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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      named - Internet domain name server

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      named [-c config_file] [-d debuglevel] [-f] [-g] [-n no_of_cpus]
           [-p port_number] [-t directory] [-u user_id] [-v]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      named is the Internet domain name server.  See RFC 1033, RFC 1034, and
      RFC 1035 for more information on the Domain Name System (DNS).
      Without any arguments, named reads the default configuration file
      /etc/named.conf, reads any initial data, and listens for queries.
      named requires superuser privileges to execute.

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
           -c config_file
                     Use a config_file other than /etc/named.conf.

           -d debuglevel
                     Print debugging information.  A number after the d
                     determines the level of messages printed.  If negative,
                     debuglevel is set to ``1''.

                     NOTE: The new debugging framework is considerably more
                     sophisticated than it was in older versions of named.
                     The configuration file's logging statement allows for
                     multiple, distinct levels of debugging for each of a
                     large set of categories of events (such as queries,
                     transfers in or out, etc.).

           -f        Run this process in the foreground; don't fork(2) and
                     daemonize.  (The default is to daemonize.)

           -g        Specifies to log all the logging to stderr while named
                     is running in foreground.

           -n no_of_cpus
                     This option can be used to create worker threads equal
                     to no_of_cpus to take advantage of multiple CPUs.  If
                     no option is given, named will try to determine the
                     number of CPUs present and create one thread per CPU.
                     If named is unable to determine the number of CPUs, a
                     single worker thread is created.

           -p port_number
                     Use a different port number.

                     NOTE: Previously, the syntax: " -p port#[/localport#] "
                     was supported; the first port was that used when
                     contacting remote servers, and the second one was the
                     service port bound by the local instance of named.  The

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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

                     current usage is equivalent to the old usage without
                     the localport# specified; this functionality can be
                     specified with the listen-on clause of the
                     configuration file's options statement.

           -t directory
                     Specifies the working directory the server should run.
                     directory clause of the configuration file's options
                     statement overrides any value specified on the command
                     line.  The default working directory is the current
                     directory (.).

           -u user_id
                     Specifies the user the server should run as after it
                     initializes.  The value specified may be either a
                     username or a numeric user id.

           -v        Report version number and exit.

      Any additional argument is taken as the name of the configuration
      file.  The configuration file contains information about where the
      name server gets its initial data.  If multiple configuration files
      are specified, only the last is used.  Lines in the configuration file
      cannot be continued on subsequent lines.  The following is a small

           /*     configuration file for name server     */
           options {
                   directory "/usr/local/domain";
                   forwarders {
           key rndc_key {
                     algorithm "hmac-md5";
                     secret "c3Ryb25nIGVub3VnaCBmb3IgYSBtYW4gYnV0IG1hZGUgZm9yIGEgd29tYW4K";

           controls {
                          inet allow {; } keys { rndc_key; };

           zone "." {
                   type hint;
                   file "db.cache";

           zone "berkeley.edu" {

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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

                   type master;
                   file "db.berkeley";

           zone "32.128.in-addr.arpa" {
                   type master;
                   file "db.128.32";

           zone "cc.berkeley.edu" {
                   type slave;
                   file "db.cc";
                   masters {

      The directory statement changes the working directory of the server to
      the directory specified.  The working directory specified is relative
      to the new root directory if set by the -t option.  This can be
      important for the correct processing of $INCLUDE files (described
      later) in primary server's master files.

      Files referenced in the configuration file contain data in the master
      file format described in RFC 1035.

      The key statement names a key with its string argument.  The string
      has to be a valid domain name.  However, this need not be
      hierarchical; thus, a string "rndc_key" is a valid name.

      The key statement has two clauses: algorithm and secret.  The
      configuration parser will accept any string as the argument to
      algorithm.  However, only the string "hmac-md5" is supported for
      accepting control messages from the utility, rndc.  See rndc(1) and
      rndc.conf(4).  The secret is a base-64 encoded string, typically
      generated with dnssec-keygen.

      The controls statement is used to configure the name server to accept
      connections from the utility, rndc which controls the name server.
      The key specified in this statement should match the one set in the
      rndc configuration file, rndc.conf.

      The forwarders line specifies the addresses of sitewide servers that
      will accept recursive queries from other servers.  If the
      configuration file specifies one or more forwarders, then the server
      will send all queries for data not in the cache or in its
      authoritative data to the forwarders first.  Each forwarder will be
      asked in turn until an answer is returned or the list is exhausted.
      If no answer is forthcoming from a forwarder, the server will continue
      as it would have without the forwarders line unless it is in
      forward-only mode.  The forwarding facility is useful to cause a large

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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

      sitewide cache to be generated on a master, and to reduce traffic over
      links to outside servers.

      The noforward line specifies that the DNS server will not forward any
      request for something in or below the listed domains, even if the
      forwarders directive exists.

      A server can access information from servers in other domains given a
      list of root name servers and their addresses.  The zone "." line
      specifies that data in db.cache is to be placed in the backup cache.
      Its use is to prime the server with the locations of root domain
      servers.  This information is used to find the current root servers
      and their addresses.  The current root server information is placed in
      the operating cache.  Data for the root name servers in the backup
      cache are never discarded.

      The zone "berkeley.edu" line states that the master file db.berkeley
      contains authoritative data for the berkeley.edu zone.  A server
      authoritative for a zone has the most accurate information for the
      zone.  All domain names are relative to the origin, in this case,
      berkeley.edu (see below for a more detailed description).

      The zone "32.128.in-addr.arpa" line states that the file db.128.32
      contains authoritative data for the domain 32.128.in-addr.arpa.  This
      domain is used to translate addresses in network 128.32 to hostnames.

      The zone "cc.berkeley.edu" line specifies that all authoritative data
      in the cc.berkeley.edu zone is to be transferred from the name server
      at Internet address and will be saved in the backup file
      db.cc.  Up to 10 addresses can be listed on this line.  If a transfer
      fails, it will try the next address in the list.  The secondary copy
      is also authoritative for the specified domain.  The first nonInternet
 address on this line will be taken as a filename in which to
      backup the transferred zone.  The name server will load the zone from
      this backup file (if it exists) when it boots, providing a complete
      copy, even if the master servers are unreachable.  Whenever a new copy
      of the domain is received from one of the master servers, this file is
      updated.  If no file name is given, a temporary file will be used and
      will be deleted after each successful zone transfer.  This is not
      recommended because it causes a needless waste of bandwidth.

    IPv6 Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      listen-on-v6        This option will specify the ports on which the
                          server will listen for incoming queries sent using
                          IPv6.  In this option, only two values are
                          supported: any and none.  If this option is not
                          specified in the named configuration file
                          (named.conf), named will not listen on any IPv6

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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

                          Examples, using any:

                          listen-on-v6 port 80 {any;};

                          listen-on-v6 port 1234 {any;};

                          Example, using none, to stop the server from
                          listening to IPv6 addresses:

                          listen-on-v6 {none;};

                          NOTE: The hosts_to_named configuration file
                          migration script does not add the listen-on-v6
                          option to the named.conf file on dual stack
                          machine.  In order to enable DNS services to
                          listen on IPv6 interfaces, this entry needs to be
                          added manually.

      query-source-v6     This option will specify the server with IPv6
                          address, which is to be contacted for the answer
                          to a query from an IPv6 source.


                          query-source-v6 address c000:1::a35 port 5000

      transfer-source-v6  This option is similar to the transfer-source
                          option, but is meant for zone transfers using
                          IPv6.  This works in an identical fashion for both
                          Options statement grammar and Zone statement

    Master File Format    [Toc]    [Back]
      The master file consists of control information and a list of resource
      records for objects in the zone of the forms:

           $INCLUDE filename  opt_domain
           $ORIGIN domain
           domain  opt_ttl  opt_class  type  resource_record_data


           domain         is .  for root, @ for the current origin, or a
                          standard domain name.  If domain is a standard
                          domain name that does not end with ``.'', the
                          current origin is appended to the domain.  Domain
                          names ending with ``.'' are unmodified.

           opt_domain     This field is used to define an origin for the
                          data in an included file.  It is equivalent to
                          placing an $ORIGIN statement before the first line

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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

                          of the included file.  The field is optional.
                          Neither the opt_domain field nor $ORIGIN
                          statements in the included file modify the current
                          origin for this file.

           opt_ttl        An optional integer number for the time-to-live
                          field.  It defaults to zero, meaning the minimum
                          value specified in the SOA record for the zone.

           opt_class      The object address type; currently only one type
                          is supported, IN, for objects connected to the
                          DARPA Internet.

           type           This field contains one of the following tokens;
                          the data expected in the resource_record_data
                          field is in parentheses:

                          A       a host address (dotted-quad IP address)

                          NS      an authoritative name server (domain)

                          MX      a mail exchanger (domain), preceded by a
                                  preference value (0..32767), with lower
                                  numeric values representing higher logical

                          CNAME   the canonical name for an alias (domain)

                          SOA     marks the start of a zone of authority
                                  (domain of originating host, domain
                                  address of maintainer, a serial number and
                                  the following parameters in seconds:
                                  refresh, retry, expire and minimum TTL
                                  (see RFC 883)).

                          NULL    a null resource record (no format or data)

                          RP      a Responsible Person for some domain name
                                  (mailbox, TXT-referral)

                          PTR     a domain name pointer (domain)

                          HINFO   host information (cpu_type OS_type)

                          TXT     text data (string)

                          WKS     a well known service description (IP
                                  address followed by a list of services)

      Resource records normally end at the end of a line, but may be
      continued across lines between opening and closing parentheses.

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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

      Comments are introduced by semicolons and continue to the end of the

      NOTE: All the db files have to start with a $TTL value.  There are
      other resource record types not shown here.  You should consult the
      BIND Operations Guide (``BOG'') for the complete list.  Some resource
      record types may have been standardized in newer RFCs but not yet
      implemented in this version of BIND.

    SOA Record Format    [Toc]    [Back]
      Each master zone file should begin with an SOA record for the zone.
      An example SOA record is as follows:

      @   IN      SOA     ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU.  rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. (
                                            1989020501      ; serial
                                            10800   ; refresh
                                            3600    ; retry
                                            3600000 ; expire
                                            86400 ) ; minimum

      The SOA specifies a serial number, which should be changed each time
      the master file is changed.  Note that, it is not advisable to give
      the serial number as a dotted number, since the translation to normal
      integers is via concatenation rather than multiplication and addition.
      You can spell out the year, month, day of month, and 0..99 version
      number and still fit inside the unsigned 32-bit size of this field.
      (It's true that we will have to rethink this strategy in the year

      Secondary servers check the serial number at intervals specified by
      the refresh time in seconds; if the serial number changes, a zone
      transfer will be done to load the new data.  If a master server cannot
      be contacted when a refresh is due, the retry time specifies the
      interval at which refreshes should be attempted.  If a master server
      cannot be contacted within the interval given by the expire time, all
      data from the zone is discarded by secondary servers.  The minimum
      value is the time-to-live (``TTL'') used by records in the file with
      no explicit time-to-live value.

      NOTE: The boot file directives domain and suffixes have been obsoleted
      by a more useful, resolver-based implementation of suffixing for
      partially-qualified domain names.  The prior mechanisms could fail
      under a number of situations, especially when then local name server
      did not have complete information.

      The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the
      server process using the kill(1) command:

           SIGHUP         Causes server to read named.conf and reload

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 named(1M)                                                         named(1M)

           SIGINT & SIGTERM
                          Signals can be used to gracefully shut down the

      Sending any other signals to the name server will have undefined

      sig_named(1M) can also be used for sending signals to the server

 DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Any errors encountered by named in the configuration file, master
      files, or in normal operation are logged with syslog and in the debug
      file, ./named.run, if debugging is on and named will quit.

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      named was developed by the University of California, Berkeley.

 FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
           /etc/named.conf                    name server configuration file
           /var/run/named.pid                 process ID
           ./named.run                        debug output

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      dnssec-keygen(1), dnssec-makekeyset(1), dnssec-signkey(1), dnssecsignzone(1), host(1), kill(1), nsupdate(1), rndc(1),
      hosts_to_named(1M), lwresd(1M), signal(2), gethostent(3N),
      rndc.conf(4), hostname(5).

      RFC 882, RFC 883, RFC 973, RFC 974, RFC 1032, RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC
      1035, RFC 1123.

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[ Back ]
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