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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       xpr - print an X window dump

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       xpr  [-device  devtype]  [-scale  scale]  [-height inches]
       [-width inches]  [-left  inches]  [-top  inches]  [-header
       string] [-trailer string] [-landscape] [-portrait] [-plane
       number]  [-gray]  [-rv]  [-compact]   [-output   filename]
       [-append  filename]  [-noff] [-split n] [-psfig] [-density
       dpi] [-cutoff  level]  [-noposition]  [-gamma  correction]
       [-render algorithm] [-slide] [filename]

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Specifies  the  device  on which the file will be printed.
       Currently supported: LA100 HP LaserJet  series  and  other
       monochrome PCL devices such as ThinkJet, QuietJet, RuggedWriter,
 HP560 series, and HP930 series  printers  LN03  HP
       PaintJet  (color  mode)  HP  HP PaintJet XL Color Graphics
       Printer (color mode) IBM PP3812 PostScript printer

              The default  is  PostScript.   -device  lw  (LaserWriter)
 is equivalent to -device ps and is provided
              only for backwards compatibility.  Affects the size
              of  the  window on the page.  The PostScript, LN03,
              and HP printers are able to translate each bit in a
              window  pixel  map into a grid of a specified size.
              For example each bit might  translate  into  a  3x3
              grid.   This  would  be  specified by -scale 3.  By
              default a window is printed with the largest  scale
              that  will fit onto the page for the specified orientation.
  Specifies  the  maximum  height  of  the
              page.   Specifies  the  maximum  width of the page.
              Specifies the left margin in inches.  Fractions are
              allowed.   By default the window is centered in the
              page.  Specifies the top margin for the picture  in
              inches.  Fractions are allowed.  Specifies a header
              string to be printed above the window.  Specifies a
              trailer  string  to  be  printed  below the window.
              Forces the window to printed in landscape mode.  By
              default  a  window is printed such that its longest
              side follows the long side of the paper.  Specifies
              which bit plane to use in an image.  The default is
              to use the entire image and map values  into  black
              and  white based on color intensities.  Uses a simple
 2x2, 3x3, or 4x4 gray  scale  conversion  on  a
              color  image, rather than mapping to strictly black
              and white.  This doubles,  triples,  or  quadruples
              the  effective  width  and  height  of  the  image.
              Forces the window to be printed in  portrait  mode.
              By  default  a  window  is  printed  such  that its
              longest side follows the long side  of  the  paper.
              Forces  the  window to be printed in reverse video.
              Uses simple run-length encoding for compact  representation
  of  windows  with  lots of white pixels.
              Specifies an output file name.  If this  option  is
              not  specified, standard output is used.  Specifies
              a filename previously produced by xpr to which  the
              window  is  to be appended.  When specified in conjunction
 with -append, the window  will  appear  on
              the  same page as the previous window.  This option
              allows the user to  split  a  window  onto  several
              pages.  This might be necessary for very large windows
 that would  otherwise  cause  the  printer  to
              overload  and  print the page in an obscure manner.
              Suppress translation of the PostScript  picture  to
              the  center  of  the page.  Indicates what dot-perinch
 density should be  used  by  the  HP  printer.
              Changes the intensity level where colors are mapped
              to either black or white for monochrome output on a
              LaserJet  printer.  The  level is expressed as percentage
 of full brightness.  Fractions are allowed.
              This option causes header, trailer, and image positioning
  command  generation  to  be  bypassed  for
              LaserJet,  PaintJet and PaintJet XL printers.  This
              changes the intensity  of  the  colors  printed  by
              PaintJet  XL  printer. The correction is a floating
              point value in the range 0.00 to 3.00. Consult  the
              operator's  manual  to  determine the correct value
              for the specific printer.  This allows PaintJet  XL
              printer  to  render the image with the best quality
              versus performance tradeoff. Consult the operator's
              manual to determine which algorithms are available.
              This option allows overhead  transparencies  to  be
              printed  using  the PaintJet and PaintJet XL printers.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The xpr command takes as input a window dump file produced
       by  xwd(1X) and formats it for output on PostScript printers,
 the LN03 or LA100, the IBM PP3812 page  printer,  the
       HP  LaserJet  (or other PCL printers), or the HP PaintJet.
       If no file argument is given, the standard input is  used.
       By default, xpr prints the largest possible representation
       of the window on the output page.  Options allow the  user
       to  add  headers and trailers, specify margins, adjust the
       scale and orientation, and append multiple window dumps to
       a single output file.  Output is to standard output unless
       -output is specified.

LIMITATIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The current version of xpr can generally print out on  the
       LN03 most X windows that are not larger than two-thirds of
       the screen.  For example, it will be able to print  out  a
       large  Emacs  window, but it will usually fail when trying
       to print out the entire screen.  The LN03 has memory limitations
  that can cause it to incorrectly print very large
       or complex windows.  The two most  common  errors  encountered
  are  "band too complex" and "page memory exceeded."
       In the first case, a window  may  have  a  particular  six
       pixel  row  that  contains too many changes (from black to
       white to black).  This will cause the printer to drop part
       of  the  line  and possibly parts of the rest of the page.
       The printer will flash the number `1' on its  front  panel
       when  this  problem  occurs.   A possible solution to this
       problem is to increase the scale of  the  picture,  or  to
       split  the  picture  onto  two  or more pages.  The second
       problem, "page memory exceeded," will occur if the picture
       contains  too  much black, or if the picture contains complex
 half-tones such as the background color of a display.
       When  this  problem  occurs the printer will automatically
       split the picture into two or more pages.   It  may  flash
       the  number `5' on its from panel.  There is no easy solution
 to this problem. It will  probably  be  necessary  to
       either cut and paste, or to rework the application to produce
 a less complex picture.

       There are several limitations on the  LA100  support:  the
       picture  will always be printed in portrait mode, there is
       no scaling, and the aspect ratio will be slightly off.

       Support for PostScript output currently cannot handle  the
       -append, -noff or -split options.

       The  -compact option is only supported for PostScript output.
 It compresses white space but not black space, so  it
       is not useful for reverse-video windows.

       For  color images, should map directly to PostScript image

HP PRINTERS    [Toc]    [Back]

       If no -density is specified on the command line  300  dots
       per inch will be assumed for ljet and 90 dots per inch for
       pjet. Allowable density values for a LaserJet printer  are
       300,  150,  100, and 75 dots per inch.  Consult the operator's
 manual to determine  densities  supported  by  other

       If  no  -scale  is specified the image will be expanded to
       fit the printable page area.

       The default printable page area is  8x10.5  inches.  Other
       paper  sizes  can  be  accommodated  using the -height and
       -width options.

       Note that a 1024x768 image fits the default printable area
       when processed at 100 dpi with scale=1, the same image can
       also be printed  using  300  dpi  with  scale=3  but  will
       require  considerably  more  data  be  transferred  to the

       xpr may be tailored for use with monochrome  PCL  printers
       other  than the LaserJet.  To print on a ThinkJet (HP225A)
       xpr could be invoked as:

       xpr -density 96 -width 6.667 filename

       or for black-and-white output to a PaintJet:

       xpr -density 180 filename

       The monochrome intensity of a pixel is computed as  0.30*R
       + 0.59*G + 0.11*B. If a pixel's computed intensity is less
       than the -cutoff level it will print as white.  This  maps
       light-on-dark  display  images to black-on-white hardcopy.
       The default cutoff intensity is 50%  of  full  brightness.
       Example:  specifying  -cutoff  87.5  moves the white/black
       intensity point to 87.5% of full brightness.

       A LaserJet printer must be configured with sufficient memory
  to handle the image.  For a full page at 300 dots per
       inch approximately 2MB of printer memory is required.

       Color images are produced on the PaintJet at 90  dots  per
       inch.   The PaintJet is limited to sixteen colors from its
       330 color palette on each horizontal print line.  xpr will
       issue  a  warning  message if more than sixteen colors are
       encountered on a line.  xpr will program the PaintJet  for
       the  first sixteen colors encountered on each line and use
       the nearest matching programmed  value  for  other  colors
       present on the line.

       Specifying the -rv, reverse video, option for the PaintJet
       will cause black and white to be interchanged on the  output
 image.  No other colors are changed.

       Multiplane  images must be recorded by xwd in ZPixmap format.
 Single plane (monochrome) images  may  be  in  either
       XYPixmap or ZPixmap format.

       Some  PCL printers do not recognize image positioning commands.
  Output for these printers will not be centered  on
       the  page  and  header  and trailer strings may not appear
       where expected.

       The -gamma and -render options are supported only  on  the
       PaintJet XL printers.

       The  -slide option is not supported for LaserJet printers.

       The -split option is not supported for HP printers.

       The -gray option is not supported for HP or IBM  printers.

       Copyright  1986, Marvin Solomon and the University of Wisconsin.
 Copyright 1988, Hewlett Packard Company.

       See X(1X) for a full statement of rights and  permissions.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       xwd(1X), xwud(1X), X(1X)

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Michael  R. Gretzinger, MIT Project Athena, Jose Capo, MIT
       Project Athena (PP3812 support), Marvin  Solomon,  University
  of Wisconsin, Bob Scheifler, MIT, Angela Bock and E.
       Mike Durbin, Rich Inc. (grayscale),  Larry  Rupp,  HP  (HP
       printer support).

[ Back ]
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