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ROUTE(1M)							     ROUTE(1M)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     route - manually manipulate the routing tables

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     /usr/etc/route [-nqfF] command [[modifiers] args]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     Route is a	utility	used to	manually manipulate the	network	routing
     tables.  It normally is not needed, as a system routing table management
     daemon such as routed(1M),	should tend to this task.

     The route utility supports	a limited number of general options, but a
     rich command language, enabling the user to specify any arbitrary request
     that could	be delivered via the programmatic interface

     -n	 Bypasses attempts to print host and network names symbolically	when
	 reporting actions.  (The process of translating between symbolic
	 names and numerical equivalents can be	quite time consuming, and may
	 require correct operation of the network; thus	it may be expedient to
	 forgo this, especially	when attempting	to repair networking

     -v	 (verbose) Print additional details.

     -q	 Suppress all output.

     -F	 Flush all entries, not	just gateway entries, usually when restarting
	 the system.  Note that	unless at least	some of	the major non-gateway
	 routes	are immediately	restored, the system will not work.

     The route utility provides	six commands:

     add       Add a route.

     flush     Remove all 'gateway' routes.  Non-gateway routes	are added by
	       device drivers when the interface is configured,	and so should
	       usually not be removed.

     delete    Delete a	specific route.

     change    Change aspects of a route (such as its gateway).

     get       Lookup and display the route for	a destination.

     monitor   Continuously report any changes to the routing information
	       base, routing lookup misses, or suspected network

     The monitor command has the syntax

									Page 1

ROUTE(1M)							     ROUTE(1M)

	 route [-n] monitor

     The flush command has the syntax

	  route	[-n] [-F] flush

     If	the flush command is specified,	route will ``flush'' the routing
     tables of all gateway entries.  The -F flag flushes all entries are

     The other commands	have the following syntax:

	 route [-n] command [-net | -host]  destination	gateway

     where destination is the destination host or network, gateway is the
     next-hop intermediary via which packets should be routed.	Routes to a
     particular	host may be distinguished from those to	a network by
     interpreting the Internet address specified as the	destination argument.

     destination may be	specified with the keyword ``default'' (instead	of an
     IP	address	or name) to specify a route to all possible destinations; this
     is	the route of last resort, used by the system if	no better match	is

     Configuring a static default route	is often useful	if there is only one
     path available to get traffic out of the local subnet.  This can be
     accomplished easily by adding the route to	/etc/config/static-

     The optional modifiers net	and host force the destination to be
     interpreted as a network or a host, respectively.	Otherwise, if the
     destination has a ``local address part'' of INADDR_ANY , or if the
     destination is the	symbolic name of a network, then the route is assumed
     to	be to a	network; otherwise, it is presumed to be a route to a host.

     For example, 128.32 is interpreted	as -host ; 128.32.130 is
     interpreted as -host;	-net 128.32 is interpreted as; and -net 128.32.130 is	interpreted as

     If	the destination	is directly reachable via an interface requiring no
     intermediary system to act	as a gateway, the -interface modifier should
     be	specified; the gateway given is	the address of this host on the	common
     network, indicating the interface to be used for transmission.

     The optional -netmask qualifier is	intended to achieve the	effect of an
     OSI ESIS redirect with the	netmask	option,	or to manually add subnet
     routes with netmasks different from that of the implied network interface
     (as would otherwise be communicated using the OSPF	or ISIS	routing
     protocols).  One specifies	an additional ensuing address parameter	(to be
     interpreted as a network mask).  The implicit network mask	generated in
     the AF_INET case can be overridden	by making sure this option follows the
     destination parameter.

									Page 2

ROUTE(1M)							     ROUTE(1M)

     Routes have associated flags which	influence operation of the protocols
     when sending to destinations matched by the routes.  These	flags may be
     set (or sometimes cleared)	by indicating the following corresponding

	  -cloning   RTF_CLONING    - generates	a new route on use
	  -xresolve  RTF_XRESOLVE   - emit mesg	on use (for external lookup)
	  -iface    ~RTF_GATEWAY    - destination is directly reachable
	  -static    RTF_STATIC	    - manually added route
	  -nostatic ~RTF_STATIC	    - pretend route added by kernel or daemon
	  -reject    RTF_REJECT	    - emit an ICMP unreachable when matched
	  -blackhole RTF_BLACKHOLE  - silently discard pkts (during updates)
	  -proto1    RTF_PROTO1	    - set protocol specific routing flag #1
	  -proto2    RTF_PROTO2	    - set protocol specific routing flag #2
	  -llinfo    RTF_LLINFO	    - validly translates proto addr to link addr

     The optional modifiers -rtt, -rttvar, -sendpipe, -recvpipe, -mtu,
     -hopcount,	-expire, and -ssthresh provide initial values to quantities
     maintained	in the routing entry by	transport level	protocols, such	as TCP
     or	TP4.  These may	be individually	locked by preceding each such modifier
     to	be locked by the -lock meta-modifier, or one can specify that all
     ensuing metrics may be locked by the -lockrest meta-modifier.

     In	a change or add	command	where the destination and gateway are not
     sufficient	to specify the route (as in the	case where several interfaces
     may have the same address), the -ifp or -ifa modifiers may	be used	to
     determine the interface or	interface address.

     All symbolic names	specified for a	destination or gateway are looked up
     first as a	host name using	gethostbyname(3).  If this lookup fails,
     getnetbyname(3) is	then used to interpret the name	as that	of a network.

     Route uses	a routing socket and the new message types RTM_ADD,
     RTM_DELETE, RTM_GET, and RTM_CHANGE.  As such, only the super-user	may
     modify the	routing	tables.

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

     add [host | network ] %s: gateway %s flags	%x
	 The specified route is	being added to the tables.  The	values printed
	 are from the routing table entry supplied in the ioctl(2) call.  If
	 the gateway address used was not the primary address of the gateway
	 (the first one	returned by gethostbyname(3), the gateway address is
	 printed numerically as	well as	symbolically.

     delete [ host &| network ]	%s: gateway %s flags %x
	 As above, but when deleting an	entry.

     %s	%s done
	 When the flush	command	is specified, each routing table entry deleted
	 is indicated with a message of	this form.

									Page 3

ROUTE(1M)							     ROUTE(1M)

     Network is	unreachable
	 An attempt to add a route failed because the gateway listed was not
	 on a directly-connected network.  The next-hop	gateway	must be	given.

     not in table
	 A delete operation was	attempted for an entry which wasn't present in
	 the tables.

     routing table overflow
	 An add	operation was attempted, but the system	was low	on resources
	 and was unable	to allocate memory to create the new entry.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     netintro(7), routed(1M).

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The first paragraph may have slightly exaggerated routed's	abilities.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /etc/config/static-route.options	static route configuration file

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 4444
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