is not given,
      man pipes its output through more (see more(1)), with the -s option,
      to eliminate multiple blank lines and stop after each screenful.  This
      default behavior can be changed by setting the PAGER variable in the
      user's environment.  The value of PAGER must be a string that names an
      output filter (such as pg(1)), along with the desired options.

    File Search Conventions    [Toc]    [Back]
      man searches in several directories, as appropriate, for the specified
      manual entry.  The search continues until either the entry is found or
      all candidate directories are searched.  The first three directories
      searched, in order, are: /usr/share/man, /usr/contrib/man, and

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 man(1)                                                               man(1)

      The MANPATH environment variable can be used to specify directories to
      be searched, and, if set, overrides the default paths given above.
      Upon logging in, /etc/profile ( or /etc/csh.login ) sets the MANPATH
      environment variable to default settings. If the file /etc/MANPATH
      exists, the default settings are taken from this file. The MANPATH
      variable follows the same form as the PATH variable (see environ(5)).

      Within each of these directories, man searches in the cat*.Z
      subdirectories, the man*.Z subdirectories, the cat* subdirectories,
      and the man* subdirectories.  man*.Z and man* directories contain
      nroff(1)-compatible source text for the entries.  cat*.Z and cat*
      directories contain the formatted versions of the entries.  man*.Z and
      cat.Z directories contain entries in compressed form.  Files in these
      directories are uncompressed by uncompress (see compress(1)) before
      being processed for printing or display.

      If the LANG environment variable is set to any valid language name
      defined by lang(5), and the MANPATH variable is not set, or is set to
      the default directories, man searches in three additional directories
      for the manual entry before searching in /usr/share/man.  First, man
      searches in /usr/share/man/$LANG, then in /usr/contrib/man/$LANG, then
      in /usr/local/man/$LANG.  Thus, native-language manual entries are
      displayed if they are present and installed properly in the system.

      If the MANPATH environment variable is set to anything other than the
      default, the above directories with $LANG as part of the path are not
      automatically searched.  All directories must be explicitly given in
      MANPATH. The %L, %l, %t, and %c specifiers can be used as path
      components to cause locale-specific directories to be searched.  See
      environ(5) for a complete description of MANPATH.

      man uses the most recent version that it finds in the subdirectories
      searched.  If the most recent version is in:

           man*.Z         The entry is uncompressed, formatted, and
                          displayed.  If the cat*.Z directory exists, the
                          formatted entry is compressed and installed in
                          cat*.Z.  If the cat* directory exists, the
                          formatted entry is installed in cat*.

           cat*.Z         The entry is uncompressed and displayed.

           man*           The entry is formatted, and displayed.  If the
                          cat*.Z directory exists, it is compressed, and
                          installed in cat*.Z.  If the cat* directory
                          exists, the formatted entry is installed in cat*.

           cat*           The entry is displayed.

      If only the cat* or cat*.Z subdirectory is present and/or nroff(1) is
      not installed, only entries that are already formatted can be

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 man(1)                                                               man(1)


      If you choose to have the formatted entries on your system, run
      catman(1M) with the default, which creates the cat*.Z directories
      (after removing any cat* directories that exist on your system) and
      also creates the file /usr/share/lib/whatis used by the man -k option.
      If you choose to have the cat* directories, it would be space-saving
      to remove any cat*.Z directories that may exist on your system.
      Beware that man updates both directories (cat* and cat*.Z) if they
      both exist.

    Special Manual Entries    [Toc]    [Back]
      Some situations may require creation of manual entries for local use
      or distribution by third-party software suppliers.  The manual
      formatting macros have been structured to redefine page footers so
      that manual entries not originating from Hewlett-Packard Company do
      not show the HP name in the footer.  For more information about this
      change and a description of the manual formatting macros used with
      nroff or troff, see man(5).

    Environment Variables
      LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed.  LANG is
      also used to determine the search path (as described above).

      If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of
      "C" (see lang(5)) is used instead of LANG for messages, but not for
      the search path.

      If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, man
      behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C".  See

      MANPATH, if set, gives a list of directories to be searched for the
      given entry, replacing the default paths.

      PAGER, if set, defines an output filter to be used instead of more(1)
      to paginate output.

    International Code Set Support    [Toc]    [Back]
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      List the manual entries that contain the word grep in their respective
      one-line description (NAME) lines:

           man -k grep

      The output is:

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 man(1)                                                               man(1)

           grep, egrep, fgrep (1) - search a file for a pattern
           zgrep(1)               - search possibly compressed files for a
                                    regular expression

      Print the one-line description of the grep(1) manual entry:

           man -f grep

      Print the entire grep(1) manual entry:

           man grep

      Set a search path that includes a path directly below the current
      directory.  The manual entry, mypage is assumed to exist in the
      directory ./man1 (or ./man1.Z, cat1, or cat1.Z).

           export MANPATH
           man mypage

      Display the manual entry for id(1), with the output piped through pg

           PAGER="pg -c"
           export PAGER
           man id

      List all printed manuals available for the current system (see

           man manuals

      Display intro(4) and intro(3):

           man 4 intro

           man 3 intro

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Manual entries are structured such that they can be printed on a
      phototypesetter, conventional line printer, and screen display
      devices.  However, due to line printer and display device limitations,
      some information may be lost in certain situations.

 FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
      /usr/share/lib/whatis                           keyword database
      /usr/share/man/cat*[.Z]/*                       formatted manual
                                                      entries [compressed]
      /usr/share/man/man*[.Z]/*                       raw (nroff(1) source)
                                                      manual entries

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 man(1)                                                               man(1)

      /usr/share/man/$LANG/cat*[.Z]/*                 formatted nativelanguage
                                                      entries [compressed]
      /usr/share/man/$LANG/man*[.Z]/*                 raw (nroff(1) source)
                                                      native-language manual
                                                      entries [compressed]

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      col(1), compress(1), grep(1), more(1), catman(1M), fixman(1M),
      environ(5), intro(1), intro(1M), intro(2), intro(3), intro(4),
      intro(5), intro(7), intro(9), introduction(9), man(5), manuals(5).

      man: XPG4

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[ Back ]
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