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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     tar - tape archiver

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     tar     [-]{crtux}[befhmopqsvwzHLOPXZ014578]     [blocksize]
[archive] [replstr]
         [-C directory] [-I file] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The  tar  command  creates, adds files to, or extracts files
from an archive
     file in ``tar'' format.  A tar archive is often stored on  a
     tape, but can be stored equally well on a floppy, CD-ROM, or
in a regular
     disk file.

     One of the following flags must be present:

     -c            Create new archive, or overwrite  an  existing
                   adding the specified files to it.

     -r              Append  the  named  new  files  to  existing
archive.  Note that
                   this will only work on media on which an  endof-file mark
                   can be overwritten.

     -t             List  contents  of archive.  If any files are
named on the
                   command line, only those files will be listed.

     -u            Alias for -r.

     -x             Extract files from archive.  If any files are
named on the
                   command line, only those  files  will  be  extracted from the
                   archive.   If more than one copy of a file exists in the
                   archive, later copies will  overwrite  earlier
copies during
                   extraction.   The  file  mode and modification
time are preserved
 if possible.  The file mode is  subject
to modification
 by the umask(2).

     In addition to the flags mentioned above, any of the following flags may
     be used:

     -b blocking factor
                   Set blocking factor to use  for  the  archive.
tar uses 512
                   byte  blocks.   The default is 20, the maximum
is 126.
                   Archives with a blocking factor larger than 63
violate the
                   POSIX standard and will not be portable to all

     -e            Stop after the first error.

     -f archive    Filename where the  archive  is  stored.   Defaults to

     -h             Follow  symbolic links as if they were normal
files or directories.
  In extract mode this means that  a
directory entry
  in  the archive will not overwrite an existing symbolic
                   link, but  rather  what  the  link  ultimately
points to.

     -m            Do not preserve modification time.

     -O            Write old-style (non-POSIX) archives.

     -o             Don't  write  directory  information that the
older (V7) style
                   tar is unable to decode.  This implies the  -O

     -p             Preserve  user  and  group ID as well as file
mode regardless
                   of the current umask(2).  The setuid and  setgid bits are
                   only  preserved  if the user is the superuser.
Only meaningful
 in conjunction with the -x flag.

     -q            Select the first archive member  that  matches
each pattern
                   operand.   No  more than one archive member is
matched for
                   each pattern.  When members of type  directory
are matched,
                   the file hierarchy rooted at that directory is

     -s replstr    Modify the file or archive member names specified by the
                   pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression
 replstr,  using  the  syntax  of  the
ed(1) utility
                   regular expressions.  The format of these regular expressions
                   As in ed(1), old is a basic regular expression
and new can
                   contain an ampersand (&), (where n is a digit)
 or subexpression matching.   The  old
string may also
 contain <newline> characters.  Any non-null
                   can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown  here).
Multiple -s
                   expressions can be specified.  The expressions
are applied
                   in the order they are specified on the command
line, terminating
 with the first successful substitution.
The optional
 trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression
  to  the pathname substring, which starts
with the first
                   character following the end of the  last  successful substitution.
   The  first unsuccessful substitution
stops the operation
 of the g option.  The optional  trailing p will
                   cause the final result of a successful substitution to be
                   written to standard  error  in  the  following
                         <original pathname> >> <new pathname>
                   File  or  archive member names that substitute
to the empty
                   string are not selected and will be skipped.

     -v            Verbose operation mode.

     -w            Interactively rename files.  This option causes tar to
                   prompt  the  user for the filename to use when
storing or extracting
 files in an archive.

     -z            Compress archive using gzip.

     -C directory  This is a positional argument which  sets  the
working directory
  for  the following files.  When extracting, files will
                   be extracted  into  the  specified  directory;
when creating,
                   the  specified  files will be matched from the

     -H            Follow symlinks given on command line only.

     -L            Synonym for the -h option.

     -P            Do not strip leading slashes (`/') from  pathnames.  The default
 is to strip leading slashes.

     -I  file       This is a positional argument which reads the
names of
                   files to archive or  extract  from  the  given
file, one per

     -X             Do not cross mount points in the file system.

     -Z            Compress archive using compress.

     The options [-014578] can be used to select one of the  compiled-in backup
     devices, /dev/rstN.

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

     TMPDIR      Path in which to store temporary files.

     TAPE        Default tape device to use instead of /dev/rst0.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /dev/rst0  default archive name

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

     $ tar c bonvole sekve

     Creates an archive on the default tape drive, containing the
files named
     bonvole and sekve.

     $ tar zcf foriru.tar.gz bonvole sekve

     Outputs  a  gzip(1)  compressed archive containing the files
bonvole and
     sekve to a file called foriru.tar.gz.

     $ tar zcvf backup.tar.gz *.c

     Verbosely creates an archive, called backup.tar.gz,  of  all
files matching
     the shell glob(3) function *.c.

     $ tar tvzf backup.tar.gz '*.jpeg'

     Verbosely  lists,  but does not extract, all files ending in
.jpeg from a
     compressed archive named backup.tar.gz.  Note that the  glob
pattern has
     been quoted to avoid expansion by the shell.

     For more detailed examples, see pax(1).

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

     tar will exit with one of the following values:

     0   All files were processed successfully.

     1   An error occurred.

     Whenever  tar cannot create a file or a link when extracting
an archive or
     cannot find a file while writing an archive, or cannot  preserve the user
     ID,  group  ID,  file mode, or access and modification times
when the -p option
 is specified, a diagnostic message is written to  standard error and
     a  non-zero exit value will be returned, but processing will
continue.  In
     the case where tar cannot create a link to a file, tar  will
not create a
     second copy of the file.

     If  the  extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely
terminated by
     a signal or error, tar may have only partially extracted the
file the user
  wanted.  Additionally, the file modes of extracted files
and directories
 may have incorrect file bits, and the modification  and
access times
     may be wrong.

     If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a
signal or
     error, tar may have  only  partially  created  the  archive,
which may violate
     the specific archive format specification.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     cpio(1), pax(1)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     A tar command first appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Keith Muller at the University of California, San Diego.

CAVEATS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The  -L  flag is not portable to other versions of tar where
it may have a
     different meaning.

OpenBSD     3.6                        February      7,      2001
[ Back ]
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