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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       named - Internet domain name server (DNS)

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       /usr/sbin/named  [-d  debuglevel]  [-p port#] [{-b  | -c }
       configfile] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-w  directory] [configfile]

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Prints debugging  information.   The  debuglevel  variable
       specifies  the level of messages printed.  If the value is
       negative, debuglevel is set to 1.

              This enables  you  to  specify  multiple,  distinct
              level  of  debugging  for categories of events (for
              example, queries and transfers in and out) by using
              the  logging statement in the named.conf file.  See
              named.conf(4) for more  information.   Specifies  a
              different  remote  port  number.   This is the port
              number to which named sends queries.   The  default
              is  the standard port number for the domain service
              as listed in the /etc/services file.   Specifies  a
              configfile  with  a leading dash. (The -b option is
              not required unless the specified configfile begins
              with  a dash.)  Runs this process in the foreground
              instead of executing fork(2) and running as a  daemon.
   By  default, the commands forks another process
 and  runs  in  the  background  as  a  daemon.
              Traces all incoming queries.

              The queries logging_category clause in the configuration
 file logging  statement  provides  the  same
              function  and  is  preferred  over  the  -q option.
              Turns recursion off in  the  server.   Answers  can
              come  only from local (primary or secondary) zones.
              This can be used on root servers. The default is to
              use recursion.

              The  recursion  clause  in  the  configuration file
              options statement provides the same function and is
              preferred  over  the  -r  option.  Sets the working
              directory of the server. The default working directory
 is the current directory.

              The  directory  clause  of  the  configuration file
              options statement overrides any value specified  on
              the command line.

       To  provide  compatibility with previous versions of BIND,
       any additional argument following the  options  and  their
       arguments  is  considered  the  name  of the configuration
       file.  This argument overrides  any  configfile  specified
       with  the  -b or -c options.  If no argument is given, the
       default  configuration  file,  /etc/namedb/named.conf,  is

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  named daemon is the Internet domain name server.  See
       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, and RFC 1035 for more  information  on
       the  Internet  name-domain system.  Without any arguments,
       named    reads    the    default    configuration     file
       /etc/namedb/named.conf,  reads  any initial data, and listens
 for queries.  If you specify a configfile argument at
       the  end of the command line, the value overrides any configuration
 file specified with the -b or -c options.

       The following is an example of part of a named.conf  file,
       created by the network administrator:


       If  you manually edit the named.conf file and later modify
       your BIND configuration with the SysMan Menu (see bindconfig(8)), your changes will be overwritten.

       options {
          directory "/etc/namedb";
          named-xfer "/usr/sbin/named-xfer";   // _PATH_XFER
          dump-file "named_dump.db";      // _PATH_DUMPFILE
          pid-file "/var/run/named.pid";  // _PATH_PIDFILE
          statistics-file "named.stats";  // _PATH_STATS
          forward first;
             forwarders {;;
          transfers-in 10;
          transfer-format one-answer;
          allow-transfer {;
          }; }; zone Berkeley.EDU {
          type  master;                     //  what  used  to be
       called primary
          file "berkeley.edu.zone";
          check-names fail;
          allow-update { any; }; }; zone 32.128.IN-ADDR.ARPA {
          type master;                     //  what  used  to  be
       called primary
          file "ucbhost.rev";
          check-names fail;
          allow-update { any; }; }; zone CC.Berkeley.EDU {
          type  slave;                      //  what  used  to be
       called secondary
          file "cc.zone.bak";
          masters {
    ;                 //  where   to   zone
       transfer from
          }; }; zone 6.32.128.IN-ADDR.ARPA {
          type  slave;                      //  what  used  to be
       called secondary
          file "cc.rev.bak";
          masters {
    ;                 //  where   to   zone
       transfer from
          }; }; // // load the cache data last // zone "." {
          type hint;
          file "named.ca"; };

       The options statement aggregates all global options in one
       place.  A description of each option follows:  The  directory
 option causes the server to change its working directory
 to the directory specified.  This  can  be  important
       for  the  correct  processing of $INCLUDE files in primary
       zone files.  The named-xfer option specifies  the  program
       that  executes  the  transfers  from master servers.  This
       overrides the default program name.  The dump-file  option
       specifies  the  file  or  path for dump of the name server
       database.  This overrides the default file name.  The pidfile
  option  specifies the file or path for Process Id of
       name server daemon.  This overrides the default file name.
       The  statistics-file  specifies  the file or path for name
       server statistics data.  This overrides the  default  file
       name.   The  forwarders  option specifies the addresses of
       sitewide servers that will accept recursive  queries  from
       other  servers.   If  the  boot file specifies one or more
       forwarders, the server sends all queries for data  not  in
       the  cache  to  the  forwarders  first.  Each forwarder is
       asked in turn until an answer is returned or the  list  is
       exhausted.   If no answer is forthcoming from a forwarder,
       the server continues as it would  have  without  the  forwarders
  option  unless  it  is in forward-only mode.  The
       forwarding facility is useful to cause  a  large  sitewide
       cache  to  be generated on a master, and to reduce traffic
       over links to outside servers.   The  transfers-in  option
       specifies  the  number of named-xfer subprocesses that the
       server can spawn at any one time.  The default is 10.  The
       transfer-format  option  specifies  the format of outbound
       zone transfers (from us to them).  Two values are allowed:
       one-answer and many-answers.  If you are doing zone transfers
 to old servers, do  not  specify  many-answers.   The
       default  is one-answer.  You can specify the transfer format
 on a host-by-host basis in the server statement.   The
       allow-transfer  option  provides  a  form of simple access
       control. If you specify this  option  with  specific  networks,
   your  name  server  only  answers  zone  transfer
       requests from hosts that are on  networks  listed  in  the
       allow-transfer  list.  To specify transfer to any network,
       specify the option as follows:

              allow-transfer { any; };

       The zone statement identifies a zone and  its  attributes.
       Different  types  of  zones  are  identified  by  the type
       attribute; for example, master (formerly called  primary),
       slave  (formerly  called  secondary),  stub,  and hint.  A
       description of each zone statement follows: The first zone
       statement  specifies  that the file berkeley.edu.zone contains
 authoritative data for the Berkeley.EDU  zone.   The
       file  berkeley.edu.zone  contains  data in the master file
       format described in RFC 883. All domain names are relative
       to the origin, in this case, Berkeley.EDU (see Master File
       section). The allow-update option allows the master server
       to  accept  dynamic  updates from new BIND clients for its
       master data file without the intervention of  the  network
       administrator.   The  check-names  fail  option forces the
       zone to verify that all hostnames contain only valid characters.
   (The default behavior is to allow any characters
       in the hostname.)  For more information  on  this  option,
       see  the  BIND  Configuration File Guide on the Tru64 UNIX
       Documentation CD-ROM.  The second zone statement specifies
       that the file ucbhosts.rev contains authoritative data for
       the domain 32.128.IN-ADDR.ARPA, which is used to translate
       addresses  in  network  128.32  to host names. Each master
       file should begin with an SOA record  for  the  zone  (see
       Master  File section).  The third zone statement specifies
       that all authoritative data under CC.Berkeley.EDU is to be
       transferred  from the name server at  If the
       transfer fails, it tries and continues trying
       the addresses, up to 10, listed in the masters list.

              The  file  cc.zone.bak is the backup for the transferred
 zone.  The secondary copy is also authoritative
  for the specified domain.  The first non-dotted-quad
 address on this line is taken as  a  filename
  in which to backup the transferred zone.  The
              name server loads the zone from this backup file if
              it  exists when it boots, providing a complete copy
              even if the master servers are  unreachable.  Whenever
  a new copy of the domain is received by automatic
 zone transfer from one of the master servers,
              this  file  is  updated.  If no file name is specified,
 a temporary file is used; the temporary  file
              is deleted after each successful zone transfer.  Be
              sure to specify a file name to avoid wasting  bandwidth.
   The  fourth  zone statement specifies that
              the  address-to-hostname  mapping  for  the  subnet
              128.32.136 should be obtained from the same list of
              master servers as the previous zone.

              The fifth zone statement  specifies  that  data  in
              named.local  is  to  be placed in the backup cache.
              Its main use is to specify data such  as  locations
              of  root  domain  servers.   This cache is not used
              during normal operation, but is used  as  hints  to
              find the current root servers. The file named.ca is
              in  the  same  format  as  berkeley.edu.zone.   The
              named.ca  file  should be updated periodically from
              ftp.rs.internic.net since it  contains  a  list  of
              root servers that are changed periodically.

       The  include  statement (not shown) can be used to process
       the contents of some other file as though they appeared in
       place  of  the  include  statement.  This is useful if you
       have a lot of zones or if you have  logical  groupings  of
       zones which are maintained by different people.

       The include statement is also useful for separating information
  that  you  do  not  want  in  a  publicly-readable
       named.conf file. For example, on IPv4 servers, if you want
       to specify a private key to use for authenticating dynamic
       updates from new BIND clients in your domain, you can create
 a separate file for the key statement.  Set  the  permissions
  on  the new file to be readable/writable only by
       superuser, then use the include statement to call the file
       into  the  named.conf  file.   This arrangement allows the
       named  daemon  to  parse  the  key  configuration  without
       revealing the key to users.

       The  include  statement  requires  the  name  of  the file
       (enclosed by quotation marks) whose  contents  are  to  be
       included.  For example:

       include "filename";

       The  server  statement  (not  shown) allows you to specify
       options  specific  to  a  particular  server.   The  bogus
       attribute  specifies  whether  to  listen  to the specific
       server.  If bogus is set to yes, the name server does  not
       send  any  queries  to the specified name server.  This is
       useful when you know that some popular name server has bad
       data in a zone or cache, and you do not want to avoid contamination
 while the problem is fixed.  The  transfer-format
  attribute  specifies  whether the one-answer or manyanswer
 option should be  used  for  zone  transfers.   The
       default  is  one-answer,  as  it  will  work with all name
       servers.  This option overrides the global option for  the
       specified server.  For example:

       server {
               bogus no;
               transfer-format one-answer; };

       The key statement (not shown) defines a private key to use
       for authentication purposes.  See the Network  Administration:
  Services  manual  or  bind_manual_setup(7) for more
       information about enabling secure DNS updates.

   Master Files    [Toc]    [Back]
       The  BIND  master  database  files  contain  the  resource
       records  that the named daemon uses to respond to queries.

       When you configure a master server with the  SysMan  Menu,
       the  utility  optionally creates two master database files
       from    your    existing    /etc/hosts     database     --
       /etc/namedb/hosts.db,    for    forward    lookups,    and
       /etc/namedb/hosts.rev, for reverse lookups.  However,  you
       can  assign any names to these files, or create additional
       database files for other domains, provided that you update
       the  zone statements in the named.conf file appropriately.

       Database filenames conventionally include  a  prefix  with
       descriptive  information  about the domain followed by the
       or suffix. For example, the master database files for  the
       redwood.forest.com  domain  might be called redwood.db and
       redwood.rev to differentiate them  from  files  for  other

       The  master database consists of control information and a
       list of resource records for objects in the  zone  of  the
       forms:  $INCLUDE  <filename> <opt_domain> $ORIGIN <domain>
       $TTL  <def_ttl>  <domain>  <opt_ttl>  <opt_class>   <type>

       where  domain  is for root, @ for the current origin, or a
       standard domain name. If domain is a standard domain  name
       that does not end with with are unmodified.

       The  opt_domain field defines an origin for the data in an
       included file. It  is  equivalent  to  placing  a  $ORIGIN
       statement before the first line of the included file.  The
       field is optional.  Neither the opt_domain field nor $ORIGIN
  statements  in  the  included file modify the current
       origin for this file.

       The def_ttl field is an value  for  the  default  time-tolive.
   It  specifies  how long data will be stored in the
       cache.  The value can be specified in seconds  or  in  the
       following  format,  where  you need not specify all of the
       fields: weeksWdaysDhoursHminutesMsecondsS

       When the time-to-live is specified in  the  optional  $TTL
       entry,  the  limit  takes takes effect only if no time-tolive
 value is specified for a particular  resource  record
       or  its  corresponding SOA record.  The def_ttl value must
       be in the range of 0 to 2147483647 seconds. The maximum in
       the alternative format is 3550W5D3H14M7S, or 3550 weeks, 5
       days, 3 hours, 14 minutes, 7 seconds.

       The opt_ttl field is an  optional  integer  number  for  a
       particular  resource record's time-to-live.  When unspecified,
 the time-to-live for a resource record  defaults  to
       the  value  specified  in  the SOA record for the zone, or
       ultimately, the value specified in the $TTL entry.

       The opt_class field is the object address type;  currently
       only  one  type is supported, IN, for objects connected to
       the Internet.

       The type field contains one of the following tokens.   The
       data  expected  in  the  resource_record_data  field is in
       parentheses: a host address (dotted quad  IP  address)  an
       authoritative   name  server  (domain)  a  mail  exchanger
       (domain), preceded by a preference value (0-32767,  inclusive),
 with lower numeric values representing higher logical
 preferences.  the canonical name for an alias (domain)
       marks  the  start of a zone of authority (domain of originating
 host, domain address of maintainer, a  serial  number,
  and  the  following  parameters in seconds: refresh,
       retry,  expire  and  minimum  TTL  (see  RFC883))  a  null
       resource  record  (no format or data) a Responsible Person
       for some domain name (mailbox, TXT-referral) a domain name
       pointer (domain) host information (cpu_type OS_type)

       Resource  records  normally  end at the end of a line, but
       may be continued across lines between opening and  closing
       parentheses.  Comments  are  introduced  by semicolons and
       continue to the end of the line.

       This is not a complete list of resource record types.  See
       the  Network Administration: Services for a complete list.

       Each master zone file should begin with an SOA record  for
       the zone.  An example SOA record is as follows:

       @         IN       SOA      ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU.  rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU.
                                       1989020501    ; serial
                                       10800   ; refresh
                                       3600    ; retry
                                       3600000 ; expire
                                       86400 ) ; minimum

       The SOA lists a serial number,  which  should  be  changed
       each  time  the master file is changed.  Secondary servers
       check the serial number  at  intervals  specified  by  the
       refresh  time  in seconds; if the serial number changes, a
       zone transfer will be done to load the  new  data.   If  a
       master  server  cannot be contacted when a refresh is due,
       the retry time specifies the interval at  which  refreshes
       should  be  attempted until successful. If a master server
       cannot be contacted  within  the  interval  given  by  the
       expire  time,  all data from the zone is discarded by secondary
 servers. The minimum value is the time-to-live used
       by  records  in  the  file  with  no explicit time-to-live

       The boot file directives domain and suffixes are  obsolete
       because  of a more useful resolver-based implementation of
       suffixing for partially qualified domain names.  The prior
       mechanisms  could fail under a number of situations, especially
 when then local nameserver did  not  have  complete

   Signals    [Toc]    [Back]
       The  following signals have the specified effect when sent
       to the server process using the kill(1)  command.   Causes
       the  server to read named.conf, reload database, and check
       serial numbers on secondary zones.  Typically, the  serial
       numbers are checked only at intervals specified in the SOA
       record.   Dumps   current   data   base   and   cache   to
       /var/tmp/named_dump.db  or  the  value  of _PATH_DUMPFILE.
       Dumps statistics data into  /var/tmp/named.stats.  Statistics
  data  is  appended to the file.  Dumps the profiling
       data  in  /var/tmp.   Dumps  the  primary  and   secondary
       database  files  on  shutdown.   Turns  on debugging; each
       SIGUSR1 signal increments debug level.  Turns  off  debugging
  completely.   Enables  or  disables  the  logging of
       incoming queries to the system log.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Default directory containing BIND database  files  Default
       master  database file for forward lookups, optionally generated
 by the SysMan Menu  from  the  existing  /etc/hosts
       database.    Default  master  database  file  for  reverse
       lookups, optionally generated by the SysMan Menu from  the
       existing  /etc/hosts  database.   Default database of root
       name  servers  Default  BIND  server  configuration   file
       Default  database  for the local host's loopback interface
       Process   ID   (_PATH_PIDFILE)   Debug    output    (file:
       _PATH_DEBUG) Dump of the name server database (_PATH_DUMPFILE)
 Name server statistics data (file: _PATH_STATS)

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands: bindconfig(8), hostname(1), kill(1), nslookup(8)

       Files: named.conf(4), named.stats(4), resolv.conf(4)

       Routines: signal(2), gethostbyname(3)

       Networking: bind_intro(7), bind_manual_setup(7)

       Specifications: RFC973, RFC974, RFC1033, RFC1034, RFC1035

       Network  Administration: Services, BIND Configuration File

[ Back ]
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