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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       ps [lujsvmaxScewhrnu] [txx] [O[+|-]k1[[+|-]k2...]] [pids]

       there are also three long options:




       More long options are on the way...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       ps gives a snapshot of the current processes.  If you want a repetitive
       update of this status, use top.	This man  page	documents  the	/proc-
       based version of ps, or tries to.


       The  command-line  options  for this version of ps are derived from the
       BSD version of ps, not the System V version.

       The command-line arguments should not be preceeded by a `-'  character,
       because	in  the future, a `-' will be used to indicate Unix98-standard
       command-line  arguments,  while	no  `-'  will  indicate  the   current
       ``extended BSD'' style of command line arguments.

       For  now,  ps  will  give  you  a  warning if you use a `-' for a short
       option, but it will still work.	If you have shell  scripts  which  use
       BSD-style  arguments  to  ps, take heed of the warning and fix them, or
       else your scripts will fail to function correctly at some point in  the
       future.	 If  you  want to turn off the warnings, set the I_WANT_A_BRO-
       KEN_PS environment variable.

       There are also some ``long options'' in GNU style; see below for those.

       l    long format
       u    user format: gives user name and start time
       j    jobs format: pgid sid
       s    signal format
       v    vm format
       m    displays memory info (combine with p flag to get number of pages).
       f    "forest" family tree format for command line
       a    show processes of other users too
       x    show processes without controlling terminal
       S    add child cpu time and page faults
       c    command name from task_struct
       e    show environment after command line and ` + '
       w    wide output: don't truncate command lines to fit on one line.   To
	    be exact, every w that is specified will add another possible line
	    to the output. If the space isn't needed it isn't used. You may up
	    to 100 w's.
       h    no header
       r    running procs only
       n    numeric output for USER and WCHAN.

       txx  only  procs with controlling tty xx; for xx you may use either the
	    name of a device file under "/dev" or that name with either tty or
	    cu	sliced	off.   This  is  the reverse heuristic that ps uses to
	    print out the abbreviated tty name in the TT field, e.g.  ps t1.

	    Order the process listing according to the multi-level sort specified
  by  the  sequence  of short keys from SORT KEYS, k1, k2, ...
	    Default order specifications exist for each of the various formats
	    of	ps.   These are over-ridden by a user specified ordering.  The
	    `+' is quite optional, merely re-iterating the  default  direction
	    on a key.  `-' reverses direction only on the key it precedes.  As
	    with t and pids, the O option must be the last option in a	single
	    command  argument,	but specifications in successive arguments are

       pids List only the specified processes; they are comma-delimited.   The
	    list  must	be given immediately after the last option in a single
	    command-line argument, with no intervening space, e.g.  ps j1,4,5.
	    Lists  specified in subsequent arguments are catenated, e.g.  ps l
	    1,2 3,4 5 6 will list all of the processes 1-6 in long format.  If
	    pids are given, they are listed no matter what.  If a tty is given
	    matching processes are listed no matter what.  These two  features
	    override the 'a' and 'x' flags.


       These options are preceeded by a double-hyphen.

	    Choose a multi-letter key from the SORT KEYS section. X may be any
	    convenient separator character.  To be GNU-ish use `='.   The  `+'
	    is really optional since default direction is increasing numerical
	    or lexicographic order.  E.g.: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid

	    Get a help message that summarizes the usage and gives a  list  of
	    supported  sort  keys.  This list may be more up to date than this
	    man page.

	    Display version and source of this program.

SORT KEYS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Note that the values used in sorting are the internal  values  ps  uses
       and  not  the `cooked' values used in some of the output format fields.
       If someone wants to volunteer to write special comparison functions for
       the cooked values, ... ;-)

       c       cmd	       simple name of executable
       C       cmdline	       full command line
       f       flags	       flags as in long format F field
       g       pgrp	       process group ID
       G       tpgid	       controlling tty process group ID
       j       cutime	       cumulative user time
       J       cstime	       cumulative system time
       k       utime	       user time
       K       stime	       system time
       m       min_flt	       number of minor page faults
       M       maj_flt	       number of major page faults
       n       cmin_flt        cumulative minor page faults
       N       cmaj_flt        cumulative major page faults
       o       session	       session ID
       p       pid	       process ID
       P       ppid	       parent process ID
       r       rss	       resident set size
       R       resident        resident pages
       s       size	       memory size in kilobytes
       S       share	       amount of shared pages
       t       tty	       the minor device number of tty
       T       start_time      time process was started
       U       uid	       user ID number
       u       user	       user name
       v       vsize	       total VM size in bytes
       y       priority        kernel scheduling priority


       PRI  This  is  the counter field in the task struct.  It is the time in
	    HZ of the process's possible timeslice.

       NI   Standard unix nice value; a positive value means less cpu time.

       SIZE Virtual image size; size of text+data+stack.

       RSS  Resident set size; kilobytes of program in memory.

       WCHAN    [Toc]    [Back]
	    Name of the kernel function where the process  is  sleeping,  with
	    the  `sys_'  stripped  from the function name.  If /etc/psdatabase
	    does not exist, it is just a hex number instead.

       STAT Information about the status of the process.  The first field is R
	    for  runnable,  S for sleeping, D for uninterruptible sleep, T for
	    stopped or traced, or Z for a zombie process.   The  second  field
	    contains  W if the process has no resident pages.  The third field
	    is N if the process has a positive nice value (NI field).

       TT   Controlling tty.

       PAGEIN    [Toc]    [Back]
	    Number of major page faults (page faults that cause  pages	to  be
	    read from disk, including pages read from the buffer cache).

       TRS  Text resident size.

       SWAP Kilobytes (or pages if p is used) on swap device.

       SHARE    [Toc]    [Back]
	    Shared memory.

UPDATING    [Toc]    [Back]

       This  proc-based  ps works by reading the files in the proc filesystem,
       mounted on /proc.  This ps does not need to be suid kmem  or  have  any
       privileges to run.  Do not give this ps any special permissions.

       You  will need to put in place the appropriate System.map file when you
       install a new kernel in order to get meaningful	information  from  the
       WCHAN  field.  This should be done every time you compile a new kernel.
       You should also run 'ps' as root once and then any time the tty devices
       in the "/dev" directory change.

       As  of procps-1.00, ps/top read System.map directly if it is available.
       The search path for kernel address-to-symbol resolution is:
		   /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
		   /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
		   /boot/psdatabase-`uname -r`
		   /lib/modules/`uname -r`/psdatabase

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The member used_math of task_struct is not shown, since	crt0.s	checks
       to see if math is present.  This causes the math flag to be set for all
       processes, and so it is worthless.

       Programs swapped out to disk will be shown without command  line  arguments,
 and unless the c option is given, in parentheses.

       %CPU shows the cputime/realtime percentage.  It will not add up to 100%
       unless you are lucky.  It is time used divided by the time the  process
       has been running.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count the page tables and the task_struct
       of a proc; this is at least 12k of  memory  that  is  always  resident.
       SIZE is the virtual size of the proc (code+data+stack).

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       ps  was	originally  written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>.
       Michael K.  Johnson <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly  to
       use the proc filesystem, changing a few things in the process.  Michael
       Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list  feature.   Charles
       Blake  <cblake@bbn.com>	added  multi-level  sorting,  the dirent-style
       library, the device name-to-number  mmaped  database,  the  approximate
       binary  search  directly on System.map, and many code and documentation
       cleanups.  David Mossberger-Tang wrote  the  generic  BFD  support  for
       psupdate.   Michael  K.	Johnson  <johnsonm@redhat.com>	is the current

       Please send bug reports to <acahalan@cs.uml.edu>

Cohesive Systems		  3 Sep 1997				 PS(1)
[ Back ]
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