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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       man - Displays reference pages

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       man  [-]  [-M   |  -P search_path] [-l] {[section[suffix]]

       man [-M  | -P search_path] -f title...

       man [-M  | -P search_path] -k keyword...

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces documented on this reference  page  conform  to
       industry standards as follows:

       man: POSIX.2, XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Does not pipe output through more  for  display
  [Tru64 UNIX]  Describes the specified command, call,
       function, or file name  if  the  whatis  keyword  database
       exists.  Performs the same function as the whatis command.
       You can specify more than one  title.   Locates  reference
       pages whose NAME section contains the specified keyword if
       the whatis database exists.  Performs the same function as
       the  apropos  command.  You can specify more than one keyword.
  [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies  that  the  reference  page
       resides   in   a  section  directory  subordinate  to  the
       /usr/local/man area rather than  one  subordinate  to  the
       /usr/share/man    or   /usr/dt/share/man   area.    [Tru64
       UNIX]  Specifies   an   alternative   search   path.   The
       search_path  argument  contains  one or more pathnames for
       directories that contain section directories  (directories
       named  man1,  man2,  man3,  and  so forth) where reference
       pages reside.  Use a colon (:) to separate multiple  pathnames.
  By  default,  the man command searches for section
       directories in /usr/share/locale_name/man (if it  exists),
       /usr/share/man,  /usr/dt/share/man, and /usr/local/man (if
       it exists) in that order.  The  /usr/share/locale_name/man
       directory  is created when reference page translations for
       a particular locale are installed. The man command  determines
  locale_name  from  the  setting  of the LC_MESSAGES
       environment variable.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies an alternative
  search  path.   (Performs  the  same  function as -M
       search_path and is provided for compatibility  with  other

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64  UNIX]  Specifies  the  optional section and suffix
       identifiers for the reference page.

              [Tru64 UNIX]  The section  parameter  is  either  a
              number  (0-9), the number/letter combination 1m, or
              one of the letters C, L, F, n, l, p, or o. The numbers
  1  to  8 and the number/letter combination 1m
              are most appropriate to use  with  reference  pages
              installed for the Tru64 UNIX product. (The number 9
              is  also  appropriate  if   reference   pages   are
              available  for  the  device-driver programming kit,
              which is separately installed.) You usually specify
              section  to  identify a reference page that has the
              same title as another reference page in a different

              [Tru64  UNIX]  The  suffix parameter is a string of
              one or more characters, starting with a letter. You
              usually  specify  suffix  in addition to section to
              identify a reference page that has the  same  title
              as  another  reference  page  in  the same section.
              Specifies the name of the reference page.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The man command provides online  access  to  the  system's
       reference  pages.  For  example,  if  reference  pages are
       available on your system, the following  command  displays
       the  first  screenful  of reference information for the ls
       command: % man ls

       You can press the space bar to  see  the  next  screen  or
       press  other  keys  to  control or search the display. For
       more information, see the subsection entitled  Controlling
       the Pager Used by the man Command.

       The  industry  standards  listed  in the STANDARDS section
       specify the man command's exit values and require the command
  to  support the -k option, one or more title parameters,
 and certain environment variables. Much of the  command's
 behavior is implementation defined, as indicated by
       the [Tru64 UNIX] tag that precedes most of the information
       on this reference page.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  Most  reference  pages  reside  in  section
       directories subordinate  to  /usr/share/man.  Your  system
       manager can optionally create the /usr/local/man area as a
       location for site-specific reference pages.  In  addition,
       the area for reference pages provided for the Common Desktop
 Environment (CDE) is /usr/dt/share/man. When all three
       areas  exist  on a system, the default behavior of the man
       command  is  to  search  for  reference  pages  first   in
       /usr/share/man,  then in /usr/dt/share/man, and finally in

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Within a given reference page area, multiple
       reference  pages can have the same title. Duplicate titles
       can be encountered across section directories, within section
  directories,  or both. When two reference pages have
       the same title within a section  directory,  one  or  both
       reference  pages  include  a suffix in the section identifier.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  If you specify only title in  the  man  command,
  it displays the first title encountered in the section
 order 1, 8, 6, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, C, L, F, n,  l,  p,  o,
       1m,  9.   If there is more than one title in the same section,
 the reference page  without  a  section  suffix  has
       precedence  over  reference  pages  that have section suffixes.
 When duplicate titles are encountered with the same
       section  and  different  suffixes,  suffixes  are  ordered
       alphabetically.  In this case, the  reference  page  whose
       suffix  occurs  earliest  in alphabetical order has precedence.
 The section and suffix operands  are  available  to
       specify  which  reference  page  you want to see when more
       than one instance of titles is available.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  If you  specify  section,  the  man  command
       looks for the specified titles only in the directories for
       the specified sections. For all number  sections  and  all
       but  one  of  the  letter section identifiers, the command
       must find the title in a directory that corresponds to the
       specified section. For example, when you enter the command
       man 3 printf, the command looks for the printf title  only
       in a man3 directory. The exception to this rule is that if
       you specify the section as the number 1 or letter  C,  the
       man command searches sections C, n, l, p, o, and 1 in that

       [Tru64 UNIX]  A section identifier corresponds to  a  particular
 category of information and, with the exception of
       C, to only one corresponding directory.  In the  following
       list, an asterisk (*) follows the section description when
       it applies to reference pages installed for the Tru64 UNIX
       product:  Not used.  Reference pages for commands that all
       users can enter (*).  Reference pages for commands related
       to system maintenance and operation (*, for Common Desktop
       Environment only).  Reference pages for system  calls,  or
       program  interfaces  to  the  operating system kernel (*).
       Reference pages for program interfaces  found  in  various
       libraries (*).  Reference pages for include files, program
       output files, and some system files (*).  Reference  pages
       on  miscellaneous  topics,  such  as text-processing macro
       packages (*).  Reference pages for games.  Reference pages
       for  device  special  files, related driver functions, and
       networking support  (*).   Reference  pages  for  commands
       related  to  system maintenance and operation (*).  Reference
 pages used for  writing  device  drivers.   Reference
       pages for commands.  Reference pages for files.  Reference
       pages for libraries.  Reference pages  with  local  (sitespecific)
  information.   New reference pages.  Old reference
 pages.  Public reference pages.


              Almost all implementations of a UNIX operating system
  use  reference  page  sections  4, 5, and 7 to
              describe different types of  files.   However,  the
              type  of file described in each section varies from
              one implementation  to  another.  For  example,  on
              ULTRIX and some other UNIX implementations, Section
              4  describes  device  special  files  rather   than
              include  files,  Section  5 describes include files
              rather than macro packages, and Section 7 describes
              macro packages rather than device special files.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  You  need to specify section only if either
       of the following conditions is true: The reference page is
       in section 0.  There are two reference pages with the same
       name (title) in different sections, and the reference page
       you  want  to see is not the one that the man command displays
 by default.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  If you specify suffix  along  with  section,
       the man command looks only for the reference page that has
       both the specified section and the specified suffix.   You
       need  to  specify  suffix in addition to section only when
       both of the following conditions are true: There  is  more
       than  one  reference  page with the same title in the same
       section The reference page you want to see is not the  one
       that the man command displays by default.

              For  example,  if both abort(3) and abort(3f) exist
              in a man3 directory, the command  man 3 abort  displays
  abort(3).  In  this  case, you would need to
              enter   the   command   man 3f abort   to   display

       [Tru64 UNIX]  In the man command's default search path are
       two locations intended for site-specific reference  pages:
       A  section  directory  named  manl  (l  for  local) in the
       /usr/share/man area Section directories subordinate to the
       /usr/local/man area

       [Tru64 UNIX]  One, both, or neither of these locations may
       exist on your system.  They  are  created  by  the  system

       [Tru64 UNIX]  If you include the -l option in the man command,
 you specify reference pages  in  the  /usr/local/man
       area. If you include the l section identifier, you specify
       reference pages in a manl section directory. For  example,
       the  command man -l 5 print specifies print(5), whose file
       resides in /usr/local/man/man5.  The  command  man l print
       specifies     print(1),     whose    file    resides    in

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The man command's section  and  title  arguments
  can  be  paired  so  that a series of titles can be
       searched for in a section, or  multiple  sections  can  be
       searched for one or more titles.

   Changing the man Command's Search Path
       [Tru64  UNIX]  By default, the man command checks for reference
 pages first in the /usr/share/man area, then in the
       /usr/dt/share/man  area, and finally in the /usr/local/man
       area. You can change this behavior by supplying  a  search
       path  with  the -M or -P option or by defining the MANPATH
       variable. You can define the MANPATH variable on the  command
  line or in a file, such as your file or file (if you
       want the path change to always apply to your process). The
       search  path  is  a colon-separated list of directories in
       which man expects to find the section subdirectories.  The
       string  /usr/share/%L/man:/usr/dt/share/man:/usr/local/man
       represents the default  search  path.   The  default  path
       includes  %L,  which is one of the following locale directives
 that can  be  included  in  pathnames:  The  current
       locale  name (for example, zh_CN.dechanzi@radical) that is
       the value of the LC_MESSAGES environment variable The same
       as  %L  except  that the @ suffix is removed if the locale
       name has such a suffix (for example, zh_CN.dechanzi)

              A few locales have one or more variants to  support
              different   collating  orders  and  these  variants
              include an @ suffix.  Users  may  assign  a  locale
              variant  name to the LANG or LC_ALL variable rather
              than specifically to the  LC_COLLATE  variable.  In
              this  case,  the LC_MESSAGES variable would inherit
              its value from the LANG or LC_ALL variable.  The %P
              ensures  that  the  man  command does not expect to
              find a reference page directory whose name includes
              the  @  suffix.  The language element of the locale
              name currently assigned to the LC_MESSAGES variable
              (for  example,  zh)  The  territory  element of the
              locale name currently assigned to  the  LC_MESSAGES
              variable  (for  example, CN) The codeset element of
              the locale name currently assigned to  the  LC_MESSAGES
  variable  (for  example,  dechanzi) A single
              percent sign (%) character

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The following search  path  example  changes
       the  order  in which reference page areas are searched. It
       also adds support  for  installations  of  reference  page
       translations  within  the  CDE  and site-specific areas: %
       setenv                      MANPATH                      \

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  following search path example adds the
       directory /usr/share/doclib/annex/man: % setenv MANPATH  \

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The following search path example is a  more
       elaborate  one and is likely to cater to everyone's needs:
       %              setenv              MANPATH               \

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The /usr/share/doclib/annex/man area is  the
       location of supplementary reference pages for certain components,
 such as perl, which have been obtained  from  the
       public  domain  or  the  Free  Software Foundation.  Files
       installed  under   /usr/share/doclib/annex/man   are   not
       checked  for  technical accuracy and coding by us, nor are
       they maintained by us. These files are  included  for  the
       convenience  of customers without Internet access. (In all
       cases, the same files can be downloaded over the  Internet
       from the contributing third-party site without charge.)

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The /usr/share/doclib/annex/man directory is
       not part of the default search path for the man and catman
       commands  because  of the higher probability of processing
       problems,  particularly  for  catman  when  producing  the
       whatis  database. However, it is easy to adjust MANPATH on
       a user-specific basis  so  that  the  installed  reference
       pages are automatically found by the man command.


       [Tru64 UNIX]  Some users indirectly use the webman script,
       also controlled by the  MANPATH  setting,  to  dynamically
       convert  reference  page  source  files to HTML format for
       viewing in a web browser. These users should be aware that
       the  webman  script may not convert to HTML all of the man
       coding constructs that can be found in third-party  reference

   Enabling Codeset Conversion of Translated Reference Pages    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  The man command can automatically invoke the
       iconv utility to perform codeset conversion  of  reference
       page  files. This capability allows you to install one set
       of reference pages to support locales that have  the  same
       language  and  territory  but  different codesets, thereby
       reducing file redundancy on the system. To enable  codeset
       conversion,  the  following  conditions  must  be met: The
       LC_MESSAGES locale category of the process running the man
       command must be set to the locale name to which the reference
 pages will be converted.  The underlying iconv  utility
  must  have  a  converter available for the source and
       destination codesets. Refer to the iconv(1) reference page
       for  more information about codeset converters.  An appropriate
 locale mapping file must exist  in  the  /usr/share

              A  locale  mapping file is a hidden file whose name
              has the format locale_name  is  a  complete  locale
              name  that  includes  the  name  of the destination
              codeset.  The content of the locale mapping file is
              the locale with the source codeset for which translated
 manpages are available.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  For example,  after  installing  Tru64  UNIX
       subsets  of  software  and  translated reference pages for
       Japanese, the eucJP_SJIS codeset converter is installed in
       the  /usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv  directory,  manpages  for the
       ja_JP.eucJP    locale     are     installed     in     the
       /usr/share/ja_JP.eucJP/man  directory, and the file, which
       contains the ja_JP.eucJP locale  name,  is  moved  to  the
       /usr/share  directory. When users set locale to ja_JP.SJIS
       and run the man command, it accesses the  reference  pages
       in  the  /usr/share/ja_JP.eucJP/man directory and converts
       them to the SJIS codeset for display.

   Controlling the Pager Used by the man Command    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  By default, you can use the  following  keys
       to  control  and  navigate  the  reference  page  display:
       Advances the display by one line.  Advances the display by
       one  screen.   Backs  up  the  display by one half screen.
       Searches for the first instance of the  specified  string.
       Searches  for the next instance of the string specified by
       a preceding /string directive.  Stops the display.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Refer to the more(1) reference  page  for  a
       complete discussion of pager subcommands.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  By  default,  if  the  standard output is a
       teletype and the - (single minus sign) option is not  provided,
 man uses the more -svf command to display formatted
       output. The -vf options are present in case the  lp  nroff
       device driver generates special device control codes.

       The  following  conditions also affect how the man command
       displays output:  If  the  MORE  environment  variable  is
       defined,  the man command uses the defined command line in
       place of more -svf. If the -v and -f options are  missing,
       reference  pages  may  not  display  properly.  If another
       pager is defined for the PAGER environment  variable,  the
       man  command uses that pager in place of the more command.

   Formatted Reference Pages    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  A reference page area may or may not contain
       cat?   directories  with  formatted  reference pages. Your
       system administrator can create these directories and preformat
  reference  page  source  files by using the catman
       command (see catman(8)).  The man command checks to see if
       a  preformatted version of a reference page exists and, if
       it does and has a more recent date than the  corresponding
       source  file, the command simply displays the preformatted
       file using the more command or the defined pager.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  If the specified reference page exists  only
       as  a  source  file,  the  man  command processes the file
       through a pipeline of commands.  This  pipeline  includes:
       [Tru64  UNIX]  If  the file is compressed, the gunzip command
 to uncompress the file [Tru64 UNIX]  The tbl and neqn
       commands  to preprocess source markup for tables and equations
 [Tru64 UNIX]  The nroff command to create  formatted
       output  The  more  command or an alternative pager command
       (if defined) to display the file

              [Tru64 UNIX]  This last step does not occur if  you
              specify  the - option on the man command line or if
              standard output is not a teletype device (for example,
 if you pipe man command output to another command
 or redirect it to a file).

       [Tru64 UNIX]  When processing the reference  page  through
       nroff,  the  man  command specifies the -m option with the
       name of the macro package described in man(5). Most  Tru64
       UNIX  reference  pages require not only this macro package
       but also those described in rsml(5). The additional  macro
       packages  are  applied using entries in the reference page
       source files  and  not  through  the  nroff  command  line
       invoked by the man command.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  nroff  command  invoked  by  man  also
       includes the -Tdevice option. The value  for  device  differs,
  depending  on whether cat?  directories are present
       when the source file is formatted.  When  the  appropriate
       cat?   directory is present and does not contain a formatted
 version of the reference page, the man command formats
       source  by  creating  output  for the nroff lp device.  It
       also saves the formatted output in the cat?  directory. If
       the  cat?   directory is absent, the man command formats a
       reference page by creating output for the nroff lpr device
       and does not save the formatted output.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  If  a preformatted version of the reference
       page exists, but the source version is  more  recent  than
       the  preformatted  one,  the  man command does not use the
       preformatted file. The command formats the source file and
       replaces the preformatted file with a new version.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  When a specified reference page is not formatted
 or is being formatted again, the man  command  displays
  an  appropriate status message, unless the standard
       output is not a teletype device. For example,  the  status
       message  is not displayed when output from the man command
       is redirected to a file or piped to another command.

   Reference Pages in Compressed Format    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  The  man  command  supports  reference  page
       files  in  either compressed or uncompressed format.  Compressed
 files can save a significant amount of disk  space
       in  the  file  system  where  reference  page  subsets are
       installed.  The reference page  files  for  the  operating
       system  product  are  installed  as  files, which are compressed
 files created by the gzip command.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  To display a compressed reference page,  the
       man  command temporarily uncompresses the file by invoking
       the gunzip utility with  the  -c  option  before  invoking
       other  commands  to  format (if necessary) and display the
       reference page.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  There  are  a  number  of  requirements  and
       restrictions  that  apply to reference pages in compressed
       format. For more information, refer to both the  Reference
       Page Pointers section in this DESCRIPTION and the RESTRICTIONS

   Reference Page Pointers    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64  UNIX]  Reference  page  directories  can   contain
       cross-reference   (pointer)  reference  pages.   Pointers,
       which invoke another reference page, support those  reference
  page  files  that contain multiple names in the NAME
       section. The pointers allow users to  invoke  a  reference
       page  by  specifying any of the names in the NAME section,
       not only the name of the reference page itself.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The man command supports different kinds  of
       pointers,  depending  on  whether reference page files are
       compressed or uncompressed, source files, or  preformatted

       [Tru64  UNIX]  When  reference  page  files are compressed
       (either source files in man?  directories or  preformatted
       files  in  cat?   directories),  their associated pointers
       must be  implemented  as  hard  links.  Furthermore,  each
       pointer  file  name  must  end  with  the same compression
       extension as the file that the pointer invokes. For  example,
  if  a reference page was compressed by the gzip command,
 both the reference page file name and those  of  its
       pointers, must end in

       [Tru64  UNIX]  When uncompressed reference pages reside in
       cat?  directories, pointers  are  symbolic  links  to  the
       files that the command displays.  When uncompressed reference
 pages reside in man?  directories, pointers are  oneline
  files.   The  one line is an nroff include directive
       that has one of the following formats:

       [Tru64 UNIX]  In this case, the man command will  reformat
       the title2 reference page, if necessary, and save the output
 in the file title2.section  in  the  appropriate  cat?
       directory, assuming the cat?  directory exists.

RESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       This  section  contains restrictions that apply to the man
       command and the files that it processes.

   Pathnames in Uncompressed Pointer Files Must Start With man?
       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  man  command  changes   directory   to
       /usr/share/man,  /usr/dt/share/man,  /usr/local/man, or to
       those directories specified with the MANPATH variable, the
       -M option, or -P option.  Some reference pages assume this
       change of directory.   Therefore,  an  attempt  to  format
       uncompressed  reference  pages  can fail if any directives
       specifying partial pathnames do not start with man?/.  For
       example,  a  cross-reference file that includes the cat(1)
       reference page must specify man1 in the pathname:

       .so man1/cat.1

   Pointers Must Reside in Same Area as Related Files    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  The man command does not support  cross-references
  to files outside the current reference page area.
       For example, a pointer that resides in the  /usr/local/man
       area  cannot  include or invoke a file that resides in the
       /usr/share/man area.

   Compressed Pointers Cannot Be Copied Across File Systems    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  A pointer associated with a compressed  reference
  page  is  a  hard link, which is not a file but an
       alternative entry in a file system table for a  particular
       file.  Hard links cannot be transferred from one file system
 to another by using commands, such as cp, rcp, or  mv.
       These  commands  cannot  determine which entries in a file
       system table point to the same file, and so copy the  file
       that  is  pointed to into the destination area each time a
       hard link is encountered.  Reference pages can  have  many
       associated  pointers.  Therefore,  an operation that moves
       directories of compressed reference pages  from  one  file
       system to another consumes far more disk space in the destination
 area than was required in the source area.

   The cat? Directories May Not Exist
       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  .../man/cat?   directories   are   not
       required.  It is the option of the system administrator to
       create these  directories  and  preformat  reference  page
       source files using the catman command. If you are creating
       reference pages to be installed on  multiple  systems,  be
       sure to supply the files in source file format so they can
       reside in the man?  directories.

   Most Commands Cannot Work Directly on Compressed Files    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  Most reference page files are  installed  in
       compressed  format,  which  means that they cannot be processed
 directly by most commands. However, you can use the
       gunzip  -c (or gzip -u -c) command to uncompress the files
       and direct the result to standard  output  for  additional

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  following  examples  search  the  man8
       directory to find reference pages that contain the  string

       For  POSIX  (including  Korn)  and  Bourne  shells:  $  cd
       /usr/share/man/man8 $ for i in *.gz; do > gunzip -c  $i  |
       grep  'install' >&- && echo "*** $i" > gunzip -c $i | grep
       'install' > done

       For C shell: % cd /usr/share/man/man8 % foreach i (*.gz) >
       gunzip  -c $i | grep 'install' >/dev/null && echo "*** $i"
       > gunzip -c $i | grep 'install' > end

   The whatis Database Is Required for Some Commands    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  The man -f (whatis)  and  man  -k  (apropos)
       commands  fail  unless a whatis keyword database exists in
       one or more of the reference page areas in the man command
       search  path. A default whatis database is included in the
       Tru64 UNIX product and can be optionally installed by your
       system  administrator.   This  database  is  copied to the
       /usr/share/man directory and includes entries for all  the
       Tru64  UNIX  reference  page subsets that are installed on
       the system.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The whatis database is not updated automatically
  when reference pages for layered products and other
       kinds of optional software are installed.  Therefore, your
       system  administrator  should  rebuild the whatis database
       after installation of reference pages for  optional  products
 by invoking catman with the -w option.

   Changing  Setting for lp Device Affects Preformatted Reference
       [Tru64 UNIX]  When cat?  directories are  present,  source
       reference  pages  are  formatted  for  the nroff lp device
       rather than the nroff lpr  device.  The  nroff  lp  device
       driver  supplied with Tru64 UNIX is set to generate output
       for our devices as specified in term(4).  If  your  system
       administrator  changes  the supplied setting for the nroff
       lp device, all preformatted reference page  files  created
       by man or catman should be deleted and reformatted for the
       new setting.

   Preformatted Reference Pages May Not Be Suitable for Printing    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  Preformatted reference pages may not be in a
       format  suitable  for  printing  on your hardcopy printers
       because of embedded control characters that  the  printers
       do  not  recognize.  To format a reference page for a specific
 printer, move to the reference  page  directory  and
       issue  commands such as the following: % cd /usr/share/man
       % gunzip -c man1/ls.1.gz |tbl |neqn |nroff -Tdevice -man |
       \ lpr -Pmyprinter

       [Tru64    UNIX]  Replace    the   device   argument   with
       /usr/share/lib/term/tabdevice, where device is the name of
       a  device  listed  in term(4). Specify lpr for device when
       producing output suitable for a lineprinter. For  example:
       %  cd  /usr/share/man  % gunzip -c man1/ls.1.gz |tbl |neqn
       |nroff -Tlpr -man | \ lpr -Pmyprinter

       [Tru64 UNIX]  When cat?  directories are absent,  the  man
       command  invokes  nroff  by  specifying the lpr device. In
       this  case,  you  can  usually  pipe  man  command  output
       directly  to  a  printer  or redirect the output to a file
       that you can  print.  For  example:  %  man  1  ls  |  lpr
       -Pmyprinter % man 1 ls > ~harry/ls.1.txt

       [Tru64  UNIX]  If  the  reference  page has tables and the
       hardcopy device is not capable of reverse line  movements,
       the  reference  page  may not print properly.  There is no
       workaround for this problem.

   Non-HP Terminals May Not Display Preformatted Files Correctly    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  Preformatted reference pages may not be in a
       format  suitable for display on non-HP terminals.  To format
 a reference page for a specific terminal, move to  the
       reference  page  directory  and issue commands such as the
       following: % cd /usr/share/man %  gunzip  -c  man1/ls.1.gz
       |tbl |neqn |nroff -Tdevice -man -h | more -svf

       [Tru64    UNIX]  Replace    the   device   argument   with
       /usr/share/lib/term/tabdevice, where device is the name of
       a device listed in term(4) and is one appropriate for your

   Nondefault Tab Settings Can Corrupt man Command Displays    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  You can view reference pages only on devices
       for which default tab boundaries are in effect.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  To  format reference page source files, the
       man and catman commands invoke nroff with the  -h  option.
       This  option  causes nroff to substitute a a tab character
       for each string of one or  more  spaces  that  ends  on  a
       default tab boundary. This operation reduces the number of
       characters sent to devices for  printing  or  display  and
       also   reduces  the  size  of  files  saved  in  the  cat?

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Default tab boundaries are set  after  every
       eight  character  positions.  If nondefault tab boundaries
       have been set on the device or system on  which  reference
       pages  are displayed, the tab characters embedded by nroff
       corrupt  reference  page   displays   with   inappropriate
       sequences  of  spaces. If you encounter this problem after
       using the man command, enter the command tabs (to  restore
       default  tab  boundaries  on your display device) and then
       enter the man command again.

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The man command returns the following  exit  values:  Success.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Display  the printf(1) reference page: % man printf [Tru64
       UNIX]  Display the  printf(3)  reference  page:  %  man  3
       printf  [Tru64  UNIX]  Display the mgr_helper(8) reference
       page that you created in a man8  section  directory  under
       $HOME/mgr:   %   man   -M   $HOME/mgr   mgr_helper  [Tru64
       UNIX]  Display reference pages with the  title  locale  in
       sections 1 and 4: % man 1 locale 4 locale Query the whatis
       database for reference pages whose NAME  sections  include
       the string "core": % man -k core


       The following environment variables affect the behavior of
       the man command: Provides a default value for other locale
       variables  when these are unset or null.  If set to a nonempty
 string, overrides the values  of  all  other  locale
       variables,  including LANG.  Determines the locale for the
       interpretation of byte sequences  as  characters  in  text
       data.   Determines  the  locale  used  for text written to
       standard error or standard output.   Determines  the  root
       directory  for  message catalogs containing informational,
       diagnostic, and other messages returned  by  the  command.
       The  NLSPATH  value,  in  combination  with the setting of
       LC_MESSAGES, specifies the directory in  which  a  localespecific
 message catalog is found.  Determines the command
       (pager) that man invokes to  filter  output  when  writing
       output to a terminal.

              A  default  pager  must exist and is implementation
              defined. On Tru64 UNIX systems, the  default  pager
              used by man is the more command.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Standard location for reference page section
       directories [Tru64 UNIX]  Section  directories  containing
       nroff  source files for reference pages [Tru64 UNIX]  Section
 directories containing formatted files for  reference
       pages  [Tru64  UNIX]  Standard  location for CDE reference
       page section directories [Tru64 UNIX]  Section directories
       containing  nroff  source  files  for  CDE reference pages
       [Tru64  UNIX]  Section  directories  containing  formatted
       files  for  CDE  reference pages [Tru64 UNIX]  Location of
       section directories for site-specific, or local, reference
       pages  [Tru64  UNIX]  Section directories containing nroff
       source files for local reference pages [Tru64  UNIX]  Section
 directories containing formatted files for local reference
 pages  [Tru64  UNIX]  The  default  whatis  keyword
       database maintained by using catman

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:   apropos(1),   gzip(1),   iconv(1),  locale(1),
       more(1), neqn(1), nroff(1),  pcat(1),  tbl(1),  whatis(1),

       Files: man(5), rsml(5)

[ Back ]
 Similar pages
Name OS Title
intro Tru64 Introduction to miscellaneous reference pages
man.page Tru64 The man macro packages for reference pages
apropos Tru64 Locates reference pages by keyword
man Tru64 The man macro packages for reference pages
sml Tru64 rsml and sml macro packages that support RSMLcoded reference pages
rsml Tru64 rsml and sml macro packages that support RSMLcoded reference pages
catman Tru64 Creates or rebuilds formatted reference pages and the whatis database
nvfragpg Tru64 Displays the pages of an AdvFS frag file
env Tru64 Displays or sets the current environment, or displays the values of environment variables
printenv Tru64 Displays or sets the current environment, or displays the values of environment variables
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