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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       sed - a Stream EDitor

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       sed [-n] [-V] [--quiet] [--silent] [--version] [--help]
	   [-e script] [--expression=script]
	   [-f script-file] [--file=script-file]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Sed  is a stream editor.  A stream editor is used to perform basic text
       transformations on an input stream (a file or input from  a  pipeline).
       While  in  some	ways similar to an editor which permits scripted edits
       (such as ed), sed works by making only one pass over the input(s),  and
       is consequently more efficient.	But it is sed's ability to filter text
       in a pipeline which particularly distinguishes it from other  types  of

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Sed may be invoked with the following command-line options:


	      Print  out  the version of sed that is being run and a copyright
	      notice, then exit.


       --help Print a usage message  briefly  summarizing  these  command-line
	      options and the bug-reporting address, then exit.



	      By  default,  sed will print out the pattern space at the end of
	      each cycle through the script.  These options disable this automatic
 printing, and sed will only produce output when explicitly
	      told to via the p command.

       -e script

	      Add the commands in script to the set  of  commands  to  be  run
	      while processing the input.

       -f script-file

	      Add the commands contained in the file script-file to the set of
	      commands to be run while processing the input.

       If no -e,-f,--expression, or --file options are given on  the  commandline,
  then  the first non-option argument on the command line is taken
       to be the script to be executed.

       If any command-line parameters remain after processing the above, these
       parameters are interpreted as the names of input files to be processed.
       A file name of - refers to the standard	input  stream.	 The  standard
       input will processed if no file names are specified.

Command Synopsis    [Toc]    [Back]

       This is just a brief synopsis of sed commands to serve as a reminder to
       those who already know sed; other documentation (such  as  the  texinfo
       document) must be consulted for fuller descriptions.

   Zero-address ``commands''
       : label
	      Label for b and t commands.

	      The  comment  extends until the next newline (or the end of a -e
	      script fragment).

       }      The closing bracket of a { } block.

   Zero- or One- address commands    [Toc]    [Back]
       =      Print the current line number.

       a \

       text   Append text, which has each  embedded  newline  preceeded  by  a

       i \

       text   Insert  text,  which  has  each  embedded newline preceeded by a

       q      Immediately quit the sed	script	without  processing  any  more
	      input, except that if auto-print is not diabled the current pattern
 space will be printed.

       r filename
	      Append text read from filename.

   Commands which accept address ranges    [Toc]    [Back]
       {      Begin a block of commands (end with a }).

       b label
	      Branch to label; if label is omitted, branch to end of script.

       t label
	      If a s/// has done a  successful	substitution  since  the  last
	      input line was read and since the last t command, then branch to
	      label; if label is omitted, branch to end of script.

       c \

       text   Replace the selected lines with text, which  has	each  embedded
	      newline preceeded by a backslash.

       d      Delete pattern space.  Start next cycle.

       D      Delete  up  to  the first embedded newline in the pattern space.
	      Start next cycle, but skip reading from the input  if  there  is
	      still data in the pattern space.

       h H    Copy/append pattern space to hold space.

       g G    Copy/append hold space to pattern space.

       x      Exchange the contents of the hold and pattern spaces.

       l      List out the current line in a ``visually unambiguous'' form.

       n N    Read/append the next line of input into the pattern space.

       p      Print the current pattern space.

       P      Print  up  to  the first embedded newline of the current pattern

	      Attempt to match regexp against the pattern space.  If  successful,
   replace  that  portion  matched  with  replacement.   The
	      replacement may contain the special character & to refer to that
	      portion  of  the	pattern  space	which matched, and the special
	      escapes \1 through \9 to refer  to  the  corresponding  matching
	      sub-expressions in the regexp.

       w      filename Write the current pattern space to filename.

	      Transliterate  the  characters in the pattern space which appear
	      in source to the corresponding character in dest.

Addresses    [Toc]    [Back]

       Sed commands can be given with no addresses, in which case the  command
       will  be  executed for all input lines; with one address, in which case
       the command will only be executed for  input  lines  which  match  that
       address;  or with two addresses, in which case the command will be executed
 for all input lines which match  the  inclusive  range  of  lines
       starting  from  the first address and continuing to the second address.
       Three things to note about address ranges: the  syntax  is  addr1,addr2
       (i.e.,  the  addresses  are separated by a comma); the line which addr1
       matched will always be accepted, even if addr2 selects an earlier line;
       and  if	addr2 is a regexp, it will not be tested against the line that
       addr1 matched.

       After the address (or address-range), and before the command, a !   may
       be inserted, which specifies that the command shall only be executed if
       the address (or address-range) does not match.

       The following address types are supported:

       number Match only the specified line number.

	      Match every step'th line starting with line first.  For example,
	      ``sed  -n  1~2p''  will  print all the odd-numbered lines in the
	      input stream, and the address 2~5 will match every  fifth  line,
	      starting with the second.  (This is a GNU extension.)

       $      Match the last line.

	      Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.

	      Match  lines  matching the regular expression regexp.  The c may
	      be any character.

Regular expressions    [Toc]    [Back]

       POSIX.2 BREs should be supported, but they aren't completely yet.   The
       \n  sequence  in  a  regular  expression matches the newline character.
       There are also some GNU extensions.  [XXX FIXME: more needs to be said.
       At the very least, a reference to another document which describes what
       is supported should be given.]

Miscellaneous notes    [Toc]    [Back]

       This version of sed supports  a	\<newline>  sequence  in  all  regular
       expressions,  the  replacement part of a substitute (s) command, and in
       the source and dest parts of a transliterate (y)  command.   The  \  is
       stripped, and the newline is kept.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       awk(1),	ed(1),	expr(1),  emacs(1),  perl(1),  tr(1),  vi(1), regex(7)
       [well, one ought to be written... XXX], sed.info, any of various  books
       on sed, the sed FAQ (http://www.wollery.demon.co.uk/sedtut10.txt,

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

       E-mail bug reports to bug-gnu-utils@gnu.org.  Be sure to include the
       word ``sed'' somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.

GNU Project			  1998-05-07				SED(1)
[ Back ]
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