NAME [Toc] [Back]
od, xd - octal and hexadecimal dump
SYNOPSIS [Toc] [Back]
od [-v] [-A address_base] [-j skip] [-N count] [-t type_string] ...
xd [-v] [-A address_base] [-j skip] [-N count] [-t type_string] ...
Supported Pre-POSIX Usage [Toc] [Back]
od [-bcdosx] [file] [[+][0x]offset[.][b]]
xd [-bcdosx] [file] [[+][0x]offset[.][b]]
DESCRIPTION [Toc] [Back]
od and xd concatenate one or more input files and write their contents
to standard output in a user-specified format. If file is not
specified, the standard input is used.
Options and Arguments [Toc] [Back]
od and xd recognize the following options and command-line arguments:
-A address_base Specify the input offset base. address_base is
a single character that defines which format
the offset base is written in:
d Decimal format.
o Octal format.
x Hexadecimal format.
n Do not write the offset.
-j skip Jump over skip bytes from the beginning of the
input. od seeks past the first skip bytes in
the concatenated input files. If the combined
input is not at least skip bytes long, od
writes a diagnostic message to standard error
and exits with a non-zero exit status. By
default, skip is interpreted as a decimal
number. If skip has a leading 0x or 0X, it is
interpreted as a hexadecimal number; a leading
0 indicates that skip is an octal number.
If the value of skip is followed by a b, k, or
m, it is interpreted as a multiple of 512,
1024, or 1048576, respectively.
-N count Format no more than count bytes of input.
By default, count is interpreted as a decimal
number. A leading 0x or 0X indicates that
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count is a hexadecimal number; a leading 0
identifies an octal value.
If count bytes of input are not available
(after successfully skipping if -jskip is
specified), the input that is available is
-t type_string type_string is a string defining the types to
be used when writing the input data.
The string can contain any of the following
a named character ,
c character ,
d signed decimal ,
f floating point ,
o octal ,
u unsigned decimal ,
x hexadecimal ,
Type specification characters d, f, o, u, and x
can be followed by an optional unsigned decimal
integer specifying the number of bytes to be
transformed by each instance of the output
type, or by an optional C, S, I, or L
indicating that the conversion should be
applied to an item of type char, short, int, or
Type specification character f can be followed
by an optional F, D, or L indicating that the
conversion should be applied to an item of type
float, double, or long double, respectively.
Multiple types can be concatenated within the
same type_string and multiple -t options can be
specified. Output lines are written for each
type specified in the order in which the type
specification characters appear.
-v Write all input data. Without the -v option,
any number of groups of output lines, that
would be identical to the immediately preceding
group of output lines (except for the byte
offsets), are replaced with a line containing
only an asterisk (*).
file Pathname of one or more input files to be
processed. If file is not specified, the
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standard input is used.
Input files can be any file type.
DESCRIPTION OF PRE-POSIX USAGE [Toc] [Back]
od and xd dump file in one or more formats as selected by the first
argument. If the first argument is missing, the default is -o for od;
-x for xd. An offset field is inserted at the beginning of each line.
For od, the offset is in octal, for xd, the offset is in hexadecimal.
Options [Toc] [Back]
od and xd recognize the following format options:
-b Interpret bytes in octal (hexadecimal).
-c Interpret bytes in ASCII. Certain non-graphic characters
appear as C escapes: null=\0, backspace=\b, form-feed=\f,
new-line=\n, return=\r, tab=\t; others appear as 3-digit
-d Interpret 16-bit words in decimal.
-o Interpret 16-bit words in octal.
-s Interpret 16-bit words in signed decimal.
-x Interpret 16-bit words in hexadecimal.
file specifies which file is to be dumped. If file is not specified,
the standard input is used.
offset specifies the offset in the file where dumping is to commence,
and is normally interpreted as octal bytes. Interpretation can be
altered as follows:
+ offset must be preceded by + if the file argument is
+ offset preceded by 0x is interpreted in hexadecimal.
+ offset followed by . is interpreted in decimal.
+ offset followed by b is interpreted in blocks of 512 bytes.
Dumping continues until end-of-file.
EXAMPLES [Toc] [Back]
Write hexadecimal bytes and the corresponding octal values to the
standard output in blocks of 16 bytes in one line, by transforming the
data from the input file file1:
od -tx1oC file1
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The following commands write one line each of the types character,
signed decimal integer, and float, in the order given, transforming
100 bytes of data starting from fifteenth byte offset in the file
od -j14 -N100 -tc -tdfF file1
od -j0xe -N100 -tcd4fF file1
Write one line each of the types unsigned integer, named character,
and long double, with the offsets written in hexadecimal and forcing a
write, even on lines that are identical to the immediately preceding
group of output lines:
od -v -Ax -tuafL file1
WARNINGS [Toc] [Back]
When the output format is of floating-point type; i.e., when using the
-t fD, -t fL, or -t f options:
+ If the input bytes cannot be transformed into a valid floating
point number, a floating point exception might occur. In that
case, the output is printed as a string containing some nonnumeric
characters and program execution continues.
+ When the number of input bytes used for transformation is set
to 1 with the type specifier characters d, o, u, or x, only
the least-significant seven bits of each byte are used.
+ When one or more of the -A, -j, -N, or -t options is
specified, an operand starting with the first character as a
plus-sign (+) or the first character as numeric is interpreted
as a file name.
(XPG4 only. Multiple types can be specified by using multiple -bcdox
options. Output lines are written for each type specified in the order
in which the types are specified.)
EXTERNAL INFLUENCES [Toc] [Back]
LANG provides a default value for the internationalization variables
that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the default value of
"C" (see lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization
variables contains an invalid setting, od will behave as if all
internationalization variables are set to "C". See environ(5).
LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all
the other internationalization variables.
LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
multi-byte characters, the classification of characters as printable,
and the characters matched by character class expressions in regular
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LC_MESSAGES determines the locale that should be used to affect the
format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error
and informative messages written to standard output.
NLSPATH determines the location of message catalogues for the
processing of LC_MESSAGES.
International Code Set Support [Toc] [Back]
Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported. Multi-byte
data is displayed as multi-byte values.
RETURN VALUE [Toc] [Back]
Exit values are:
0 Successful completion.
>0 Error condition occurred.
SEE ALSO [Toc] [Back]
STANDARDS CONFORMANCE [Toc] [Back]
od: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2
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