xcalc  scientific calculator for X
xcalc [stipple] [rpn] [toolkitoption...]
xcalc accepts all of the standard toolkit command line
options along with two additional options: This option
indicates that the background of the calculator should be
drawn using a stipple of the foreground and background
colors. On monochrome displays improves the appearance.
This option indicates that Reverse Polish Notation should
be used. In this mode the calculator will look and behave
like an HP10C. Without this option, it will emulate a
TI30.
xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that
can emulate a TI30 or an HP10C.
Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer
button 1, or in some cases, with the keyboard. Many common
calculator operations have keyboard accelerators. To quit,
press pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI calculator,
or the ON key of the HP calculator.
Calculator Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/
key, and the +, , *, /, and = keys all do exactly what
you would expect them to. It should be noted that the
operators obey the standard rules of precedence. Thus,
entering "3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35". The parentheses
can be used to override this. For example,
"(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)=" results in "6*15=90".
The entire number in the calculator display can be
selected, in order to paste the result of a calculation
into text.
The action procedures associated with each function are
given below. These are useful if you are interested in
defining a custom calculator. The action used for all
digit keys is digit(n), where n is the corresponding
digit, 0..9. Replaces the number in the display with its
reciprocal. The corresponding action procedure is reciprocal().
Squares the number in the display. The corresponding
action procedure is square(). Takes the square root
of the number in the display. The corresponding action
procedure is squareRoot(). When pressed once, clears the
number in the display without clearing the state of the
machine. Allows you to reenter a number if you make a
mistake. Pressing it twice clears the state, also. The
corresponding action procedure for TI mode is clear().
Clears the display, the state, and the memory. Pressing
it with the third pointer button turns off the calculator,
in that it exits the program. The action procedure to
clear the state is off(); to quit, quit(). Invert function.
See the individual function keys for details. The
corresponding action procedure is inverse(). Computes the
sine of the number in the display, as interpreted by the
current DRG mode (see DRG, below). If inverted, it computes
the arcsine. The corresponding action procedure is
sine(). Computes the cosine, or arccosine when inverted.
The corresponding action procedure is cosine(). Computes
the tangent, or arctangent when inverted. The corresponding
action procedure is tangent(). Changes the DRG mode,
as indicated by 'DEG', 'RAD', or 'GRAD' at the bottom of
the calculator "liquid crystal" display. When in 'DEG'
mode, numbers in the display are taken as being degrees.
In 'RAD' mode, numbers are in radians, and in 'GRAD' mode,
numbers are in grads. When inverted, the DRG key has a
feature of converting degrees to radians to grads and
viceversa. Example: put the calculator into 'DEG' mode,
and enter "45 INV DRG". The display should now show something
along the lines of ".785398", which is 45 degrees
converted to radians. The corresponding action procedure
is degree(). The constant 'e'. (2.7182818...). The corresponding
action procedure is e(). Used for entering
exponential numbers. For example, to get "2.3E4" you'd
enter "2 . 3 +/ EE 4 +/". The corresponding action procedure
is scientific(). Calculates the log (base 10) of
the number in the display. When inverted, it raises
"10.0" to the number in the display. For example, entering
"3 INV log" should result in "1000". The corresponding
action procedure is logarithm(). Calculates the log (base
e) of the number in the display. When inverted, it raises
"e" to the number in the display. For example, entering
"e ln" should result in "1". The corresponding action procedure
is naturalLog(). Raises the number on the left to
the power of the number on the right. For example "2 y^x
3 =" results in "8", which is 2^3. For a further example,
"(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6 y^x 3" which equals "216".
The corresponding action procedure is power(). The constant
'pi'. (3.1415927....) The corresponding action procedure
is pi(). Computes the factorial of the number in
the display. The number in the display must be an integer
in the range 0500, though, depending on your math
library, it might overflow long before that. The corresponding
action procedure is factorial(). Left parenthesis.
The corresponding action procedure for TI calculators
is leftParen(). Right parenthesis. The corresponding
action procedure for TI calculators is rightParen().
Division. The corresponding action procedure is divide().
Multiplication. The corresponding action procedure is
multiply(). Subtraction. The corresponding action procedure
is subtract(). Addition. The corresponding action
procedure is add(). Perform calculation. The TIspecific
action procedure is equal(). Copies the number in the
display to the memory location. The corresponding action
procedure is store(). Copies the number from the memory
location to the display. The corresponding action procedure
is recall(). Adds the number in the display to the
number in the memory location. The corresponding action
procedure is sum(). Swaps the number in the display with
the number in the memory location. The corresponding
action procedure for the TI calculator is exchange().
Negate; change sign. The corresponding action procedure
is negate(). Decimal point. The action procedure is decimal().
Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS
(change sign), +, , *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly
what you would expect them to do. Many of the remaining
keys are the same as in TI mode. The differences are
detailed below. The action procedure for the ENTR key is
enter(). This is a backspace key that can be used if you
make a mistake while entering a number. It will erase
digits from the display. (See BUGS). Inverse backspace
will clear the X register. The corresponding action procedure
is back(). Clears the display, the state, and the
memory. Pressing it with the third pointer button turns
off the calculator, in that it exits the program. To clear
state, the action procedure is off; to quit, quit().
Inverts the meaning of the function keys. This would be
the f key on an HP calculator, but xcalc does not display
multiple legends on each key. See the individual function
keys for details. Raises "10.0" to the number in the top
of the stack. When inverted, it calculates the log (base
10) of the number in the display. The corresponding action
procedure is tenpower(). Raises "e" to the number in the
top of the stack. When inverted, it calculates the log
(base e) of the number in the display. The action procedure
is epower(). Copies the number in the top of the
stack to a memory location. There are 10 memory locations.
The desired memory is specified by following this
key with a digit key. Pushes the number from the specified
memory location onto the stack. Adds the number on
top of the stack to the number in the specified memory
location. Exchanges the numbers in the top two stack
positions, the X and Y registers. The corresponding action
procedure is XexchangeY(). Rolls the stack downward.
When inverted, it rolls the stack upward. The corresponding
action procedure is roll(). These keys were used for
programming functions on the HP10C. Their functionality
has not been duplicated in xcalc.
Finally, there are two additional action procedures:
bell(), which rings the bell; and selection(), which performs
a cut on the entire number in the calculator's "liquid
crystal" display.
Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands. xcalc
provides some sample keyboard accelerators; also users can
customize accelerators. The numeric keypad accelerators
provided by xcalc should be intuitively correct. The
accelerators defined by xcalc on the main keyboard are
given below:

TI Key HP Key Keyboard Accel TI Function HP Function
erator

SQRT SQRT r squareRoot() squareRoot()
AC ON space clear() clear()
AC < Delete clear() back()
AC < Backspace clear() back()
AC < ControlH clear() back()
AC Clear clear()
AC ON q quit() quit()
AC ON ControlC quit() quit()
INV i i inverse() inverse()
sin s s sine() sine()
cos c c cosine() cosine()
tan t t tangent() tangent()
DRG DRG d degree() degree()
e e e()
ln ln l naturalLog() naturalLog()
y^x y^x ^ power() power()
PI PI p pi() pi()
x! x! ! factorial() factorial()
( ( leftParen()
) ) rightParen()
/ / / divide() divide()
* * * multiply() multiply()
   subtract() subtract()
+ + + add() add()
= = equal()
0..9 0..9 0..9 digit() digit()
. . . decimal() decimal()
+/ CHS n negate() negate()
x:y x XexchangeY()
ENTR Return enter()
ENTR Linefeed enter()

The application class name is XCalc.
xcalc has an enormous application defaults file which
specifies the position, label, and function of each key on
the calculator. It also gives translations to serve as
keyboard accelerators. Because these resources are not
specified in the source code, you can create a customized
calculator by writing a private application defaults file,
using the Athena Command and Form widget resources to
specify the size and position of buttons, the label for
each button, and the function of each button.
The foreground and background colors of each calculator
key can be individually specified. For the TI calculator,
a classical color resource specification might be:
XCalc.ti.Command.background: gray50 XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:
white
For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
XCalc.ti.button20.background: black XCalc.ti.button20.foreground:
white
For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34,
37, 38, and 39: XCalc.ti.button22.background:
white XCalc.ti.button22.foreground:
black
In order to specify resources, it is useful to know the
hierarchy of the widgets which compose xcalc. In the
notation below, indentation indicates hierarchical structure.
The widget class name is given first, followed by
the widget instance name.
XCalc xcalc
Form ti or hp (the name depends on the mode)
Form bevel
Form screen
Label M
Toggle LCD
Label INV
Label DEG
Label RAD
Label GRAD
Label P
Command button1
Command button2
Command button3
and so on, ...
Command button38
Command button39
Command button40
APPLICATION RESOURCES [Toc] [Back] Specifies that the rpn mode should be used. The default
is TI mode. Indicates that the background should be stippled.
The default is "on" for monochrome displays, and
"off" for color displays. The name of the symbol used to
represent the pointer. The default is "hand2".
If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the
following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read
with xrdb: *customization: color
This will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the appdefaults
color customization file: <XRoot>/lib/X11/appdefaults/XCalccolor.
HP mode: A bug report claims that the sequence of keys 5,
ENTER, < should clear the display, but it does not.
Copyright 1988, 1989 X Consortium
See X(1X) for a full statement of rights and permissions.
X(1X), xrdb(1X), the Athena Widget Set
John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania
Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium
xcalc(1X)
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