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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     setkey -- manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The setkey command adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association
     Database (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries
     in the kernel.

     The setkey command takes a series of operations from the standard input
     (if invoked with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are dumped.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a      setkey usually does not display dead SAD entries with -D.	If
	     with -a, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.  A dead
	     SAD entry means that it has been expired but remains in the system
 because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -h      Add hexadecimal dump on -x mode.

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY
	     socket, including messages sent from other processes to the kernel.

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to PF_KEY
	     socket.  -xx makes each timestamps unformatted.

   Configuration syntax    [Toc]    [Back]
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following configuration
 syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs ('#') are treated as comment

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
	     Add an SAD entry.	add can fail with multiple reasons, including
	     when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
	     Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
	     Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
	     Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
	     Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
	     Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
	     line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy ;
	     Add an SPD entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
	     Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
	     Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same

     spddump ;
	     Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
	     IPv4/v6 address.  setkey can resolve a FQDN into numeric
	     addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses, setkey
	     will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by trying
	     all possible combinations.  -4, -6 and -n restricts the address
	     resolution of FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict results
	     into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.  -n avoids FQDN resolution
 and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

	     protocol is one of following:
	     esp	 ESP based on rfc2406
	     esp-old	 ESP based on rfc1827
	     ah 	 AH based on rfc2402
	     ah-old	 AH based on rfc1826
	     ipcomp	 IPComp

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must
	     be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with ``0x'' prefix.
	     SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
	     and they cannot be used.

	     take some of the following:
	     -m mode	 Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
			 one of following: transport, tunnel or any.  The
			 default value is any.
	     -r size	 Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
			 size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
			 is zero or not specified, replay check don't take
	     -u id	 Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD.
			 See policy.
	     -f pad_option
			 defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
			 is one of following:
			 zero-pad    All of the padding are zero.
			 random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
			 seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
				     started from 1 are set.
	     -f nocyclic-seq
			 Don't allow cyclic sequence number.
	     -lh time
	     -ls time	 Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.

	     -E ealgo key
			 Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
	     -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
			 Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
			 payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
	     -A aalgo key
			 Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
	     -C calgo [-R]
			 Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
			 specified, spi field value will be used as the IPComp
			 CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as is.  If
			 -R is not specified, the kernel will use well-known
			 CPI on wire, and spi field will be used only as an
			 index for kernel internal usage.

	     key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of hexadecimal
 digits preceded by ``0x''.

	     Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in separate

	     These are selections of the secure communication specified as
	     IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
	     TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:


	     prefixlen and port must be decimal number.  The square bracket
	     around port is really necessary.  They are not manpage metacharacters.
  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst
	     apply here as well.

	     Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of words in
	     /etc/protocols as upperspec.  Or icmp6, ip4, and any can be specified.
  any stands for ``any protocol''.  Also you can use the
	     protocol number.  You can specify a type and/or a code of ICMPv6
	     when Upper-layer protocol is ICMPv6.  the specification can be
	     placed after icmp6.  A type is separated with a code by single
	     comma.  A code must be specified anytime.	When a zero is specified,
 the kernel deals with it as a wildcard.  Note that the kernel
 can not distinguish a wildcard from that a type of ICMPv6 is
	     zero.  For example, the following means the policy doesn't
	     require IPsec for any inbound Neighbor Solicitation.
		   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;

	     NOTE: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this
	     moment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node (not
	     implemented at this moment).  We have many protocols in
	     /etc/protocols, but protocols except of TCP, UDP and ICMP may not
	     be suitable to use with IPsec.  You have to consider and be careful
 to use them.

     policy  policy is the one of the following three formats:

	   -P direction discard
	   -P direction none
	   -P direction ipsec
		   protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

	     You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.
	     Either out or in are used.  discard means the packet matching
	     indexes will be discarded.  none means that IPsec operation will
	     not take place onto the packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation
	     will take place onto the packet.  The part of
	     protocol/mode/src-dst/level specifies the rule how to process the
	     packet.  Either ah, esp or ipcomp is to be set as protocol.  mode
	     is either transport or tunnel.  If mode is tunnel, you must specify
 the end-points addresses of the SA as src and dst with `-'
	     between these addresses which is used to specify the SA to use.
	     If mode is transport, both src and dst can be omitted.  level is
	     to be one of the following: default, use, require or unique.  If
	     the SA is not available in every level, the kernel will request
	     getting SA to the key exchange daemon.  default means the kernel
	     consults to the system wide default against protocol you specified,
 e.g.  esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when the kernel
	     processes the packet.  use means that the kernel use a SA if it's
	     available, otherwise the kernel keeps normal operation.  require
	     means SA is required whenever the kernel sends a packet matched
	     with the policy.  unique is the same to require.  In addition, it
	     allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound SA.  You just
	     specify the policy level unique, racoon(8) will configure the SA
	     for the policy.  If you configure the SA by manual keying for
	     that policy, you can put the decimal number as the policy identifier
 after unique separated by colon `:' like the following;
	     unique:number.  in order to bind this policy to the SA.  number
	     must be between 1 and 32767.  It corresponds to extensions -u of
	     the manual SA configuration.  When you want to use SA bundle, you
	     can define multiple rules.  For example, if an IP header was followed
 by AH header followed by ESP header followed by an upper
	     layer protocol header, the rule would be:
		   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
	     The rule order is very important.

	     Note that ``discard'' and ``none'' are not in the syntax
	     described in ipsec_set_policy(3).	There are little differences
	     in the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

ALGORITHMS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and
     algorithm are almost orthogonal.  Followings are the list of authentication
 algorithms that can be used as aalgo in -A aalgo of protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   hmac-md5	   128		   ah: rfc2403
			   128		   ah-old: rfc2085
	   hmac-sha1	   160		   ah: rfc2404
			   160		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   keyed-md5	   128		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   128		   ah-old: rfc1828
	   keyed-sha1	   160		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   160		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   null 	   0 to 2048	   for debugging
	   hmac-sha2-256   256		   ah: 96bit ICV
			   256		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-384   384		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   384		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-sha2-512   512		   ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
			   512		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   hmac-ripemd160  160		   ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
					   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
	   aes-xcbc-mac    128		   ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
			   128		   ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)

     Followings are the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as
     ealgo in -E ealgo of protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   keylen (bits)   comment
	   des-cbc	   64		   esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
	   3des-cbc	   192		   rfc2451
	   null 	   0 to 2048	   rfc2410
	   blowfish-cbc    40 to 448	   rfc2451
	   cast128-cbc	   40 to 128	   rfc2451
	   des-deriv	   64		   ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
	   3des-deriv	   192		   no document
	   rijndael-cbc    128/192/256	   rfc3602
	   aes-ctr	   160/224/288	   draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03

     Note that the first 128 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as AES
     key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.

     Followings are the list of compression algorithms that can be used as
     calgo in -C calgo of protocol parameter:

	   algorithm	   comment
	   deflate	   rfc2394

RETURN VALUES    [Toc]    [Back]

     The command exits with 0 on success, and non-zero on errors.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
	     -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 myhost.example.com yourhost.example.com ah 123456
	     -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add esp 0x10001
	     -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
	     -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd[21][any] any
	     -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/ ;

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec, October 1999,

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The setkey command first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The command was completely re-designed in June 1998.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     setkey should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets
     (cannot inspect upper-layer headers).

FreeBSD 5.2.1		       November 20, 2000		 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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