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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      ftio - faster tape I/O

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      ftio -o|-O [achpvxAELM] [-B blksize] [-D type] [-e extarg]
          [-K comment] [-L filelist] [-N datefile] [-S script] [-T tty]
          [-Z nobufs] tapedev [pathnames] [-F ignorenames]

      ftio -i|-I [cdfmptuvxAEMPR] [-B blksize] [-S script] [-T tty]
          [-Z nobufs] tapedev [patterns]

      ftio -g [v] tapedev [patterns]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      ftio is a tool designed specifically for copying files to tape drives.
      It performs faster than either cpio or tar in comparable situations
      (see cpio(1) and tar(1)).  ftio uses multiple processes (to read/write
      the file system and to write/read the tape device), with large amounts
      of memory sharing between processes as well as a large block size for
      reading and writing to the tape.

      ftio is compatible with cpio in that output from cpio is always
      readable by ftio, and output from ftio is readable by cpio, except as
      explained in the "cpio Compatibility" section, later in the manpage.

      ftio must be invoked with exactly one of the following options: -o, -
      O, -i, -I, or -g.  The -o and -O options specify that ftio is writing
      "out" from file system to tape; the -i and -I options specify that
      ftio is writing "in" from tape to file system.  The -o, -O, -i, and -I
      options can be followed by modifiers that must appear immediately
      after the option with no spaces between the option and the modifier,
      as in ftio -idxE (see Modifiers section below).

      tapedev specifies the name of a device special file for the tape
      device to which the output is written.  A device on a remote machine
      can be specified in the form


      ftio creates a server process from /usr/sbin/rmt on the remote machine
      to access the tape device.  If /usr/sbin/rmt does not exist on the
      remote system, ftio creates a server process from /etc/rmt, on the
      remote machine to access the tape device.

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      ftio recognizes the following options:

           -o             Copy (out) files from the file system to tapedev,
                          including path name and status information.  If
                          pathnames are specified, ftio recursively descends
                          pathnames looking for files, and copies those

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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

                          files to tapedev.  If pathnames are not specified,
                          ftio reads the standard input to obtain a list of
                          path names to copy.  ftio can copy to multiple
                          tapes if required.  For every tape used, ftio
                          generates a tape header containing the current
                          tape volume number, machine node name and type,
                          operating system name, release and version numbers
                          (all from the uname() system call; see uname(2)),
                          username of the person issuing the ftio command,
                          the time and date the command was executed, the
                          number of consecutive times the current media has
                          been used, a comment field, and other items used
                          internally by ftio.  The tape header is separated
                          from the main body of the tape archive by an endof-file
 mark.  The tape header can be read by
                          invoking cat with the device file name as the
                          first argument (see cat(1)).  Note, character and
                          block device special files written with the -o
                          option are not transportable to other HP-UX

           -O             Copy out files in the same way as ftio -ocva, when
                          no modifiers are used with the -O.  However, if
                          the .ftiorc file exists in the user's home
                          directory, ftio opens this file and scans for
                          lines preceded by O=.  Options defined on matching
                          lines are passed to ftio as if they had been
                          specified on the command line.  See EXAMPLES

           -i             Extract (copy into the file system) files from
                          tapedev, which is assumed to be a tape and the
                          product of a previous ftio -o operation.  Only
                          files with names that match patterns, according to
                          the rules of Pattern Matching Notation (see
                          regexp(5)), are selected.  In addition, a leading
                          ! within a pattern indicates that only those names
                          that do not match the remainder of the pattern
                          should be selected.  Multiple patterns can be
                          specified.  If no patterns are specified, the
                          default for patterns is * (that is, select all
                          files).  The extracted files are conditionally
                          created and copied into the current directory
                          tree, based upon the options described below.  The
                          permissions of the files are those of the previous
                          -o operation.

           -I             Extract (copy into the file system) files in the
                          same way as for ftio -icdmv, when no modifiers are
                          used with the -I.  However, if the .ftiorc file
                          exists in the user's home directory, ftio opens

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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

                          this file, and scans for lines preceded by I=.
                          Options defined on matching lines are passed to
                          ftio as if they had been specified on the command
                          line.  See EXAMPLES section.

           -g             Read the file list in tapedev.  If patterns is
                          specified, only file names that match are printed.
                          Note that file names are always preceded by the
                          volume that ftio expected the file to be on when
                          the file list was created; thus only the last
                          volume is valid in this respect.

           -e extarg      Specifies the handling of any extent attributes of
                          the file[s] to be archived.  Extent attributes
                          cannot be preserved when archiving files with
                          ftio. extarg takes one of the following values:

                               warn      Issue a warning message and archive
                                         the file without extent attributes.
                               ignore    A file with extent attributes will
                                         be archived, without preserving the
                                         extent attributes and without
                                         issuing a warning message.
                               force     A file with extent attributes will
                                         not be archived and a warning
                                         message will be issued.

                          If -e is not specified, the default value for
                          extarg is warn.

           -B blksize     Specify the size (in bytes) of blocks written to
                          tape.  This number can end with k, which specifies
                          multiplication by 1024.  The use of larger blocks
                          generally improves performance and tape usage.
                          The maximum allowable block size is limited by the
                          tape drive used.  A default of 16384 bytes is set
                          because this is the maximum block size on most
                          Hewlett-Packard tape drives.

           -D type        Descend a directory recursively, only if the file
                          system to which it belongs is type, where type can
                          be hfs, vxfs, or nfs.

           -F ignorenames Arguments following -F specify patterns that
                          should not be copied to the tape.  The same rules
                          apply to ignorenames as to patterns; see the
                          earlier description for ftio -i.

           -K comment     Specify a comment to be placed in the ftio tape

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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

           -L filelist    Create a list of the files being backed up.
                          filelist specifies the output file.  If pathnames
                          is specified, perform the file search and generate
                          a list of files prior to actually commencing the
                          backup.  This list is then appended to the tape
                          header of each tape in the backup as a list of
                          files that ftio attempted to fit onto this tape.
                          The last tape in the backup contains a catalog
                          identifying where the files are in the archive
                          set.  If pathnames is not also specified, the file
                          list is taken from standard input before the
                          backup begins.  In addition to generating file
                          lists, the -L option implements tape
                          checkpointing, allowing the backup to restart from
                          a write failure on bad media.

           -M             Make fully compatible with cpio.  That is, do not
                          generate or expect tape headers and change the
                          default block size to 5120 bytes.  (See the cpio
                          Compatibility section below.)

           -N datefile    Only files newer than the file specified in
                          datefile are copied to tape.

           -R             Resynchronize automatically, when ftio goes out of
                          phase.  This is useful when restoring from a
                          multi-tape backup from tapes other than the first.
                          By default, ftio asks the user if
                          resynchronization is required.

           -S script      Specify a command to be invoked every time a tape
                          is completed in a multi-tape backup.  The command
                          is invoked with the following arguments: script
                          tape_no user_name.  script is the string argument
                          script specified with the -S option.  tape_no is
                          the number of the tape required, and user_name is
                          the user who invoked ftio.  Typically, the string
                          script specifies a shell script which is used to
                          notify the user that a tape change is required.

           -T tty         Specify alternative to /dev/tty.  Normally
                          /dev/tty is opened by ftio when terminal
                          interaction is required.

           -Z nobufs      Specify the number of blksize chunks of memory to
                          use as buffer space between the two processes,
                          where blksize is the size of blocks written to the
                          tape.  More chunks is usually better, but a point
                          is reached where no improvement is gained, and
                          performance might deteriorate as buffer space is
                          swapped out of main memory.  A default value of 16

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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

                          is set for nobufs, but using 32 or 64 might
                          improve performance if your system is not heavily
                          loaded.  Best results are obtained when backups
                          are performed with the system in single-user mode
                          (see shutdown(1M)).

    Modifiers    [Toc]    [Back]
      The following modifiers can be used with certain options as indicated
      in the SYNOPSIS:

           a       After files are copied to tape, reset their access time
                   to appear as though the files were not accessed by ftio.

           c       Write header information in ASCII character form, for

           d       When restoring files, create directories as needed.

           f       Copy in all files except those that match patterns.

           h       Archive the files to which symbolic links point, as if
                   they were normal files or directories.  By default, ftio
                   archives the link itself.

           m       Retain previous file modification time and ownership of
                   file.  Restoring modification time does not apply to
                   directories that are being restored.

           p       At the end of the backup, print the number of blocks
                   transferred, the total time taken (excluding tape rewind
                   and reel-change time), and the effective transfer rate
                   calculated from these figures.  These values are printed
                   at the end of each tape if p is specified twice.

           t       Print only a table of contents of the input.  No files
                   are created, read, or copied.

           u       Copy unconditionally (by default, ftio does not replace a
                   newer file with a older file of the same name).

           v       Be verbose.  Print a list of file names and tape headers.
                   When used with the t modifier, the table of contents
                   looks the same as the output of the ls -l (ell) command
                   (see ls(1)).

           x       Save or restore device special files.  ftio uses mknod(2)
                   to recreate these files during a restore operation.
                   Thus, this modifier is restricted to users with
                   appropriate privileges.  This is intended for intrasystem
                   (backup) use.  Restoring device files onto a different
                   system can be very dangerous.

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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

           A       If copying from tape (-i or -I option), print all file
                   names found on the tape archive, noting which files have
                   been restored.  This is useful when the user restores
                   selected files, but wants to know which (if any) files
                   are on the tape.

                   If copying to tape (-o or -O option), the A modifier
                   suppresses warning messages regarding optional access
                   control list entries.  ftio(1) does not back up optional
                   access control list entries in a file's access control
                   list (see acl(5)).  Normally, a warning message is
                   printed for each file that has optional access control
                   list entries.

           E       When archiving, store all files having absolute path
                   names (that is, path names beginning with /) with path
                   names relative to the root directory (in other words,
                   remove the leading /).  On restoration, any files in the
                   archive that had an absolute path name before archiving
                   are restored relative to the current directory.

           L       Same as the -L option, except that the file list is left
                   in the current directory as the file ftio.list, instead
                   of the file named in filelist.

           P       On restoration, use prealloc() to allocate disk space
                   beforehand for the file (see prealloc(2)).  This vastly
                   improves the localization of file fragments.

      When end-of-tape is reached, ftio invokes script if the -S option was
      specified, rewinds the current tape, then asks the user to mount the
      next tape.

      To pass one or more metacharacters to ftio without having the shell
      expand them, protect them either by preceding each of them with a
      backslash (as in /usr\*), or enclosing them in protective single
      quotes (as in '/usr*').

    cpio Compatibility
      ftio uses the same archive format as cpio.  However, by default ftio
      creates tape headers and uses a tape block size of 16KB.  cpio by
      default uses 512-byte blocks.  When used with the -B option, cpio uses
      5120 byte blocks.  To achieve full compatibility with cpio in either
      input or output mode, the user should specify the M modifier.  ftio
      -oM creates a single- or multi-tape archive that has no tape headers,
      and, by default, the same block size as cpio -[o|i]B.  An archive
      created by a cpio -oB command can be restored using ftio -iM.  If the
      M modifier of ftio is combined with a -B 512 block-size specification,
      full compatibility with cpio -[o|i] (no -B) is achieved.

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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

    Environment Variables
      LC_COLLATE determines the collating sequence used in evaluating
      pattern matching notation for file name generation.

      LC_CTYPE determines the characters matched by character class
      expressions in pattern matching notation.

      LC_TIME determines the format and contents of date and time strings.

      LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, or LC_TIME is not specified in the
      environment or is set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used
      as a default for each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not
      specified or is set to the empty string, a default of C (see lang(5))
      is used instead of LANG.  If any internationalization variable
      contains an invalid setting, ftio behaves as if all
      internationalization variables are set to C.  See environ(5).

    International Code Set Support    [Toc]    [Back]
      Single-byte character code sets are supported.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      Copy the entire contents of the file system (including special files)
      onto tape drive /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST:

           ftio -ox /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST /

      Restore all the files on /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST, relative to the current

           ftio -idxE /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

      List the contents of a backup set created using ftio -o.  Note that
      use of the v modifier gives a more detailed listing, and displays the
      contents of tape headers.

           ftio -itv /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

      Show how to use the .ftiorc file:

           Assume a .ftiorc file exists in the user's home directory and
           contains the following:

                # Sample .ftiorc file.
                I= cdmuvEpp -B 16k -S /usr/local/bin/ftio.change
                O= cavEpp -Z 8 -B 16k -S /usr/local/bin/ftio.change

           Invoke ftio with the following command line to back up the user's
           home directory and the operating system commands directory:

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 ftio(1)                                                             ftio(1)

                ftio -O /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST /home/my_home /usr/sbin

           Specifying the -O option causes ftio to check the .ftiorc file
           for additional options.  In this case, character headers are
           generated, access times are reset, a listing of the files copied
           are printed to standard output, all file names are copied to
           /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST with path names relative to /, performance
           data is printed when the backup is complete (and at every tape
           change), and, if the backup goes beyond one media the script,
           /usr/local/bin/ftio.change is invoked by ftio after each media is

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Because of industry standards and interoperability goals, ftio does
      not support the archival of files larger than 2GB or files that have
      user/group IDs greater than 60K.  Files with user/group IDs greater
      than 60K are archived and restored under the user/group ID of the
      current process.

      ftio operates using System V shared memory and semaphores.  The
      resources committed to these functions are not freed automatically by
      the system when the process terminates.  ftio does this only when it
      terminates normally, or when it terminates after receiving one the
      following signals: SIGHUP, SIGINT, SIGTERM.  Any other signal is
      handled in the default manner described by signal(2).  Note that the
      behavior for SIGKILL is to terminate the process without delay.  Thus,
      if ftio receives a SIGKILL signal (as might be produced by the
      indiscriminate use of kill -9 (see kill(1)), system resources used for
      shared memory and semaphores are not returned to the system.  If it
      becomes necessary to terminate an invocation of ftio, use kill -15
      instead.  Current system usage of shared memory and semaphores can be
      checked using the ipcs command (see ipcs(1)).  Committed resources can
      be removed using ipcrm (see ipcrm(1)).

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      ftio was developed by HP.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      cpio(1), find(1), ipcs(1), ipcrm(1), kill(1), ls(1), rmt(1M),
      mknod(2), prealloc(2), signal(2), uname(2), acl(5), environ(5),
      lang(5), regexp(5), mt(7).

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[ Back ]
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