vdump, rvdump - Performs full and incremental backups on
/sbin/vdump [-0..9] [-CDNPUquv] [-F num_buffers] [-T
tape_num] [-b size] [-f device] [-x num_blocks] fileset
/sbin/rvdump [-0..9] [-CDNUquv] [-F num_buffers] [-T
tape_num] [-b size] [-f nodename:device] [-x num_blocks]
Specifies the number of 1024-byte blocks per record in the
saveset. The valid range is 2 through 2048 blocks; the
default is 60 blocks per record. The value of this option
also determines the size of the in-memory buffers. The
maximum block size cannot exceed the maximum block size
supported by the associated hardware. Compresses the data
as it is backed up, which minimizes the saveset size.
Performs a level 0 backup on the specified subdirectory.
This option overrides any backup level specification in
the command. If this option is specified, the AdvFS user
and group quota files and the fileset quotas are not
backed up. Specifies the destination of the saveset.
For vdump, the local destination can be a device, a
file, or, when the dash (-) character is specified,
For rvdump, the mandatory specification is nodename:device
to specify the remote machine name that
holds the device or file. Specifies the number of
in-memory buffers to use. The valid range is 2
through 64 buffers; the default is 8 buffers. The
size of the in-memory buffers is determined by the
value of the -b option. Displays usage help for
the command. Does not rewind the storage device
when it is a tape. Use the -N option when you want
to dump more than one saveset to a tape. Produces
backward-compatible savesets that can be read by
earlier versions of the vrestore command. However,
some data, such as very large quota limits, can be
lost in such a saveset. Displays only error messages;
does not display information messages.
Specifies the starting number for the first tape.
The default number is 1. The tape number is used
only to prompt the operator to load another tape in
the drive. Updates the /etc/vdumpdates file with a
timestamp entry from the beginning of the backup.
Does not unload the storage device when it is a
tape. Displays the names of the files being backed
up. Displays the current version of the command.
Displays the filesets that have not been backed up
within one week. Specifies an "exclusive or" (XOR)
operation each time the blocks specified by
num_blocks are written to the saveset. The XOR
operation is performed on the blocks and the
results written to the saveset as an XOR block that
immediately follows the blocks. Subsequently, the
vrestore command can use this block to recover one
of the blocks in the group should a read error
occur. The valid range is 1 through 32 blocks; the
default is 8 blocks. Using the -x option creates
larger savesets and increases the amount of time
required to back up a file system, but offers additional
protection from saveset errors. Specifies
the backup level. The value 0 for this option
causes the entire fileset to be backed up to the
storage device. The default backup level is 9.
Specifies the full path name of a mounted AdvFS fileset to
be backed up. Alternatively, specifies a mounted NFS or
UFS file system. When used with the -D option, specifies a
The vdump command backs up files and any associated
extended attributes (including ACLs, see the proplist(4)
and acl(4) reference pages) from a single mounted fileset
or clone fileset to a local storage device.
The rvdump command backs up files and any associated
extended attributes (including ACLs, see the proplist(4)
and acl(4) reference pages) from a single mounted fileset
or clone fileset to a remote storage device.
The vdump and rvdump commands are the backup facility for
the AdvFS file system. However, the commands are file-system
independent, and you can use them to back up other
file systems, such as UFS and NFS.
The commands back up all files in the specified fileset
that are new or changed since a certain date and produce a
saveset on the storage device. The date is determined by
comparing the specified backup level to previous backup
levels recorded in the /etc/vdumpdates file. The default
storage device for the vdump command is
/dev/tape/tape0_d1. You can specify an alternate storage
device by using the -f option. There is no default storage
device for the rvdump command; it must be specified.
The commands perform either an incremental backup, level 9
to 1, or a full backup, level 0, depending on the desired
level of backup and the level of previous backups recorded
in the /etc/vdumpdates file.
Note that an incremental dump only captures the files that
have changed, ignoring all others. This means that if you
perform a level 0 dump and a later incremental dump,
deleted files are not marked as gone (deleted). If you
then do a complete restore with a level 0 saveset and
incremental backups, the deleted files will be restored.
You must then delete these files individually.
The commands back up all files that are new or have
changed since the latest backup date of all backup levels
that are lower than the backup level being performed. If
a backup level that is lower than the specified level does
not exist, the commands initiate a level 0 backup. A level
0 backup backs up all the files in the fileset.
After the backup operation is complete, you can use the
vrestore -t command to verify that the backup contains the
files you wanted to save. This command lists the name and
size of each file in the saveset without restoring them.
When you specify the -C option, the commands back up the
files with compression. You cannot specify the compression
ratio, it is determined by the contents of the dump.
When you specify the -u option, the commands enter a timestamp
entry of that fileset and its backup level into the
If a file-system entry with a specific backup level does
not already exist in the /etc/vdumpdates file, the commands
append the file with a new vdump record; otherwise,
the commands overwrite the existing record, changing the
backup date to reflect the most current backup session.
This occurs after all files in the named fileset have been
successfully backed up.
If you use the -N option to vdump more than one saveset to
a tape, see the vrestore command for information on
restoring a series of savesets from a tape.
Archives that were created prior to Tru64 UNIX Version 5.0
will be restored with the same characteristics they would
have if they were restored on the earlier systems. For
example, any UFS sparse files archived with the vdump command
prior to Tru64 UNIX Version 5.0 will be allocated
disk space and filled with zeros and any AdvFS striped
sparse files archived with the vdump command prior to Version
4.0D will be allocated disk space and filled with
Under normal usage, the commands use a small amount of
additional space on the storage device, typically less
than 1 percent, when a fileset is backed up. If the -x
option is used, the amount of additional space used to
back up the fileset increases because XOR blocks are written.
If you use either of the commands to back up a fileset to
an output file that is part of the fileset you are backing
up, there are two results you should be aware of: That
output file could be twice the size it should be. When
you restore that output file, you obtain only a partial
copy of it.
To inform you of the situation, the commands display a
message similar to the following: vdump: /demo/vdump.file
is on the same device as /demo, this vdump: could cause
recursive back up problems.
vdump: Do you want to abort the dump? (yes or no).
Typically, you would want to abort the backup operation
and select another file on which to back up the fileset.
However, there may be situations when you do not want to
abort the operation. For example, if you are backing up a
portion of a fileset using the -D option, you can store
the resulting output file in the same fileset in a section
not being backed up.
To run the rvdump command, you must be able to execute the
rsh command on the remote node to which you are dumping.
See rsh(8) for server and client access rules.
You do not have to be the root user to use the vdump or
the rvdump command.
The vdump and rvdump commands back up only mounted filesets.
Filesets backed up by using the vdump or the rvdump command
must be restored by using the vrestore or the rvrestore
command. The vdump and rvdump commands are not
interchangeable with the dump and rdump commands. Similarly,
the vrestore and the rvrestore commands are not
interchangeable with the restore and rrestore commands.
The AdvFS quota files and fileset quotas in the fileset
are included in a saveset when you are the root user and a
full fileset is saved. AdvFS quota files and fileset quotas
can only be backed up for locally-mounted filesets.
The vdump command is disabled on filesets enabled for the
Data Management Application Programming Interface (DMAPI).
Users should check with the vendor of their data management
(DM) application for the appropriate back up procedure
The vrestore command in DIGITAL UNIX versions earlier than
Version 4.0 cannot be used to restore savesets produced by
the vdump command in DIGITAL UNIX Version 4.0 or higher
systems or in Tru64 UNIX systems.
If you want to use the vdump and rvdump commands to write
a saveset on the a or c disk partition, and you have no
data on any partitions on that disk, then you must zero
the disk label so vdump can write to partition a or c
starting at block 0. If you have data on any disk partitions,
then use a partition other than a or c. See "Duplicating
or Recovering a System (Root) Disk" in the System
You can backup to partitions that do not start at block 0
(partition b for example) if the partition you want to
dump to is large enough to hold the data. For more information
about dumping to disk partitions see AdvFS Administration,
Dumping to a File or Disk Partition.
The /etc/vdumpdates file is written in ASCII and consists
of a single record per line. You must be the root user to
update this file or to change any record field.
If you edit the /etc/vdumpdates file, be certain that all
records follow the correct format. An incorrectly formatted
record in this file may make the file inaccessible for
updates or reads.
A typical /etc/vdumpdates file includes entries like the
following, defining the fileset name, last backup level,
dmn2#set2 8 Sat Apr 21 07:40:35 2001 dmn2#set2 9
Sun Apr 22 07:20:42 2001 dmn2#set2 3 Mon Apr 23
07:47:37 2001 dmn2#set2 7 Sun Apr 22 08:23:05 2001
/dev/disk/dsk0g 0 Thu Apr 26 12:11:42 2001
In this example, dmn2#set2 represents an AdvFS
fileset; /dev/disk/dsk0g represents a UFS file system.
If you perform a level 8 backup of the
dmn2#set2, using this /etc/vdumpdates file, you can
expect the following results: The vdump command
ignores the /dev/disk/dsk0g entry because it does
not match the specified fileset, dmn2#set2. The
vdump command ignores the level 8 and 9 entries
because these entries are equal to or higher than
the level 8 backup you requested. This leaves only
the level 3 and 7 entries. Of the two remaining
entries, the vdump command chooses the entry with
the most recent dump date, which is the level 3
entry. The vdump command backs up all files that
were created or modified after the dump date of the
level 3 entry. The vdump command modifies the
access time of each file in the fileset. To perform
a full (level 0) backup of a local fileset to
a local device, enter a command similar to the following:
% vdump -0 -u -f /dev/tape/tape1_d6 /fs1
In this example, -0 specifies that all (level 0)
files in the fileset mounted at /fs1 will be backed
up to /dev/tape/tape1_d6; -u specifies that vdump
will update the /etc/vdumpdates after a successful
backup of the fileset. To perform a full level 0
backup of a local fileset to a remote device, enter
a command similar to the following: # rvdump -0 -u
-f pease:/dev/tape/tape1_d6 /fs1
In this example, -0 specifies that all files in the
fileset mounted at /fs1 will be backed up to the
remote device /dev/tape/tape1_d6 on machine node
pease; -u specifies that rvdump will update the
/etc/vdumpdates file after a successful backup of
the fileset. When the backup saveset device is the
character - (dash), the vdump command writes to
standard output. Thus, the vdump and vrestore commands
can be used in a pipeline expression to copy
filesets. The following are typical commands;
they are equivalent: # vdump -0 -f - /usr | (cd
/mnt; vrestore -x -f -) # vdump -0f - /usr | vrestore
-xf - -D /mnt
The rvdump and rvrestore commands are unable to use
the - (dash) character. The output device must be
specified. To dump more than one saveset on a single
tape, enter a command similar to the following:
# vdump -N /dev/tape/tape0 fs1 # vdump -N
In this example, the -N option specifies that the
tape will not be rewound between saving the filesets.
For weekly tape backups, a set of 5 tapes
per backed up fileset can be used on a cyclical
basis. Each month a level 0 backup is taken on a
set of fresh tapes that are saved until the next
level 0 backup.
The following is a guideline for the level of
backup to perform during weekly, biweekly, and
M Tu W Th F
Weekly 0 3 2 5 4
Biweekly 0 3 2 5 4
0 9 8 9 9
Monthly 0 3 2 5 4
1 9 8 9 9
1 3 2 5 4
1 9 8 9 9
Specifies the vdump command path. Specifies the rvdump
command path. Contains a list of filesets that were
backed up, the date that each file system was backed up,
and the backup level. Contains the full path names and
mount points of filesets.
Commands: mount(8), umount(8), rsh(8), vrestore(8), rvrestore(8)
Files: acl(4), proplist(4)
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