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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     ps -- process status

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     ps [-aCcefHhjlmrSTuvwxZ] [-M core] [-N system] [-O fmt] [-o fmt] [-p pid]
	[-t tty] [-U username[,username...]]
     ps [-L]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The ps utility displays a header line followed by lines containing information
 about your processes that have controlling terminals.  This information
 is sorted by controlling terminal, then by process ID.

     The information displayed is selected based on a set of keywords (see the
     -L -O and -o options).  The default output format includes, for each
     process, the process' ID, controlling terminal, cpu time (including both
     user and system time), state, and associated command.

     The process file system (see procfs(5)) should be mounted when ps is executed,
 otherwise not all information will be available.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      Display information about other users' processes as well as your
	     own.  This can be disabled by setting the
	     security.bsd.see_other_uids sysctl to zero.

     -c      Change the ``command'' column output to just contain the executable
 name, rather than the full command line.

     -C      Change the way the cpu percentage is calculated by using a
	     ``raw'' cpu calculation that ignores ``resident'' time (this normally
 has no effect).

     -e      Display the environment as well.

     -f      Show commandline and environment information about swapped out
	     processes.  This option is honored only if the uid of the user is

     -H      Show all of the kernel visible threads associated with each
	     process.  Depending on the threading package that is in use, this
	     may show only the process, only the kernel scheduled entities, or
	     all of the process threads.

     -h      Repeat the information header as often as necessary to guarantee
	     one header per page of information.

     -j      Print information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, ppid, pgid, jobc, state, tt, time and command.

     -L      List the set of available keywords.

     -l      Display information associated with the following keywords: uid,
	     pid, ppid, cpu, pri, nice, vsz, rss, mwchan, state, tt, time and

     -M      Extract values associated with the name list from the specified
	     core instead of the default /dev/kmem.

     -m      Sort by memory usage, instead of by process ID.

     -N      Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the
	     default /boot/kernel/kernel.

     -O      Add the information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified, after the process ID, in the default
	     information display.  Keywords may be appended with an equals
	     (``='') sign and a string.  This causes the printed header to use
	     the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -o      Display information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified.  Multiple keywords may also be given
	     in the form of more than one -o option.  Keywords may be appended
	     with an equals (``='') sign and a string.	This causes the
	     printed header to use the specified string instead of the standard

     -p      Display information associated with the specified process ID.

     -r      Sort by current cpu usage, instead of by process ID.

     -S      Change the way the process time is calculated by summing all
	     exited children to their parent process.

     -T      Display information about processes attached to the device associated
 with the standard input.

     -t      Display information about processes attached to the specified
	     terminal device.

     -U      Display the processes belonging to the specified username(s).

     -u      Display information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, %cpu, %mem, vsz, rss, tt, state, start, time and command.
	     The -u option implies the -r option.

     -v      Display information associated with the following keywords: pid,
	     state, time, sl, re, pagein, vsz, rss, lim, tsiz, %cpu, %mem and
	     command.  The -v option implies the -m option.

     -w      Use 132 columns to display information, instead of the default
	     which is your window size.  If the -w option is specified more
	     than once, ps will use as many columns as necessary without
	     regard for your window size.

     -x      Display information about processes without controlling terminals.

     -Z      Add label to the list of keywords for which ps will display

     A complete list of the available keywords are listed below.  Some of
     these keywords are further specified as follows:

     %cpu      The cpu utilization of the process; this is a decaying average
	       over up to a minute of previous (real) time.  Since the time
	       base over which this is computed varies (since processes may be
	       very young) it is possible for the sum of all %CPU fields to
	       exceed 100%.

     %mem      The percentage of real memory used by this process.

     flags     The flags associated with the process as in the include file

	       P_ADVLOCK      0x00001	     Process may hold a POSIX advisory
	       P_CONTROLT     0x00002	     Has a controlling terminal
	       P_INMEM	      0x00004	     Loaded into memory
	       P_NOCLDSTOP    0x00008	     No SIGCHLD when children stop
	       P_PPWAIT       0x00010	     Parent is waiting for child to
	       P_PROFIL       0x00020	     Has started profiling
	       P_SELECT       0x00040	     Selecting; wakeup/waiting danger
	       P_SINTR	      0x00080	     Sleep is interruptible
	       P_SUGID	      0x00100	     Had set id privileges since last
	       P_SYSTEM       0x00200	     System proc: no sigs, stats or
	       P_TIMEOUT      0x00400	     Timing out during sleep
	       P_TRACED       0x00800	     Debugged process being traced
	       P_WAITED       0x01000	     Debugging process has waited for
	       P_WEXIT	      0x02000	     Working on exiting
	       P_EXEC	      0x04000	     Process called exec
	       P_OWEUPC       0x20000	     Owe process an addupc() call at
					     next ast
	       P_SWAPPING     0x40000	     Process is being swapped

     label     The MAC label of the process.

     lim       The soft limit on memory used, specified via a call to

     lstart    The exact time the command started, using the ``%c'' format
	       described in strftime(3).

     lockname  The name of the lock that the process is currently blocked on.
	       If the name is invalid or unknown, then ``???'' is displayed.

     mwchan    The event name if the process is blocked normally, or the lock
	       name if the process is blocked on a lock.  See the wchan and
	       lockname keywords for details.

     nice      The process scheduling increment (see setpriority(2)).

     rss       the real memory (resident set) size of the process (in 1024
	       byte units).

     start     The time the command started.  If the command started less than
	       24 hours ago, the start time is displayed using the
	       ``%l:ps.1p'' format described in strftime(3).  If the command
	       started less than 7 days ago, the start time is displayed using
	       the ``%a6.15p'' format.	Otherwise, the start time is displayed
	       using the ``%e%b%y'' format.

     state     The state is given by a sequence of characters, for example,
	       ``RWNA''.  The first character indicates the run state of the

	       D       Marks a process in disk (or other short term, uninterruptible)
	       I       Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for longer than
		       about 20 seconds).
	       J       Marks a process which is in jail(2).  The hostname of
		       the prison can be found in `/proc/<pid>/status'.
	       L       Marks a process that is waiting to acquire a lock.
	       R       Marks a runnable process.
	       S       Marks a process that is sleeping for less than about 20
	       T       Marks a stopped process.
	       Z       Marks a dead process (a ``zombie'').

	       Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional
	       state information:

	       +       The process is in the foreground process group of its
		       control terminal.
	       <       The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
	       >       The process has specified a soft limit on memory
		       requirements and is currently exceeding that limit;
		       such a process is (necessarily) not swapped.
	       A       the process has asked for random page replacement
		       (MADV_RANDOM, from madvise(2), for example, lisp in a
		       garbage collect).
	       E       The process is trying to exit.
	       L       The process has pages locked in core (for example, for
		       raw I/O).
	       N       The process has reduced CPU scheduling priority (see
	       S       The process has asked for FIFO page replacement
		       (MADV_SEQUENTIAL, from madvise(2), for example, a large
		       image processing program using virtual memory to
		       sequentially address voluminous data).
	       s       The process is a session leader.
	       V       The process is suspended during a vfork(2).
	       W       The process is swapped out.
	       X       The process is being traced or debugged.

     tt        An abbreviation for the pathname of the controlling terminal,
	       if any.	The abbreviation consists of the three letters following
 /dev/tty, or, for the console, ``con''.  This is followed
	       by a ``-'' if the process can no longer reach that controlling
	       terminal (i.e., it has been revoked).

     wchan     The event (an address in the system) on which a process waits.
	       When printed numerically, the initial part of the address is
	       trimmed off and the result is printed in hex, for example,
	       0x80324000 prints as 324000.

     When printing using the command keyword, a process that has exited and
     has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a
     zombie) is listed as ``<defunct>'', and a process which is blocked while
     trying to exit is listed as ``<exiting>''.  The ps utility makes an educated
 guess as to the file name and arguments given when the process was
     created by examining memory or the swap area.  The method is inherently
     somewhat unreliable and in any event a process is entitled to destroy
     this information, so the names cannot be depended on too much.  The ucomm
     (accounting) keyword can, however, be depended on.

KEYWORDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following is a complete list of the available keywords and their
     meanings.	Several of them have aliases (keywords which are synonyms).

     %cpu	percentage cpu usage (alias pcpu)
     %mem	percentage memory usage (alias pmem)
     acflag	accounting flag (alias acflg)
     args	command and arguments
     comm	command
     command	command and arguments
     cpu	short-term cpu usage factor (for scheduling)
     etime	elapsed running time
     flags	the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias f)
     inblk	total blocks read (alias inblock)
     jobc	job control count
     ktrace	tracing flags
     label	MAC label
     lim	memoryuse limit
     logname	login name of user who started the process
     lstart	time started
     majflt	total page faults
     minflt	total page reclaims
     msgrcv	total messages received (reads from pipes/sockets)
     msgsnd	total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
     lockname	lock currently blocked on (as a symbolic name)
     mwchan	wait channel or lock currently blocked on
     nice	nice value (alias ni)
     nivcsw	total involuntary context switches
     nsigs	total signals taken (alias nsignals)
     nswap	total swaps in/out
     nvcsw	total voluntary context switches
     nwchan	wait channel (as an address)
     oublk	total blocks written (alias oublock)
     paddr	swap address
     pagein	pageins (same as majflt)
     pgid	process group number
     pid	process ID
     poip	pageouts in progress
     ppid	parent process ID
     pri	scheduling priority
     re 	core residency time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     rgid	real group ID
     rgroup	group name (from rgid)
     rlink	reverse link on run queue, or 0
     rss	resident set size
     rtprio	realtime priority (101 = not a realtime process)
     ruid	real user ID
     ruser	user name (from ruid)
     sid	session ID
     sig	pending signals (alias pending)
     sigcatch	caught signals (alias caught)
     sigignore	ignored signals (alias ignored)
     sigmask	blocked signals (alias blocked)
     sl 	sleep time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     start	time started
     state	symbolic process state (alias stat)
     svgid	saved gid from a setgid executable
     svuid	saved uid from a setuid executable
     tdev	control terminal device number
     time	accumulated cpu time, user + system (alias cputime)
     tpgid	control terminal process group ID
     tsid	control terminal session ID
     tsiz	text size (in Kbytes)
     tt 	control terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
     tty	full name of control terminal
     uprocp	process pointer
     ucomm	name to be used for accounting
     uid	effective user ID
     upr	scheduling priority on return from system call (alias usrpri)
     user	user name (from uid)
     vsz	virtual size in Kbytes (alias vsize)
     wchan	wait channel (as a symbolic name)
     xstat	exit or stop status (valid only for stopped or zombie process)

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following environment variables affect the execution of ps:

     COLUMNS  If set, specifies the user's preferred output width in column
	      positions.  By default, ps attempts to automatically determine
	      the terminal width.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /dev/kmem		    default kernel memory
     /dev/lomac 	    interface used to query the lomac(4) KLD
     /var/run/dev.db	    /dev name database
     /var/db/kvm_kernel.db  system namelist database
     /boot/kernel/kernel    default system namelist
     /proc		    the mount point of procfs(5)

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     kill(1), w(1), kvm(3), strftime(3), lomac(4), procfs(5), pstat(8),
     sysctl(8), mutex(9)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The ps command appeared in Version 4 AT&T UNIX.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Since ps cannot run faster than the system and is run as any other scheduled
 process, the information it displays can never be exact.

FreeBSD 5.2.1			April 18, 1994			 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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