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extacct(5)							    extacct(5)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     extacct - introduction to IRIX extended accounting	features

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The accounting done by IRIX has traditionally been	process	oriented: a
     new accounting record is produced for each	process	that has been run,
     containing	statistics about the resources used by that individual
     process.  Although	this is	fine for sites with average workloads, it can
     be	too grainy for sites that have large amounts of	traffic, with the
     result that the accounting	files quickly become too large and
     unmanageable.  Since accounting is	typically employed to charge
     individual	projects or departments	for overall resource utilization, it
     would often be sufficient to simply summarize the resource	usage of an
     entire login session or batch job.	 This could cut	down significantly on
     the amount	of disk	space required for accounting data.  Therefore,	IRIX
     provides a	feature	to perform accounting by array session,	in which each
     accounting	record that is written contains	the accumulated	statistics for
     all of the	processes that were part of that array session.	 This is in
     addition to process-level accounting, not in place	of it; the two
     accounting	modes are separately controlled	so it is possible to have
     either, both, or neither style of accounting enabled.

     The data that is collected	and reported for array sessions	is a superset
     of	the data that is reported by the traditional process accounting
     facility.	In particular, the following items are reported	for array
     sessions but not reported by traditional process accounting:

     *	Array session handle (see array_sessions(5))
     *	Service	provider information (see array_sessions(5))
     *	Project	ID (see	projects(5))
     *	Number of swaps
     *	Number of bytes	read, number of	bytes written (separately)
     *	Number of read requests, number	of write requests
     *	Time spent waiting for block I/O
     *	Time spent waiting for raw I/O
     *	Time spent waiting on the run queue

     Some of this information would also be useful for sites that otherwise
     make use of process accounting.  Therefore, a second type of process
     accounting, "extended process accounting",	is provided by IRIX.  Again,
     it	is controlled separately from session accounting or traditional
     process accounting.

     IRIX writes session and extended process accounting data using the	System
     Audit Trail (SAT) facility.  This is different from traditional process
     accounting, which typically writes	its data to the	file /var/adm/pacct.
     Audit data	is collected directly from the kernel by the satd(1M) program,
     then either written directly to files or else passed on to	other filters
     or	postprocessing programs.  To include accounting	records	in the audit
     data, it is necessary to enable the audit events sat_proc_acct (for
     extended process accounting records) and/or sat_session_acct (for session
     accounting	records).  This	can be done using the satconfig(1M) or

									Page 1

extacct(5)							    extacct(5)

     sat_select(1M) commands.  If the audit facility is	not being used for any
     purpose other than	accounting, no other events need to be enabled.	 For
     more information on configuring the audit facility, see the IRIX Admin:
     Backup, Security, and Accounting guide.

     Session accounting	records	can be written in two formats, differing only
     in	the treatment of service provider information.	In IRIX	6.4 and
     earlier, the service provider information for an array session was	always
     exactly 64	bytes in length, while starting	with IRIX 6.5 it could
     potentially vary from 0 to	1024 bytes in length.  In "session accounting
     format 1" (the system default, and	the format supported in	IRIX 6.4 and
     earlier), exactly 64 bytes	of service provider information	will be
     reported for each array session.  If in fact the array session has	fewer
     than 64 bytes of service provider information associated with it, then it
     will be padded at the end with zeroes.  Likewise, if it has more than 64
     bytes of service provider information, the	65th and subsequent bytes will
     be	truncated.  In "session	accounting format 2", the exact	number of
     bytes of service provider information associated with the array session
     will be reported, along with a field specifying this length.  In this
     case, it is possible for session accounting records to have varying
     lengths, but there	will be	no loss	of data.  The session accounting
     format can	be changed dynamically by the superuser	using the arsctl(2)
     system call or the	xactl(1M) program.  It can also	be set for boot	time
     be	changing the kernel variable sessaf using the systune(1M) program.

     Note that the utility programs for	traditional SVR4 process accounting
     (for example, acctcms, acctmerg, and turnacct) do not function with the
     extended process accounting or session accounting data.  It is possible
     to	convert	extended accounting data into the SVR4 format (see the
     acctcvt(1)	program	for details), but the metrics that are unique to
     extended accounting will be lost.	Software to process unmodified
     extended accounting data is available from	independent software vendors.
     The format	of the audit data files	themselves are described in the	system
     header files sys/sat.h and	sys/extacct.h.

     Like any accounting or monitoring package,	the extended process
     accounting	and session accounting features	do contribute to overall
     system overhead.  For this	reason,	they are disabled in the kernel	by
     default.  To enable these features, use the systune(1M) program to	modify
     either or both of these variables:

     do_sessacct   Enables session accounting if non-zero

     do_extpacct   Enables extended process accounting if non-zero


     The following steps are required to set up	session	or extended process

     *	Enable session and/or extended process accounting in the kernel	by
	using the systune(1M) utility to set the do_sessacct and/or
	do_extpacct parameters to non-zero values.

									Page 2

extacct(5)							    extacct(5)

     *	Use the	inst(1M) utility to install the	eoe.sw.audit subsystem from
	your IRIX distribution media.  This will add the special components
	required for the system	audit trail facility to	your system.  It will
	be necessary to	reboot the system after	completing this	step.

     *	Enable the audit facility in general by	using the chkconfig(1M)
	utility	as follows:

	     chkconfig audit on

     *	Use the	satconfig program to enable the	sat_proc_acct and/or
	sat_session_acct audit events.	If the audit facility is being used
	only for accounting purposes, all other	events can be turned off to
	conserve disk space.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     The format	of the data stream generated by	the System Audit Trail
     facility changed between IRIX 6.2 and IRIX	6.4, then again	between	IRIX
     6.4 and IRIX 6.5.	Therefore, software that was designed to read
     accounting	data from one of those earlier IRIX releases may not work with
     more recent IRIX releases (and vice versa).  To help address this
     situation,	the acctcvt(1) program can be used to convert data files or
     even the audit data stream	(when used as a	filter)	from one format	to

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     acctcvt(1), audit(1M), sat_select(1M), satconfig(1M), satd(1M),
     systune(1M), xactl(1M), arsctl(2),	arsop(2), array_sessions(5),
     audit_filters(5), projects(5).

     IRIX Admin: Backup, Security, and Accounting

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 3333
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