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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       get - Creates a specified version of a Source Code Control
       System (SCCS) file

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       get [-g] [-L] [-m] [-n] [-p] [-s]  [-t]  [-c  cutoff]  [-i
       list] [-r SID] [-w string] [-x list] file... | -

       get  [-a seq_num] [-b] [-e] [-k] [-s] [-t] [-c cutoff] [-i
       list] [-r SID] [-x list] [-l  | -lp] file... | -

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces documented on this reference  page  conform  to
       industry standards as follows:

       get:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies the delta sequence number  of  the
       SCCS  file  delta  (version)  that  is be retrieved.  This
       keyletter is used by the comb command.  Specifies that the
       delta  to  be  created  should have a SID in a new branch.
       The new SID is numbered according to the rules  stated  in
       the SID Determination Table.  You can use -b only with the
       -e option.  It is only necessary when you want  to  branch
       from a leaf delta (a delta without a successor).  Attempting
 to create a delta at  a  nonleaf  delta  automatically
       results in a branch, even if the b header flag is not set.
       If you do not specify the b header flag in the SCCS  file,
       get  ignores the -b option because the file does not allow
       branching.  Specifies a cutoff date and time, in the form:
       yy[mm[dd[hh[mm[ss]]]]].    The  get  command  includes  no
       deltas to the SCCS file created after the specified cutoff
       in  the  g-file.   The  values of any unspecified items in
       cutoff default to their maximum allowable values.  Thus, a
       cutoff  date  and  time  specified with only the year (yy)
       would specify the last month, day, hour, minute, and  second
 of that year.  Any number of nonnumeric characters can
       separate the 2-digit items of the cutoff  date  and  time.
       This lets you specify a date and time in a number of ways,
       as follows: -c90/9/2,9:00:00 -c"90/9/2 9:00:00"  "-c90/9/2

              [Tru64  UNIX]  If  the year (yy) field is less than
              69 get interprets it as being in  the  twenty-first
              century,  i.e. 20yy. If the year is greater than or
              equal to 69, get interprets  it  as  being  in  the
              twentieth  century,  i.e. 19yy.  Indicates that the
              g-file being created is to be edited  by  the  user
              applying  get.  The changes are recorded later with
              the delta command.  The get -e command creates a pfile
 that prevents other users from issuing another
              get -e and editing a second g-file on the same  SID
              before  delta  is  run.   The owner of the file can
              override this restriction by allowing joint editing
              on  the  same SID through the use of the admin command
 with the -fj option.  Other users,  with  permission,
  can  obtain read-only copies by using get
              without the -e option.  The get -e command enforces
              SCCS  file  protection  specified  via the ceiling,
              floor, and authorized user list in  the  SCCS  file
              (see  the admin(1) reference page).  Suppresses the
              actual retrieval of text from the SCCS  file.   Use
              the  -g  option primarily to create an l-file or to
              verify the existence of a particular SID.   Do  not
              use  it  with  the  -e option.  Specifies a list of
              deltas to be included in the creation of a  g-file.
              The  SID  list  format consists of a combination of
              individual SIDs separated by commas and SID  ranges
              indicated  by  two  SIDs  separated by a hyphen, as
              shown   in   the   following   example:   get    -e
              -i1.4,1.5,1.6 s.file

              get -e -i1.4-1.6 s.file

              You  can specify the SCCS Identification of a delta
              in any form shown in the SID  Specified  column  of
              the  SID  Determination  Table.   The  get  command
              interprets  partial  SIDs  as  shown  in  the   SID
              Retrieved column of the table.  Suppresses replacement
 of identification keywords in  the  g-file  by
              their  values.   The -k option is implied by the -e
              option.  If you accidentally ruin the  g-file  created
  by get with an -e option, you can recreate it
              by reissuing the get command with the -k option  in
              place  of the -e option.  Writes a delta summary to
              an l-file.

              If you specify -lp, get interprets it  as  -L.  The
              -lp  option is obsolete.  Writes a delta summary to
              standard output and does not create an l-file.  All
              informative  output  that  normally  is  written to
              standard  output  is  written  to  standard   error
              instead,  unless  the  -s  option  is specified, in
              which case it is suppressed.  Use  this  option  to
              determine  which  deltas were used to create the gfile
 currently in use.  Writes before each line  of
              text  in  the  g-file  the  SID  of  the delta that
              inserted the line into the SCCS file.   The  format
              is  as  follows:  SID  tab  line_of_text Writes the
              value of the %M% keyword before each line  of  text
              in  the  g-file.   The  format is the value of %M%,
              followed by a horizontal tab, followed by the  text
              line.   When  both  the -m and -n options are used,
              the format is as follows: %M%_value tab   SID   tab
              line_of_text  Writes the text created from the SCCS
              file to standard output and does not  create  a  gfile.
   The  get command sends output normally sent
              to standard output to file descriptor  2  (standard
              error)  instead.  If you specify the -s option with
              the -p option, output  normally  sent  to  standard
              output  does  not  appear  anywhere.  Do not use -p
              with the -e option.  Specifies the SCCS identification
  string  (SID)  of the SCCS file version to be
              created.  Shows what version of a file  is  created
              and  the  SID  of the pending delta as functions of
              the SID specified.  Suppresses all output  normally
              written  to standard output.  Error messages (written
 to standard error) remain unaffected.  Accesses
              the  most recently created delta in a given release
              or release and level.  Without the -r  option,  get
              accesses  the  most  recent delta regardless of its
              SID.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Substitutes string for the  %W%
              keyword   in  g-files  not  intended  for  editing.
              Excludes a list of deltas  in  the  creation  of  a
              file.  See the -i option for the SID list format.

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The path name of an existing SCCS file or directory.

              The  options  and  files  can  be  specified in any
              order, and all options apply to  all  named  files.
              If  you  specify  a directory in place of file, get
              performs the requested actions on all the files  in
              the  directory  that begin with the s.  prefix.  If
              you specify a - (dash) in place of file, get  reads
              standard input and interprets each line as the name
              of an SCCS file. The get command continues to  read
              input until it reads an End-of-File character.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  get command reads the specified versions of the named
       SCCS files, and creates a text file (the g-file), for each
       file  according to the specified options. The command then
       writes each text file to a file with the same name as  the
       original SCCS file without the s.  (s period) prefix.

       If  the  effective user has write permission in the directory
 containing the SCCS files but the real user does not,
       then  only  one  file  can  be named when the -e option is

   SCCS Files    [Toc]    [Back]
       In addition to the file with the s.  prefix (the  s-file),
       get  can  create  several auxiliary files:  the g-file, lfile,
 p-file, and z-file.  These files are  identified  by
       their  tag,  which is the letter before the dash.  The get
       command names auxiliary files by replacing the leading  s.
       in  the SCCS file name with the proper tag, except for the
       g-file, which is named by removing the  s.   prefix.   So,
       for  a file named s.sample, the auxiliary file names would
       be sample, l.sample, p.sample, and z.sample.

       These files serve the  following  purposes:  Contains  the
       original  file  text  and all the changes (deltas) made to
       the file.  It also  includes  information  about  who  can
       change the file contents, who has made changes, when those
       changes were made, and what the changes were.  You  cannot
       edit  this  file  directly, because the file is read-only.
       It contains the information needed by the SCCS commands to
       build the g-file, the file you can edit.  A text file that
       contains the text of the SCCS file version that you  specify
  with  the  -r  option (or the latest trunk version by
       default).  You can edit this file directly.  When you have
       made  all your changes and you want to make a new delta to
       the file, you can then apply  the  delta  command  to  the
       file.   The  get command creates the g-file in the current

              The get command creates a g-file whenever it  runs,
              unless the -g option or the -p option is specified.
              The real user owns it (not the effective user).  If
              you  do  not  specify  the -k or the -e option, the
              file is read-only.  If the -k or the -e  option  is
              specified,  the  owner has write permission for the
              g-file.  You must have write permission in the current
 directory to create a g-file.  The get command
              creates the l-file (a read-only file) when  the  -l
              option  is  specified.  It contains a table showing
              which deltas were applied in generating the g-file.
              You  must  have  write  permission  in  the current
              directory to create an l-file.

              Lines in the l-file have the  following  format:  A
              space  if  the  delta  was applied; an * (asterisk)
              appears  otherwise.   A  space  if  the  delta  was
              applied  or  was  not  applied  and  ignored;  an *
              appears if the delta was not applied  and  was  not
              ignored.   A  code  indicating a special reason why
              the delta was  or  was  not  applied:  Included  or
              excluded  normally.   Included using the -i option.
              Excluded using the -x option.  Cut off using the -c
              option.   The  SID.  The date and time the file was
              created.  The user name of person who  created  the

              Comments  and  MR  data follow on subsequent lines,
              indented one horizontal  tab  character.   A  blank
              line ends each entry.

              For  example,  for  a  delta  cut  off  with the -c
              option, the entry in the l-file might be:  **C  1.3
              90/03/13 12:44:16 pat

              The  entry  for  the  initial  delta  might be: 1.1
              90/02/27  15:42:20  pat  date  and   time   created
              90/02/27 15:42:20 by pat

              The  get  command creates the p-file when the -e or
              the -k option  is  specified.   The  p-file  passes
              information resulting from a get -e to a delta command.
 The p-file also prevents a subsequent  execution
  of  get  with  an  -e option for the same SID
              until delta is run or the joint edit keyletter  (j)
              is  set  in  the SCCS file.  The j keyletter allows
              several gets on the same SID.  The p-file  is  created
 in the directory containing the SCCS file.  To
              create a p-file in the  SCCS  directory,  you  must
              have  write permission in that directory.  The permission
 code of the p-file is read-only to all  but
              its owner, and it is owned by the effective user.

              The  p-file  contains: The current SID.  The SID of
              new delta to be created.  The user name.  The  date
              and time of the get.  The -i option, if it was present.
  The -x option, if it was present.

              The p-file contains an  entry  with  the  preceding
              information  for  each  pending delta for the file.
              No two lines have the same new delta SID.   The  zfile
  is  a  lock  mechanism  against  simultaneous
              updates.  It contains the binary process number  of
              the  get command that created it.  It is created in
              the directory containing the SCCS file  and  exists
              only while the get command is running.

       When  you  use  the get command, it displays the SID being
       accessed and the number of lines  created  from  the  SCCS
       file.   If you specify the -e option, the SID of the delta
       to be made appears after the SID accessed and  before  the
       number  of  lines  created.   If you specify more than one
       file, or a directory, or standard input, get displays  the
       file  name  before each file is processed.  If you specify
       the -i option, get lists included deltas  below  the  word
       Included.   If  you  specify  the  -x  option,  get  lists
       excluded deltas below the word Excluded.

   Getting Read-Only File Versions    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  The get command creates  read-only  versions
       as  well  as  editable  versions of a file.  Use read-only
       versions of  files  any  time  the  application  does  not
       require that the file contents be changed.  Read-only versions
 of source code files can be compiled. Text files can
       be displayed or printed from read-only versions.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  difference between an editable version
       and a read-only version is important when using  identification
 keywords.  Identification keywords are symbols that
       are expanded to some  text  value  when  the  get  command
       retrieves  the  file  as read-only.  In editable versions,
       keywords are not expanded.   Identification  keywords  can
       appear  anywhere in an SCCS file (see the prs(1) reference
       page for further information on identification  keywords).

   Identification Keywords    [Toc]    [Back]
       You  can  use  identification  keywords  in  your files to
       insert  identifying  information.   These   keywords   are
       replaced by their values in the g-file when get is invoked
       without the -e or -k option.  The following identification
       keywords can be used in SCCS files:

       Identifying  Values:  Module name: the value of the m flag
       in the SCCS file with  the  leading  s.  removed  The  SID
       (%R%.%L%.%B%.%S%)  of  the  g-file  Release  Level  Branch
       Sequence Date of the current get (yy/mm/dd)  Date  of  the
       current  get (mm/dd/yy) Time of the current get (hh:mm:ss)
       Date newest applied  delta  was  created  (yy/mm/dd)  Date
       newest  applied  delta  was created (mm/dd/yy) Time newest
       applied delta was created (hh:mm:ss)

       Names: SCCS file name Full path name of the SCCS file

       Flag Value: The value of the q flag  in  the  file  Module
       type: the value of the t flag in the SCCS file

       Line Number: The current line number.  This keyword is for
       identifying messages output by the  program.   It  is  not
       intended  for  use  on every line to provide sequence numbers.

       Constructing what Strings: A shorthand notation  for  constructing
 what strings of the following type. Its value is
       the characters and keyletters:

              %W% = %Z%%M%<tab>%I% The  4-character  string  @(#)
              recognized  by the what command.  Another shorthand
              notation for constructing what strings.  Its  value
              is the keyletters:

              %A% = %Z%%Y% %M% %I%%Z%

       The following table illustrates how get determines the SID
       of the file it retrieves, and what  the  pending  SID  is.
       The  column  SID Specified  shows the various ways the SID
       can be specified with the -r option.  The next two columns
       illustrate  the various conditions that can exist, including
 whether or not the -b option is used with the get  -e.
       The  SID  Retrieved  column  indicates the SID of the file
       that makes up the g-file.  The SID of Delta to be  Created
       column  indicates the SID of the version that will be created
 when delta is applied.

   SID Determination Table    [Toc]    [Back]
       SID Specified      -b Used   Other  Condi-   SID Retrieved   SID      of
                                    tions                           Delta to be
       None (1)           No        R defaults to   mR.mL           mR.(mL+1)
       None (1)           Yes       R defaults to   mR.mL           mR.mL.(mB+1).1
       (R)elease          No        R > mR          mR.mL           R.1 (3)
       R                  No        R = mR          mR.mL           mR.(mL+1)
       R                  Yes       R > mR          mR.mL           mR.mL.(mB+1).1
       R                  Yes       R = mR          mR.mL           mR.mL.(mB+1).1
       R                  N/A       R < mR and  R   hR.mL (4)       hR.mL.(mB+1).1
                                    does      not
       R                  N/A       R  < mR and R   R.mL            R.mL.(mB+1).1
       R.(L)evel          No        No trunk suc-   R.L             R.(L+1)
       R.L                yes       No trunk suc-   R.L             R.L(mB+1).1
       R.L                N/A       Trunk succes-   R.L             R.L.(mB+1).1
                                    sor        in
                                    release >= R
       R.L.(B)ranch       No        No     branch   R.L.B.mS        R.L.B.(mS+1)
       R.L.B              Yes       No     branch   R.L.B.mS        R.L.(mB+1).1
       R.L.B.(S)equence   No        No     branch   R.L.B.S         R.L.B.(S+1)
       R.L.B.S            Yes       No     branch   R.L.B.S         R.L.(mB+1).1
       R.L.B.S            N/A       Branch   suc-   R.L.B.S         R.L.(mB+1).1

       (1) Applies only if the d (default SID) flag is  not  present
 in the file (see admin(1) reference page).

       (2) The mR indicates the maximum existing release.

       (3) Forces creation of the first delta in a new release.

       (4)  The  hR is the highest existing release that is lower
       than the specified, nonexistent, release R.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The obsolescent form of the -l option  uses  the  optional
       option-argument  that  cannot  be  presented as a separate
       argument (-lp). When  the  -l  and  -p  options  are  both
       needed,  the  you should avoid ambiguity by giving them as
       separate arguments (-l -p), reversing their sequence (-pl)
       or separating them with other options in a single argument
       (such as -ltp).

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
  An error occurred.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  following  examples  and  descriptions illustrate the
       differences between read-only  and  editable  versions  of
       SCCS files.  To insert the current date and SID in a file,
       enter the following symbols in the file: %H% %I%

              The %H% symbol is for the current date and the  %I%
              symbol  is  for the SID.  When get retrieves a file
              as editable, it leaves the symbols in the file  and
              does not do text value substitution.  The following
              example builds the version with  the  highest  SID,
              because no version of the file is specified: $ ls


              $ get s.test.c

              3.5 59 lines

              $ ls

              s.test.c test.c

              In the next two command lines, the -r option specifies
 which version to get: $ get -r1.3 s.test.c

              1.3 67 lines

              $ get -r1.3.1.4 s.test.c

     50 lines If you specify  only  the  release
              number  of  the  SID,  get  finds the file with the
              highest level within that release number: $ get -r2

              2.7 21 lines

              If  the  SID  specified is greater than the highest
              existing SID, get retrieves  the  highest  existing
              SID  without  complaint.   If  the SID specified is
              lower than the lowest existing SID, SCCS writes  an
              error  message and fetches nothing.  In the following
 example,  release  2  is  the  lowest  existing
              release:  $  get  -r1 s.test.c ERROR [s.test.c] The
              SID specified does not exist.  Use the sact command
              to  check  the  P-file  for  existing  SID numbers.
              (cm20) The -t option gets  the  top  version  in  a
              given release or level. The top version is the most
              recently created delta, independent  of  its  location.
   In  the  next example, the highest existing
              delta in release 3 is 3.5, while the most  recently
              created delta is $ get -t -r3 s.test.c

     46 lines

              All of the previous examples use the get command to
              get a read-only file.  To create a copy of the file
              that  can  be edited to create a new delta, use the
              -e option.  The get command works differently  when
              using  the  -e option (see also the admin(1) reference
 page). Use unget to undo the effect of the get
              -e command and discard any changes made to the file
              before a delta is created.  The  following  example
              shows how to use the -e option: $ ls


              $ get -e s.test.c

              1.3 new delta 1.4 67 lines

              $ ls

              p.test.c s.test.c test.c

              The working file is test.c.  If you edit test.c and
              save the changes with the delta command, SCCS  creates
  a  new  delta  with  an SID of 1.4.  The file
              p.test.c is a temporary file used by SCCS  to  keep
              track  of  file versions.  In the previous example,
              you could have used the -r option to get a specific
              version.   Assuming delta 1.3 already exists and is
              the highest delta in release, the  following  three
              uses of the get command produce the same results: $
              get -e s.test.c $ get -e  -r1  s.test.c  $  get  -e
              -r1.3  s.test.c  To  start  using  a new (higher in
              value) release number, use get with the  -r  option
              and specify a release number greater than the highest
 existing release number.  In the next  example,
              release 2 does not yet exist: $ get -e -r2 s.test.c

              1.3 new delta 2.1 67 lines

              Notice that get indicates the version  of  the  new
              delta  that  will  be  created if the delta command
              stores changes to the SCCS file.

              If the example did not include the -e  option,  get
              would  build  the  highest  existing  SID (1.3) and
              would not indicate a new delta, even though the -r2
              option  requests a version 2.1.  To create a branch
              delta, use the -r option and  specify  the  release
              and  level  where  the  branch occurs.  In the next
              example, deltas 1.3 and 1.4 already exist: $ get -e
              -r1.3 s.test.c

              1.3 new delta 67 lines

              Create deltas on branches using the same methods.

              Several different editable versions of an SCCS file
              can exist as long as each one  is  in  a  different
              directory.   If  you  try  to get the same editable
              file version more than once into the same directory
              without  using  the  delta  command, SCCS writes an
              error message.

              To get the same editable  file  version  more  than
              once,  set  the  j option in the SCCS file with the
              admin command.  Set  the  j  option  using  the  -f
              option.   You  can  then  get  the same SID several
              times from different directories, creating a  separate
 file for each get command.  Although the files
              originate from a single SID,  SCCS  gives  each  of
              them  a  unique new SID.  In the following example,
              the pwd command  displays  the  current  directory.
              Then  the j option is set with the admin command: $


              $ admin -fj s.test.c Then use the  get  command  to
              retrieve  the  latest version of the file: $ get -e

              1.1 new delta  1.2  5  lines  Change  to  directory
              /u/new and issue the get command again: $ cd /u/new
              $ get -e /u/dan/sccs/s.test.c

              1.1 WARNING: 1.1 1.2 dan 90/08/21 09:03:45 is being
              edited.   This  if  an  informational message only.
              (ge18) new delta 5 lines

              Notice  that  SCCS  creates  two  deltas,  1.2  and
    ,  from  the single original file version of
              1.1.  The p.test.c file shows a separate entry  for
              each  version  currently in use.  The p.test.c file
              remains in the directory until  you  take  care  of
              both file versions with either the delta command or
              the unget command.  (Note that you must have  write
              permission in both directories to issue the preceding


       The following environment variables affect  the  execution
       of get: Provides a default value for the internationalization
 variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or
       null,  the  corresponding value from the default locale is
       used.  If any of the internationalization  variables  contain
 an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of
       the variables had been defined.  If  set  to  a  non-empty
       string value, overrides the values of all the other internationalization
 variables.  Determines the locale for  the
       interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters
 (for example, single-byte as opposed  to  multibyte
       characters  in arguments and input files).  Determines the
       locale for the format and contents of diagnostic  messages
       written to standard error and informative messages written
       to standard output (or standard error if the -p option  is
       used.   Determines  the location of message catalogues for
       the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  admin(1), cdc(1),  comb(1),  delta(1),  prs(1),
       rmdel(1),   sact(1),  sccs(1),  sccsdiff(1),  sccshelp(1),
       unget(1), val(1), what(1)

       Files:  sccsfile(4)

       Standards:  standards(5)

       Programming Support Tools

[ Back ]
 Similar pages
Name OS Title
admin Tru64 Creates and initializes or changes (administers) Source Code Control System (SCCS) files
sccsdiff Tru64 Compares two versions of a Source Code Control System (SCCS) file
prs Tru64 Displays key information in a Source Code Control System (SCCS) file
delta Tru64 Saves editing changes in a Source Code Control System (SCCS) file
rmdel Tru64 Removes a delta from a Source Code Control System (SCCS) file
sact Tru64 Displays current Source Code Control System (SCCS) file editing status
sccsfile Tru64 Contains Source Code Control System (SCCS) information
comb Tru64 Combines Source Code Control System (SCCS) deltas
cdc Tru64 Changes the comments in a Source Code Control System (SCCS) delta
val Tru64 Validates Source Code Control System (SCCS) files
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