uucp - Copies files from one system to another (UNIX-toUNIX
uucp [-d | -f] [-g grade] [-cCjmr] [-n user] [-s file]
[-x debug_level] source... destination
The uucp command copies one or more source files from one
system to one or more destination files on another system.
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to
industry standards as follows:
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
about industry standards and associated tags.
Transfers the source files to the destination on the specified
computer. The source files are not copied into the
spool directory for transfer. This saves the system from
copying possibly large files to the spooling directory for
transfer. (See the discussion of the -C option.) Copies
local files to the spool directory for transfer. Depending
on the configuration of the Poll and Systems files, and on
how often the uusched command is run, the files could be
transferred immediately (on demand polling), or in the
future. This option is on by default.
Occasionally, there are problems in transferring a
source file; for example, the remote computer might
not be working or the login attempt might fail. In
such a case, the file remains in the spool directory
until it is transferred successfully or
removed by the uucleanup command. Creates any
intermediate directories needed to copy the source
files to the destination. Instead of first creating
a directory and then copying files to it, the uucp
command can be entered with the destination pathname,
and the required directory will be created.
This option is on by default. Suppresses creation
of intermediate directories during the file transfer.
[Tru64 UNIX] Specifies when the files are
to be transmitted during a particular connection.
The grade is a single number (0-9) or ASCII letter
(A-Z, a-z); lowercase ASCII-sequence characters
cause the files to be transmitted earlier than do
higher sequence characters. The number 0 is the
highest (earliest) grade; z is the lowest (latest)
grade. The default is N. Displays the job identification
number of the transfer operation on standard
output. This job ID can be used by the uustat
command to obtain the status of information about
the status of a particular job, or with uustat -k
to terminate the transfer before it is completed.
Sends mail to the requester when the transfer to
the remote system is completed. The message is
sent to the requester's mailbox, using the mailx
command. No mail is sent for a local transfer.
The -m option works only when sending files or
receiving a single file. It does not work when forwarding
files. Receiving multiple files specified
by the shell pattern-matching characters ?, *, and
[...] does not activate the -m option. Notifies
the user specified by user on the designated system
that files were sent. The mail system does not
send a message for a local transfer. Usernames can
contain only ASCII characters. Prevents the starting
of the file transfer program, uucico, even if
the command was issued at a time when calls to the
remote system are permitted. By default, a call to
the remote system is attempted if the command is
issued during a time period specified in the Poll
and Systems files. [Tru64 UNIX] Reports the status
of the transfer to the specified file. In this
case, the file designation must be a full pathname.
[Tru64 UNIX] Displays debugging information on
the screen of the user's terminal. The debug_level
is a number between 0 and 9. The higher number
gives a more detailed report.
The uucp command can copy files within a local system,
between a local and a remote system, and between two
The uucp command accomplishes the file transfer in two
steps: first, by creating a command (C.*) file in the
spooling directory on the local computer, and then by
sending the request to the specified computer using the
Command files include information such as the full pathname
of the source and destination files, and the sender's
login name. The full pathname of a command file is a form
of the following: /var/spool/uucp/system/C.systemNnnnn
where N is the grade of the request and nnnn is the hexadecimal
sequence number used.
If the uucp command is used with the -C option to copy the
files to the spool directory for transfer, uucp creates
not only a command file, but also a data (D.*) file that
contains the actual source file. The full pathname of a
data file is a form of the following: /var/spool/uucp/system/D.systemnnnnppp
where nnnn is a hexadecimal sequence number and ppp is a
Once the command files (and data files, if necessary) are
created, uucp calls the uucico daemon, which in turn
attempts to contact the remote computer to deliver the
It is useful to issue the uuname command to determine the
exact name of the remote system before issuing uucp. The
uulog command provides information about uucp activities
on a system.
Pathnames [Toc] [Back]
Pathnames for the source and destination of the uucp
transfer can contain only ASCII characters and can be one
of the following: A full pathname A relative pathname A
pathname preceded by ~user, where user is a login name on
the specified system. The specified user's login directory
is then considered the destination of the transfer.
If the user specifies an invalid login name, the files are
transferred to the public directory /var/spool/uucppublic,
which is the default. A pathname preceded by ~/destination,
where destination is appended to /var/spool/uucppublic.
This destination is treated as a filename unless
more than one file is being transferred by this
request, or the destination is a directory. To
ensure that it is a directory, follow the destination
name with a / (slash). For example, ~/amy/ as
the destination creates the directory
/var/spool/uucppublic/amy, if it does not already
exist, and puts the requested files in that directory.
Source and Destination Filenames [Toc] [Back]
A filename can be a pathname on the local system, or can
have the following form: system!pathname
where system is taken from a list of system names that
uucp knows about.
The destination system name (destination) can also be a
list of names, such as the following:
In this case, an attempt is made to send the file along
the specified route to the destination. Make sure that
intermediate nodes in this route are willing to forward
information and that they actually talk to the next system.
The shell pattern-matching characters ?, *, and [...] can
be used in the pathname of the source file; the appropriate
system expands them. However, shell pattern-matching
characters cannot be used in the pathname of the destination
If the destination is a directory rather than a file, uucp
uses the last part of the source name.
Permissions [Toc] [Back]
The system administrator should restrict the access to
local files by users on other systems.
When transmitting files, uucp preserves execute permissions
and grants read and write permissions to the owner,
the group, and all others. (The uucp command owns the
Sending files to arbitrary destination pathnames on other
systems, or getting files from arbitrary source pathnames
on other systems, often fails because of security restrictions.
The files specified in the pathname must give read
or write permission not only for the same group of users,
but also for any group.
Protected files and files in protected directories owned
by the requester can be sent by uucp.
To copy file f1 from the local system to a remote system
named hera, enter: uucp /u/geo/f1 hera!/u/geo/f1 To copy
file f2 from the remote system hera and place it in the
public directory, enter: uucp hera!geo/f2 /var/spool/uucppublic/f2
To place the f2 file in a directory other than
the public directory, enter: uucp hera!geo/f2 /u/geo/f2
In this case, make sure that the geo login directory
allows write permission to other users and
other groups; for example, with mode 777.
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES [Toc] [Back]
The following environment variables affect the execution
of uucp: [Tru64 UNIX] Specifies the flow control used on
the connection. Permitted values are: HW (hardware), SW
(software), HSW (hardware and software), and NONE. The
uugetty on the remote system must also use the same flow
control. Provides a default value for the internationalization
variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset
or null, the corresponding value from the default locale
is used. If any of the internationalization variables
contains an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if
none of the variables had been defined. If set to a nonempty
string value, overrides the values of all the other
internationalization variables. Determines the locale for
the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multicharacter
colating elements within bracketed file name
patterns. Determines the locale for the interpretation of
sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example,
single-byte as opposed to multibyte characters in
arguments and input files) and the behavior of character
classes within bracketed file name patterns (for example,
'[[:lower]]*'). Determines the locale that should be used
to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages
written to standard error. Determines the format of date
and time strings output by uucp. Determines the location
of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.
Determines the time zone used with date and time strings.
[Tru64 UNIX] Specifies the amount of time (in seconds)
for uucico to try to establish a connection before it
times out. A value of 0 (zero) indicates an unlimited
amount of time.
Contains the uucico daemon. Spooling directory. Public
Commands: ct(1), cu(1), mailx(1), rmail(1), tip(1),
uucico(8), uucleanup(8), uuencode(1), uulog(1), uuname(1),
uupick(1), uusched(8), uusend(1), uustat(1), uuto(1),
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