admin - Creates and initializes or changes (administers)
Source Code Control System (SCCS) files
The admin command creates and initializes new Source Code
Control System (SCCS) files or changes specified parameters
in existing SCCS files.
Creating and Initializing SCCS Files [Toc] [Back]
admin [-a user] [-i[file]] | [-n] [-f header_flag[value]]
[-m MRlist] [-r number[.number]] [-t[file]] [-y[comment]]
sccs_file | -
Changing Existing SCCS Files [Toc] [Back]
admin [-a user] [-e user] [-d header_flag] [-f
header_flag[value]] [-h] [-t[file]] [-z] sccs_file | -
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to
industry standards as follows:
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
about industry standards and associated tags.
Adds the specified user to the list of users who can make
sets of changes (deltas) to the SCCS file. The user argument
can be either a user name, a group name, or a group
ID. Specifying a group name or number is the same as specifying
the names of all users in that group. You can
specify more than one -a option on a single admin command
line. If an SCCS file contains an empty user list, anyone
can add deltas.
If you precede user by an ! (exclamation point),
the users specified are denied permission to make
[Tru64 UNIX] If a file has a user list, the creator
of the file must be included in the list in
order for the creator to make deltas to the file.
Removes the specified header flag from the SCCS
file. You can specify this option only with existing
SCCS files. You can also specify more than one
-d option in a single admin command. Removes the
specified user from the list of users allowed to
make deltas to the SCCS file. Specifying a group
ID is equivalent to specifying all user names common
to that group. You can specify several -e
options on a single admin command line. You can
specify this option only with existing SCCS files.
See also the -a option. Places the specified
header flag and value in the SCCS file. You can
specify more than one header flag in a single admin
command. Checks the structure of the SCCS file and
compares a newly computed checksum with the checksum
that is stored in the first line of the SCCS
file. When the checksum value is not correct, the
file was improperly modified or damaged. This
option helps you detect damage caused by the
improper use of non-SCCS commands to modify SCCS
files, as well as accidental damage. The -h option
prevents writing to the file, so it cancels the
effect of any other options supplied. If an error
message is returned indicating the file is damaged,
use the -z option to recompute the checksum. Then
test to see if the file has been corrected by using
the -h option again. Gets the text for a new SCCS
file from file. This text is the first delta of
the file. If you specify the -i option but you
omit the file argument, admin reads the text from
standard input until it reaches End-of-File(CtrlD).
If you do not specify the -i option, but you
do specify the -n option, admin creates an empty
SCCS file. The admin command can create only one
file containing text at a time. If you are creating
two or more SCCS files with one call to admin,
you must use the -n option, and the SCCS files created
are empty. Specifies a list of Modification
Request (MR) numbers to be inserted into the SCCS
file as the reason for creating the initial delta.
The v flag must be set. The MR numbers are validated
if the v flag has a value (the name of an MR
number validation program). The admin command
reports an error if the v flag is not set or if the
MR validation fails. Creates a new, empty SCCS
[Tru64 UNIX] Do not specify this option when you
use the -i option. See the description of the -i
option for details. Inserts the initial delta into
number.number, the release and version, respectively.
You can specify -r only if you also specify
the -i or -n option. If you do not specify
this option, the initial delta becomes release 1,
version 1. Use this option only when creating an
SCCS file. If the version number is omitted, the
version is set to 1 by default. Takes descriptive
text for the SCCS file from file. If you use -t
when creating a new SCCS file, you must supply a
file name. In the case of an existing SCCS file
without a file name, -t causes removal of the
descriptive text (if any) currently in the SCCS
file. In the case of an existing SCCS file with a
file name, -t causes text in the named file to
replace the descriptive text (if any) currently in
the SCCS file. Inserts comment text into the initial
delta in a manner identical to that of the
delta command. Use the -y option only when you
create an SCCS file. If you do not specify a comment,
admin inserts a line of the following form:
date and time created YY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS by login
[Tru64 UNIX] If YY is 69 to 99, the year is interpreted
as being in the twentieth century, i.e.
19YY. Otherwise, the year is interpreted as being
in the twenty-first century, i.e. 20YY. Recomputes
the SCCS file checksum and stores it in the first
line of the SCCS file. (See the -h option description.)
Using admin with this option on a damaged file can
prevent future detection of the damage. Use this
option only if the SCCS file is changed using nonSCCS
commands because of a previous serious error.
The name of an SCCS file to be created or modified.
If the named file exists, admin modifies its parameters
as specified by the flags. If it does not
exist and you supply the -i option or the -n
option, admin creates the new file and provides
default values for unspecified options.
If you specify a directory name for file, admin
performs the requested actions on all SCCS files in
that directory (all files with the s. prefix).
If you specify a - (hyphen) as a file name, admin
reads standard input and interprets each line as
the name of an SCCS file. An End-of-File character
The parameters that can be modified by admin control how
the get command builds the files that you can edit. The
parameters also provide information about who can access
the file, who can make changes, and when changes were
[Tru64 UNIX] The admin command is most often used to create
new SCCS files without setting parameters.
[Tru64 UNIX] If you are not familiar with the delta numbering
system, see the get(1), sccs(1) reference pages,
and the Programming Support Tools book.
Creating an SCCS File [Toc] [Back]
All SCCS file names must have the form s.file. New SCCS
files are created with read-only permission. You must
have write permission in the directory to create a file.
(See the chmod(1) reference page for an explanation of
file permissions). The admin command writes to a temporary
x-file, which it calls x.file. The x-file has the same
permissions as the original SCCS file if it already
exists, and it is read-only if admin creates a new file.
After successful completion of admin, the x-file is moved
to the name of the SCCS file. This action ensures that
changes are made to the SCCS file only if admin does not
detect any errors while it is running.
You should create directories containing SCCS files with
permission code 755 (read, write, and execute permissions
for owner, read and execute permissions for group members
and others). You should create SCCS files themselves as
read-only files (444). With these permissions, only the
owner can use non-SCCS commands to modify SCCS files. If
a group can access and modify the SCCS files, make sure
the directories include group write permission.
The admin command also uses a temporary lock file (called
z.file) to prevent simultaneous updates to the SCCS file
by different users. See the get(1) reference page for
additional information on the z.file file.
Header Flags [Toc] [Back]
The following table contains the header flags that can be
set with the -f option and unset with the -d option. The
header flags control the format of the g-file created with
the get command. (See the get(1) reference page for
details on the g-file.) Lets you use the -b option of a
get command to create branch deltas. Makes number the
highest release number that a get -e command can use. The
value of number must be less than or equal to 9999. Its
default value is 9999. Makes SID (SCCS ID) the default
delta supplied to a get command. Makes number the lowest
release number that a get -e command can retrieve. The
number argument must be greater than 0 and less than 9999.
Its default value is 1. Treats the message "There are no
SCCS identification keywords in the file. (cm7)" (issued
by the get or delta command) as an error instead of a
You may use keyword to specify that a particular
keyword, or set of keywords, separated by blanks
and tab characters, must be found in the file.
Permits concurrent get commands for editing the
same SID of an SCCS file. This flag allows multiple
concurrent updates to the same version of the
SCCS file. This flag is sometimes called the
"joint edit" flag. Locks the releases specified by
number... against editing, so that a get -e command
against one of these releases fails. If you
specify number as a, this is equivalent to specifying
all releases in the file.
[Tru64 UNIX] You can lock all releases against
editing by specifying -fla and unlock specific
releases with the -d option. Substitutes module
for all occurrences of the %M% keyword in an SCCS
text file retrieved by a get command. The default
module is the name of the SCCS file without the s.
prefix. Causes delta to create a null delta in any
releases that are skipped when a delta is made in a
new release. For example, if you make delta 5.1
after delta 2.7, releases 3 and 4 will be null.
The resulting null deltas can serve as points from
which to build branch deltas. Without this flag,
skipped releases do not appear in the SCCS file.
Substitutes text for all occurrences of the %Q%
keyword in an SCCS text file retrieved by a get
command. Substitutes type for all occurrences of
the %Y% keyword in a g-file retrieved by get.
Makes delta prompt for Modification Request (MR)
numbers as the reason for creating a delta. The
program argument specifies the name of an MR number
validity checking program. (See the delta(1) reference
page.) If v is set in the SCCS file, the
admin -m option must also be used, even if its
value is null.
The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
An error occurred.
To create an empty SCCS file named s.test.c, enter: admin
-n s.test.c To convert an existing text file into an SCCS
file, enter: admin -itest.c s.test.c
The admin command responds with the message: There
are no SCCS identification keywords in the file.
This message does not indicate an error. To rename
the original text file, enter: mv oldname.c newname.c
Identification keywords are variables that
can be placed in an SCCS file. The values of these
variables provide information, such as date, time,
SID, or file name. See the get(1) reference page
for an explanation of identification keywords.
Whether creating new files or converting an existing
file, you can name the SCCS file anything you
like, as long as it begins with the s. prefix. In
this example, the original file and the SCCS file
have the same name, but that is not required.
When you do not specify a release number, as in
both of the preceding examples, admin gives the
SCCS file an SID of 1.1. SCCS does not use the
number 0 to identify deltas. Therefore, a file
cannot have an SID of 1.0 or 126.96.36.199. All new
releases start with level 1. To start the s.test.c
file with a release number of 3, use the -r option
with the admin command, and enter: admin -itest.c
-r3 s.test.c To restrict permission to change SCCS
files to a specific set of user IDs, list the user
ID or group ID numbers in the user list of the SCCS
file with the -a option. These IDs then appear in
the SCCS file header. Without the -a option to
restrict access, all user IDs can change the SCCS
files. To restrict permissions to the user ID
julie, enter: admin -ajulie s.test.c Although SCCS
provides some error protection, you might need to
recover a file that was accidentally damaged. This
damage can result from a system malfunction, operator
error, or changing an SCCS file without using
SCCS commands use the checksum to determine whether
a file was changed since it was last used. The
only SCCS command that processes a damaged file is
the admin command when used with the -h or -z
option. The -h option tells admin to compare the
checksum stored in the SCCS file header against the
computed checksum. The -z option tells admin to
recompute the checksum and store it in the file
Check the SCCS files for possible damage on a regular
basis. For example, enter: admin -h s.file1
s.file2 ... admin -h directory1 directory2 ...
If admin finds a file where the computed checksum
is not equal to the checksum listed in the SCCS
file header, it displays the message of the form:
[s.file]: The file is damaged. (co6) If a file is
damaged, try to edit the file again, or read a
backup copy. After fixing the file, run the admin
command with the -z option and the repaired file
name by entering: admin -z s.file
This operation replaces the old checksum in the
SCCS file header with a new checksum based on the
repaired file contents. Other SCCS commands can
now process the file.
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES [Toc] [Back]
The following environment variables affect the execution
of admin: Provides a default value for the internationalization
variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset
or null, the corresponding value from the default locale
is used. If any of the internationalization variables
contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none
of the variables had been defined. If set to a non-empty
string value, overrides the values of all the other internationalization
variables. Determines the locale for the
interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters
(for example, single-byte as opposed to multibyte
characters in arguments and input files). Determines the
locale for the format and contents of diagnostic messages
written to standard error. Determines the location of
message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.
Commands: cdc(1), comb(1), delta(1), ed(1), get(1),
prs(1), rmdel(1), sact(1), sccs(1), sccsdiff(1), sccshelp(1), unget(1), val(1), what(1)
Programming Support Tools
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