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 dc(1)                                                                 dc(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      dc - desk calculator

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      dc [file]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      dc is an arbitrary precision arithmetic package.  Ordinarily it
      operates on decimal integers, but one may specify an input base,
      output base, and a number of fractional digits to be maintained.  (See
      bc(1), a preprocessor for dc that provides infix notation and a C-like
      syntax that implements functions.  bc also provides reasonable control
      structures for programs.) The overall structure of dc is a stacking
      (reverse Polish) calculator.  If an argument is given, input is taken
      from that file until its end, then from the standard input.  An end of
      file on standard input or the q command stop dc.  The following
      constructions are recognized:

           number         The value of the number is pushed on the stack.  A
                          number is an unbroken string of the digits 0-9 or
                          A-F.  It can be preceded by an underscore (_) to
                          input a negative number.  Numbers can contain
                          decimal points.

           + - / * % ^    The top two values on the stack are added (+),
                          subtracted (-), multiplied (*), divided (/),
                          remaindered (%), or exponentiated (^).  The two
                          entries are popped off the stack; the result is
                          pushed on the stack in their place.  Any
                          fractional part of an exponent is ignored and a
                          warning generated.  The remainder is calculated
                          according to the current scale factor; it is not
                          the integer modulus function.  7 % 3 yields .1
                          (one tenth) if scale is 1 because 7 / 3 is 2.3
                          with .1 as the remainder.

           sx             The top of the stack is popped and stored into a
                          register named x, where x can be any character.
                          If the s is capitalized, x is treated as a stack
                          and the value is pushed on it.

           lx             The value in register x is pushed on the stack.
                          Register x is not altered.  All registers start
                          with zero value.  If the l is capitalized,
                          register x is treated as a stack and its top value
                          is popped onto the main stack.

           d              The top value on the stack is duplicated.

           p              The top value on the stack is printed.  The top
                          value remains unchanged.  P interprets the top of

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 1 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 dc(1)                                                                 dc(1)

                          the stack as an ASCII string, removes it, and
                          prints it.

           f              All values on the stack are printed.

           q              exits the program.  If executing a string, the
                          recursion level is popped by two.  If q is
                          capitalized, the top value on the stack is popped
                          and the string execution level is popped by that

           x              treats the top element of the stack as a character
                          string and executes it as a string of dc commands.

           X              replaces the number on the top of the stack with
                          its scale factor.

           [...]          puts the bracketed ASCII string onto the top of
                          the stack.  Strings can be nested by using nested
                          pairs of brackets.

           <x   >x   =x
           !<x   !>x   !=x
                          The top two elements of the stack are popped and
                          compared.  Register x is evaluated if they obey
                          the stated relation.

           v              Replaces the top element on the stack by its
                          square root.  Any existing fractional part of the
                          argument is taken into account, but otherwise the
                          scale factor is ignored.

           !              Interprets the rest of the line as an HP-UX system
                          command (unless the next character is <, >, or =,
                          in which case appropriate relational operator
                          above is used).

           c              All values on the stack are popped.

           i              The top value on the stack is popped and used as
                          the number radix for further input.

           I              pushes the input base on the top of the stack.

           o              The top value on the stack is popped and used as
                          the number radix for further output.  See below
                          for notes on output base.

           O              pushes the output base on the top of the stack.

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 dc(1)                                                                 dc(1)

           k              the top of the stack is popped, and that value is
                          used as a non-negative scale factor: the
                          appropriate number of places are printed on
                          output, and maintained during multiplication,
                          division, and exponentiation.  The interaction of
                          scale factor, input base, and output base will be
                          reasonable if all are changed together.

           K              pushes the scale factor on the top of the stack.

           z              The stack level is pushed onto the stack.

           Z              replaces the number on the top of the stack with
                          its length.

           ?              A line of input is taken from the input source
                          (usually the terminal) and executed.

           ; and :        Used by bc for array operations.

           Y              Generates debugging output for dc itself.

      The input base may be any number, but only the digits 0-9 and A-F are
      available for input, thus limiting the usefulness of bases outside the
      range 1-16.  All 16 possible digits may be used in any base; they
      always take their conventional values.

      The output base may be any number.  Bases in the range of 2-16
      generate the "usual" results, with the letters A-F representing the
      values from 10 through 16.  Bases 0 and 1 generate a string of 1s
      whose length is the value of the number.  Base -1 generates a similar
      string consisting of ds.  Other bases have each "digit" represented as
      a (multi-digit) decimal number giving the ordinal of that digit.  Each
      "digit" is signed for negative bases.  "Digits" are separated by
      spaces.  Given the definition of output base, the command Op always
      yields "10" (in a representation appropriate to the base); O1-p yields
      useful information about the output base.

 DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]
      x is unimplemented            Where x is an octal number.

      stack empty                   There are insufficient elements on the
                                    stack to do what was asked.

      Out of space                  The free list is exhausted (too many

      Out of headers                Too many numbers are being kept around.

      Out of pushdown               Too many items are on the stack.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 3 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 dc(1)                                                                 dc(1)

      Nesting Depth                 There are too many levels of nested

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      This example prints the first ten values of n! (n factorial):


 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

      DC: An Interactive Desk Calculator tutorial in Number Processing Users

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 4 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003
[ Back ]
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