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MAN(1)									MAN(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     man - print entries from the on-line reference manuals; find manual
     entries by	keyword

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     man [-cdwWtpr] [-M	path] [-T macropackage]	[section] title	...
     man [-M path] -k keyword ...
     man [-M path] -f filename ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     man locates and prints the	titled entries from the	on-line	reference
     manuals.  man also	prints summaries of manual entries selected by keyword
     or	by associated filename.

     If	a section is given, only that particular section is searched for the
     specified title.  The current list	of valid sections are any single digit
     [0-9], the	letter 'D', plus the sections local, public, new, and old,
     corresponding to the sections l, p, n, and	o, respectively.  When a
     section name of this form is given, the first character is	used to	form
     the directory, thus "local", will cause directories ending	in "manl" to
     be	searched.  To find a man page with the name of one of these sections,
     it	is necessary to	first give a dummy name, such as "man junk local",
     which is unfortunate.

     If	no section is given, all sections of the on-line reference manuals are
     searched and all occurrences of title are printed.	 The default sections
     are searched in this order:  1nl6823457poD

     Manual entries are	retrieved in the following order:  for each root
     directory in the search path, language specific directories are searched
     first (see	discussion of the LANG environment variable below), followed
     by	generic	directories. Within each of those searches, local additions
     are searched first, followed by the standard manual directories.  In each
     leaf directory, there may be actual pages or subdirectories.  If the
     subdirectory name has the format cat[1-8lnopD] then the pages in that
     subdirectory are treated as pre-formatted "cat" manual entries.  If the
     subdirectory name has the format man[1-8lnopD] then the pages in that
     subdirectory are treated as unformatted nroff(1) source manual entries.
     Unformatted manual	entries	will be	processed by neqn(1), tbl(1),
     nroff(1), and col(1).  (See the CAVEATS section concerning	formatting
     unformatted manual	pages.)	 These must be installed with a	standard
     suffix, such as .1m, in order for the man command to find them (i.e.,
     name, period, suffix).  The "cat" manual entries are compressed to	save
     disk space	using pack(1), compress(1), or gzip(1);	all pre-formatted man
     pages must	be compressed with one of the above in order for the man
     command to	find them.  man	will automatically uncompress compressed "cat"
     manual entries using pcat(1), zcat(1), or gzcat(1)	respectively.

     After the local additions are searched, the standard pre-formatted	manual
     entries in	/usr/share/catman/[agpu]_man are searched.

									Page 1

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

     After searching /usr/share/catman,	man will search	/usr/share/man ,
     /usr/catman , then	/usr/man , for manual pages.  The user may override
     these default root	directories for	manual entries with the	environment
     variable MANPATH or with the command-line options -M and -d.  (See
     discussion	below.)

     IRIX is derived from four main sources: AT&T, Berkeley, MIPS Computer
     Systems, and Sun Microsystems.  Because development at these sources is
     more or less independent, in several cases	programs have been given the
     same name but have	vastly different functionality.	 The manual entries
     for such programs have been distinguished by giving them suffixes:	 _att,
     _bsd, _mips, or _sun.  You	do not need to give the	suffixes.  If man is
     given an un-suffixed title	title for which	suffixed entries exist,	it
     will display all of them.

     Searches for titles, keywords, and	filenames are case-insensitive.	 For
     example, the manual entry RGBcolor(3G) can	be gotten by the command-line:

	  man rgbcolor

     Also, titles, keywords, and filenames may contain special characters
     allowing manual pages to looked up	by only	specifying partial names in
     much the same way that s
 match file	names.	For example,
     the summaries of manual entries pertaining	to RGB writemasks may be
     searched by the command-line:

	  man -k 'rgb*mask'

     The complete set of special characters is as follows:

     *	    Match any sequence of characters, including	none-at-all.

     ?	    Match any single character.

     [...]  Matches any	of the set of characters between the brackets.	A pair
	    of characters separated by - matches any one of the	characters
	    which comes	between	the two	characters, including the two
	    characters,	based on ASCII character encoding (see ascii(5)).

     man also supports a more sophisticated means for looking up manual	pages
     using regular expressions.	 To use	regular	expressions to lookup manual
     pages, you	must use the -r	option discussed below.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     -M	path	  Use path as the search path for manual entries.  path	is a
		  colon-separated list of directories where manual
		  subdirectories may be	found.	The default path is
		  /usr/share/catman:/usr/share/man:/usr/catman:/usr/man.  -M
		  is useful for	searching locations other than the standard
		  manual directories for manual	entries.  These	locations

									Page 2

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

		  could	be personal manual page	trees or NFS mounted BSD style
		  manual page trees from another system.  For example, the
		  standard manual directories could be augmented with personal
		  manual pages by specifying the path:


		  -M must be given before -k and -f.  -M will override the
		  environment variable MANPATH.	 -M and	-d are mutually
		  exclusive.  At most 100 directories may be specified;	if
		  more are specified, the rest will be ignored.

     -c		  Copy the manual page to the standard output instead of using
		  more(1) or the user specified	PAGER or MANPAGER.

     -d		  Use the direct path specified	for finding the	manual page
		  title.  The -d option	uses the full path name	of the
		  specified title as the manual	page to	print, formatting it
		  if necessary.	 Since -d does no searching, any suffixes like
		  ".1" must be specified otherwise the manual page will	not be
		  found.  If no	leading	path is	specified, the current
		  directory (.)	is assumed.  -d	is useful for formatting
		  manual page sources you are editing as part of your software
		  development.	The -t option may be used in conjunction with
		  -d to	format a manual	page source file and send it to	the
		  printer.  -d will ignore the environment variable MANPATH.
		  -d and -M are	mutually exclusive.

     -p		  Print	on standard output the commands	that would be executed
		  to format and	display	the specified manual pages instead of
		  actually executing the commands.  The	printed	command
		  reflects the environment variable settings described below.

     -w		  Print	only the pathname of each entry	matching the given
		  title.  The actual matching entry will not be	printed, only
		  its path is given.

     -t		  Typeset each titled manual entry and send the	result to the
		  printer.  In the case	of the preformatted "cat" manual pages
		  which	come standard with IRIX, the entry is unpacked using
		  pcat(1) and then sent	to the default printer using lp(1).
		  If, however, the manual entry	is a locally added,
		  unformatted nroff(1) source, the entry will be formatted
		  using	psroff(1) and sent to the printer.  The	environment
		  variable TROFF may be	used to	specify	another	formatting
		  program other	than psroff (see the discussion	on ENVIRONMENT
		  below.  If the BSD lpr(1) printing facility is used, the
		  TCAT and NCAT	environment variables should be	set to send
		  the output to	lpr instead of lp.

									Page 3

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

     -T	macropackage
		  The given nroff(1) macro package will	be used	for formatting
		  unformatted manual entries.  By default,
		  /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an	is used.

     -k	keyword	  Print	the manual entry summaries which contain the given
		  keywords.  The summaries are gotten from the whatis
		  database.  (See also apropos(1).)

     -f	filename  Print	the manual entry summaries which might pertain to the
		  given	filenames.  Any	leading	pathname components are
		  stripped from	the filename before the	filename is matched
		  against the summaries.  The summaries	are gotten from	the
		  whatis database.  (See also whatis(1).)

     -W		  is normally used only	by the makewhatis(1m) command to build
		  the whatis and apropos databases.

     -r		  Treat	specified names	as regular expressions for searches.
		  The regular expressions handled are those supported by

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

     MANPATH  If set, MANPATH overrides	the default manual entry search	path.
	      MANPATH is a colon-separated list	of directories where manual
	      subdirectories may be found.  (See the discussion	of -M.)	 -M
	      and -d will override MANPATH.

     LANG     If set, then for each directory to be searched (as determined by
	      the -M option, the MANPATH variable, or the default search
	      path), an	additional directory is	constructed and	searched which
	      has the value of the LC_MESSAGES locale category appended	to it.
	      These language specific directories are searched before the
	      corresponding generic directory.	LC_MESSAGES may	be set either
	      in the environment or will automatically be set based on the
	      setting of the LANG variable (see	environ(5)).

	      If set, PAGER and	MANPAGER specify a program for interactively
	      displaying the output from man.  MANPAGER	will override PAGER so
	      a	program	other than the user's standard paging program may be
	      used for displaying man output.  If neither PAGER	or MANPAGER
	      are set, the command "ul -b | more -s -f"	is used.  See ul(1)
	      and more(1) for details on these options.

     MANFMTCMD    [Toc]    [Back]
	      may be used to specify the full command to format	unformatted
	      man pages.  If set, the other formatter environment variables
	      are ignored, as is the -T	option.	 The command will be given a
	      single argument, which is	the full pathname of the man page that
	      is to be formatted.

									Page 4

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

     TCAT     may be used to specify the command for printing or displaying
	      unformatted (nroff/troff source) manual pages when the -t	option
	      is selected.  If TCAT is not set,	the command "lp" is used.  For
	      systems using the	BSD lpr(1) printing facility, TCAT should be
	      set to "lpr".  If	a troff	formatting program which does not
	      output PostScript	is used, TCAT should be	set to "lpr <option>"
	      where <option> specifies the proper printing for the troff

     NCAT     may be used to specify the command for printing or displaying
	      preformatted manual pages	when the -t option is selected.	 If
	      NCAT is not set, the command specified by	TCAT is	used.  It is
	      only necessary to	set NCAT if TCAT is set	to "lpr	<option>"
	      where <option> specifies printing	of some	special	(non-ASCII)

     TROFF    may be used to specify a formatter to use	when the -t option is
	      selected,	and unformatted	man pages are processed.  The command
	      specified	by TROFF must output its results to the	standard
	      output for TCAT to work.	If TROFF is not	set, the command
	      "psroff -t" is used.

     NROFF    Similar to TROFF above, used when	the -t option is not

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /usr/share/catman			 root directory	of on-line reference
					 manual	entry tree
     /usr/share/catman/whatis		 table of contents and keyword
     /usr/share/catman/u_man/cat[1,6]/*	 user manual pages
					 system	administrator manual pages
     /usr/share/catman/p_man/cat[2-5]/*	 programmer manual pages
     /usr/share/catman/g_man/cat3/*	 Graphics Library manual pages
					 local pre-formatted manual entries
     /usr/catman/local/man[1-8lnop]/*	 local unformatted nroff(1) source
					 manual	entries
     /usr/share/man/*			 additional unformatted	manual pages
     /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an		 default macro package used for
					 formatting manual entries (contained
					 in the	Documentor's Work Bench
					 software option)

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     apropos(1), col(1), compress(1), csh(1), eqn(1), grep(1), gzip(1),	lp(1),
     lpr(1), makewhatis(1M), more(1), neqn(1), nroff(1), pack(1), pcat(1),
     psroff(1),	sh(1), tbl(1), troff(1), ul(1),	whatis(1), zcat(1), regex(3X),
     ascii(5), environ(5), man(5), term(5).

									Page 5

MAN(1)									MAN(1)

CAVEATS    [Toc]    [Back]

     apropos (man -k) and whatis (man -f) require that the whatis database be
     kept up to	date by	running	makewhatis(1M) after installing	or removing
     software from the system.	This command is	run by default on system
     reboot when software is installed or removed by the inst(1m) command.  If
     the whatis	database is not	kept up	to date, apropos (man -k) and whatis
     (man -f) will not find entries for	new manual pages and will erroneously
     refer to manual pages which no longer exist on the	system.

     The /usr/share/catman directories have all	been processed by nroff(1).

     To	format locally added, unformatted manual pages,	man requires nroff(1),
     tbl(1), and neqn(1) or eqn(1) and psroff(1) with the -t option; these are
     contained in the Documentor's Work	Bench software option, except
     psroff(1),	which is part of the Impressario product.  If they are not
     found in the search path, a message to this effect	will be	printed	once
     per invocation of man.  The awf(1)	command	is then	searched for, and if
     found, it will be used instead.  It does not understand all the
     formatting	commands, but is usually good enough (the -T option is ignored
     in	this case).  If	awf isn't found	either,	then any unformatted man pages
     will be skipped.

     psroff and	nroff may be overridden	with environment variables (see
     above), but the others may	not; they must exist somewhere in the search
     path, unless the MANFMTCMD	variable is set.  If none of these can be
     used, it may be possible to format	the man	pages on a system that does
     have the formatting commands available.  The resulting formatted versions
     may be installed on IRISes	which do not have the Documentor's Work	Bench.
     To	create pre-formatted manual pages, use the commands:

	  neqn mymanpage.1 | tbl | nroff -man >	mymanpage
	  pack -f mymanpage

     The resulting mymanpage.z file may	be copied into the appropriate
     /usr/local/man/cat[1-8] directory.

     man will not locate manual	pages in directories with names	containing a
     period (.).

     man may produce some extra	matches	if man page names have a period	(.) in
     them, as it matches up to a period, assuming the rest is a	suffix.

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 6666
[ Back ]
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