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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       cat - Concatenates or displays files

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       cat [-benrstuv] file... | -

       The  cat command reads each specified file in sequence and
       writes it to standard output.

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces documented on this reference  page  conform  to
       industry standards as follows:

       cat: XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Omits line numbers from blank lines when  -n
       is  specified. If you specify the -b option, the -n option
       is automatically invoked with it.  [Tru64  UNIX]  Same  as
       the  -v  option with a $ (dollar sign) character displayed
       at the end of each line.   [Tru64  UNIX]  Displays  output
       lines preceded by line numbers, numbered sequentially from
       1.   [Tru64  UNIX]  Replaces  multiple  consecutive  empty
       lines  with  one  empty  line, so that there is never more
       than one empty line between lines  containing  characters.
       [Tru64  UNIX]  Does  not  display  a message if cat cannot
       find an input file. (Silent option.)   [Tru64  UNIX]  Same
       as the -v option, with the tab character printed as <Ctrli>
 (^I).  Does not buffer output. Writes  bytes  from  the
       input  file  to  standard  output without delay as each is
       read.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Displays  nonprinting  characters  so
       that they are visible.

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The name of the file to be displayed.

              If  you  do  not specify a file or if you specify -
              (dash) instead of file,  cat  reads  from  standard
              input. The cat command accepts multiple occurrences
              of - (dash) as a file argument.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The cat command is frequently  used  with  >
       (redirection  symbol)  to  concatenate the specified files
       and write them to the specified  destination.   (See  CAUTIONS.)
  The  cat command is also used with >> to append a
       file to another file.

CAUTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Do not redirect output to one of the input files using the
       >  (redirection  symbol).   If  you  do this, you lose the
       original data in the input file because  the  shell  truncates
  it  before  cat can read it.  (See also the sh command.)

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
  An error occurred.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       To display the file notes, enter: cat notes

              If  the  file  is  longer  than  one  screenful, it
              scrolls by too quickly to read. To display  a  file
              one  page at a time, use the more command.  To concatenate
 several files, enter: cat section1.1  section1.2
 section1.3 > section1

              This  creates  a file named section1 that is a copy
              of  section1.1  followed  by  section1.2  and  section1.3.
   To  suppress  error messages about files
              that do not exist, enter: cat  -s  section2.1  section2.2
 section2.3 > section2

              If section2.1 does not exist, this command concatenates
 section2.2 and  section2.3.   Note  that  the
              message  goes  to  standard  error,  so it does not
              appear in the output file.  The result is the  same
              if  you  do  not use the -s option, except that cat
              displays the error message: cat: cannot  open  section2.1

              You  may  want to suppress this message with the -s
              option when you use the cat command in shell procedures.
   To  append one file to the end of another,
              enter: cat section1.4 >> section1

              The >> in this command specifies  that  a  copy  of
              section1.4 be added to the end of section1.  If you
              want to replace the file, use a  single  >  symbol.
              To  add  text  to  the end of a file, enter: cat >>
              notes Get milk on the way home <Ctrl-d>

              Get milk on the way home is added  to  the  end  of
              notes.   With this syntax, the cat command does not
              display a prompt; it waits for you to  enter  text.
              Press the End-of-File key sequence (<Ctrl-d> above)
              to indicate you are finished.  To concatenate  several
  files  with  text  entered from the keyboard,
              enter: cat section3.1 - section3.3 > section3

              This concatenates section3.1, text  from  the  keyboard,
  and section3.3 to create the file section3.
              To  concatenate  several  files  with  output  from
              another  command,  enter:  ls  | cat section4.1 - >

              This copies section4.1, and then the output of  the
              ls command to the file section4.  To get two pieces
              of input from the terminal (when standard input  is
              a  terminal)  with  a  single  command  invocation,
              enter: cat start - middle - end > file1

              If standard input is a regular file,  however,  the
              preceding  command  is equivalent to the following:
              cat start - middle /dev/null end > file1

              This is because the entire  contents  of  the  file
              would  be  consumed  by cat the first time it saw -
              (dash) as a file argument. An End-of-File condition
              would  then  be  detected immediately when - (dash)
              appeared the second time.


       The following environment variables affect  the  execution
       of cat: Provides a default value for the internationalization
 variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or
       null,  the  corresponding value from the default locale is
       used.  If any of the internationalization  variables  contain
 an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of
       the variables had been defined.  If  set  to  a  non-empty
       string value, overrides the values of all the other internationalization
 variables.  Determines the locale for  the
       interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters
 (for example, single-byte as opposed  to  multibyte
       characters  in  arguments).  Determines the locale for the
       format and contents  of  diagnostic  messages  written  to
       standard  error.  Determines the location of message catalogues
 for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  more(1), ksh(1), pack(1), pg(1), pr(1),  Bourne
       shell sh(1b), POSIX shell sh(1p)

       Standards:  standards(5)

[ Back ]
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