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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     ps - process status

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     ps [-][aCcehjklmrSTuvwx] [-M core] [-N system] [-O fmt]  [-o
fmt] [-p pid]
        [-t tty] [-U username] [-W swap]
     ps [-L]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The  ps utility displays information about active processes.
When given
     no options, ps prints information about processes associated
with the
     controlling terminal.

     The information displayed is selected based on a set of keywords (and for
     even more control, see the -L, -O, and -o options).  The default output
     format  includes,  for  each process, the process's ID, controlling terminal,
 CPU time (including both user and system time),  state,
and associated

     The options are as follows:

     -a       Display information about other users' processes as
well as your

     -C      Change the way the CPU percentage is  calculated  by
using a
             ``raw''  CPU  calculation  that ignores ``resident''
time (this normally
 has no effect).

     -c      Do not display full command with arguments, but only
the executable
  name.   This may be somewhat confusing; for
example, all
             sh(1) scripts will show as ``sh''.

     -e      Display the environment as well.

     -h      Repeat the information header as often as  necessary
to guarantee
             one header per page of information.

     -j      Print information associated with the following keywords: user,
             pid, ppid, pgid, sess, jobc, state,  tt,  time,  and

     -k      Also display information about kernel threads.

     -L      List the set of available keywords.

     -l       Display  information  associated with the following
keywords: uid,
             pid, ppid, cpu, pri, nice, vsz, rss,  wchan,  state,
tt, time and

     -M core
             Extract  values  associated  with the name list from
the specified
             core instead of the running kernel.

     -m      Sort by memory usage, instead of by start time ID.

     -N system
             Extract the name list from the specified system  instead of the
             running kernel.

     -O  fmt   Add  the  information associated with the space or
comma separated
             list of keywords specified, after the process ID, in
the default
             information  display.  Keywords may be appended with
an equals
             sign (`=') and a string.  This  causes  the  printed
header to use
             the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -o fmt  Display information associated  with  the  space  or
comma separated
             list of keywords specified.  Keywords may be appended with an
             equals sign (`=') and a  string.   This  causes  the
printed header
             to  use the specified string instead of the standard

     -p pid  Display information associated  with  the  specified
process ID.

     -r       Sort by current CPU usage, instead of by start time

     -S      Change the way the process  time  is  calculated  by
summing all exited
 children to their parent process.

     -T       Display information about processes attached to the
device associated
 with the standard input.

     -t tty  Display information about processes attached to  the
             terminal device.

     -U username
             Display  the  processes  belonging  to the specified

     -u      Display information associated  with  the  following
keywords: user,
             pid,  %cpu,  %mem, vsz, rss, tt, state, start, time,
and command.
             The -u option implies the -r option.

     -v      Display information associated  with  the  following
keywords: pid,
             state,  time,  sl,  re, pagein, vsz, rss, lim, tsiz,
%cpu, %mem and
             command.  The -v option implies the -m option.

     -W swap
             Extract swap information from the specified file instead of the
             default ``/dev/drum''.

     -w       Use  132 columns to display information, instead of
the default,
             which is your window size.   If  the  -w  option  is
specified more
             than  once, ps will use as many columns as necessary
without regard
 for your window size.

     -x      Display information about processes without controlling terminals.

     All available keywords are listed below.  Some of these keywords are further
 specified as follows:

     %cpu    The CPU utilization of the process; this is a decaying average
             over  up to a minute of previous (real) time.  Since
the time base
             over which this is computed varies (since  processes
may be very
             young) it is possible for the sum of all %cpu fields
to exceed

     %mem    The percentage of real memory used by this  process.

     flags    The flags (in hexadecimal) associated with the process as in the
             include file <sys/proc.h>:

             P_ADVLOCK      0x0000001       process  may  hold  a
POSIX advisory
             P_CONTROLT     0x0000002      process has a controlling terminal
             P_INMEM        0x0000004      process is loaded into
             P_NOCLDSTOP     0x0000008      no SIGCHLD when children stop
             P_PPWAIT       0x0000010      parent is waiting  for
child to
             P_PROFIL        0x0000020       process  has started
             P_SELECT         0x0000040        selecting;   wakeup/waiting danger
             P_SINTR        0x0000080      sleep is interruptible
             P_SUGID        0x0000100       process  had  set  id
privileges since
                                           last exec
             P_SYSTEM        0x0000200       system  process:  no
sigs, stats or
             P_TIMEOUT       0x0000400       timing  out   during
             P_TRACED         0x0000800        process  is  being
             P_WAITED       0x0001000      debugging process  has
waited for
             P_WEXIT        0x0002000      working on exiting
             P_EXEC         0x0004000      process called exec(3)
             P_OWEUPC         0x0008000        owe   process   an
addupc() call at
                                           next ast
             P_FSTRACE       0x0010000      tracing via file system
             P_SSTEP        0x0020000      process needs  singlestep fixup
             P_SUGIDEXEC      0x0040000        last  exec(3)  was
             P_NOCLDWAIT    0x0080000      let pid 1 wait for  my
             P_NOZOMBIE     0x0100000      pid 1 waits for me instead of dad
             P_INEXEC       0x0200000      process  is  doing  an
exec right now
             P_SYSTRACE      0x0400000       process  system call
tracing is

     lim     The soft limit on memory used, specified via a  call

     lstart  The exact time the command started, using the ``%c''
format described
 in strftime(3).

     nice    The process  scheduling  increment  (see  setpriority(2)).

     rss      The  real memory (resident set) size of the process
(in 1024 byte

     start   The time the command started.  If the command started less than
             24  hours ago, the start time is displayed using the
             format described in  strftime(3).   If  the  command
started less
             than  7  days ago, the start time is displayed using
the ``%a%I%p''
             format.  Otherwise, the start time is displayed  using the
             ``%e%b%y'' format.

     state   The state is given by a sequence of letters, for example,
             ``RWNA''.  The first letter indicates the run  state
of the process:

             D        Marks  a  process  in  disk (or other short
term, uninterruptible)
             I       Marks a process that is idle  (sleeping  for
longer than
                     about 20 seconds).
             R       Marks a runnable process.
             S        Marks  a  process that is sleeping for less
than about 20
             T       Marks a stopped process.
             Z       Marks a dead process (a ``zombie'').

             Additional characters after these, if any,  indicate
             state information:

             +        The  process  is  in the foreground process
group of its
                     control terminal.
             <       The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
             >        The  process  has specified a soft limit on
memory requirements
 and is currently exceeding that limit;
such a process
 is (necessarily) not swapped.
             E       The process is trying to exit.
             K       The process is a kernel thread.
             L        The  process  has pages locked in core (for
example, for
                     raw I/O).
             N       The process has reduced CPU scheduling  priority (see
             s       The process is a session leader.
             V        The process is suspended during a vfork(2).
             W       The process is swapped out.
             X       The process is being traced or debugged.
             x       The  process  is  being  monitored  by  systrace(1).

     tt       An abbreviation for the pathname of the controlling
terminal, if
             any.  The abbreviation consists of the  two  letters
             ``/dev/tty'',  or, for the console, ``co''.  This is
followed by a
             ``-'' if the process can no longer reach  that  controlling terminal
 (i.e., it has been revoked).

     wchan   The event (an address in the system) on which a process waits.
             When printed numerically, the initial  part  of  the
address is
             trimmed  off  and  the result is printed in hex; for
             0x80324000 prints as 324000.

     When printing using the command keyword, a process that  has
exited and
     has  a  parent  that  has not yet waited for the process (in
other words, a
     zombie) is listed as ``<defunct>'', and a process  which  is
blocked while
     trying to exit is listed as ``<exiting>''.  ps makes an educated guess as
     to the file name and arguments given when  the  process  was
created by examining
  memory  or the swap area.  The method is inherently
somewhat unreliable
 and in any event a process  is  entitled  to  destroy
this information,
  so  the  names  cannot  be depended on too much.  The
ucomm (accounting)
 keyword can, however, be depended on.

KEYWORDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following is a complete list of the  available  keywords
and their
     meanings.   Several of them have aliases (keywords which are

     %cpu       percentage CPU usage (alias pcpu)
     %mem       percentage memory usage (alias pmem)
     acflag     accounting flag (alias acflg)
     command    command and arguments (alias args)
     cpu        short-term CPU usage factor (for scheduling)
     cpuid      CPU ID (zero on single processor systems)
     dsiz       data size (in Kbytes)
     emul       name of system call emulation environment
     flags      the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias f)
     gid        effective group
     group      text name of effective group ID
     holdcnt    number of holds on the process (if non-zero, process can't be
     inblk      total blocks read (alias inblock)
     jobc       job control count
     ktrace     tracing flags
     ktracep    tracing vnode
     lim        memory usage limit
     logname    login name of user who started the process (alias
     lstart     time started
     majflt     total page faults
     minflt     total page reclaims
     msgrcv     total messages received (reads  from  pipes/sockets)
     msgsnd     total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
     nice       nice value (alias ni)
     nivcsw     total involuntary context switches
     nsigs      total signals taken (alias nsignals)
     nswap      total swaps in/out
     nvcsw      total voluntary context switches
     nwchan     wait channel (as an address)
     oublk      total blocks written (alias oublock)
     p_ru       resource usage (valid only for zombie)
     paddr      swap address
     pagein     pageins (same as majflt)
     pgid       process group number
     pid        process ID
     ppid       parent process ID
     pri        scheduling priority
     re         core residency time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     rgid       real group ID
     rgroup     text name of real group ID
     rlink      reverse link on run queue, or 0
     rss        resident set size
     rsz         resident set size + (text size / text use count)
(alias rssize)

     ruid       real user ID
     ruser      user name (from ruid)
     sess       session pointer
     sig        pending signals (alias pending)
     sigcatch   caught signals (alias caught)
     sigignore  ignored signals (alias ignored)
     sigmask    blocked signals (alias blocked)
     sl         sleep time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     ssiz       stack size (in Kbytes)
     start      time started (alias etime)
     state      symbolic process state (alias stat)
     svgid      saved GID from a setgid executable
     svuid      saved UID from a setuid executable
     tdev       control terminal device number
     time        accumulated  CPU  time,  user  +  system  (alias
     tpgid      control terminal process group ID
     tsess      control terminal session pointer
     tsiz       text size (in Kbytes)
     tt         control terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
     tty        full name of control terminal
     ucomm      name to be used for accounting (alias comm)
     uid        effective user ID
     upr         scheduling  priority  on return from system call
(alias usrpri)
     user       user name (from uid)
     vsz        virtual size in Kbytes (alias vsize)
     wchan      wait channel (as a symbolic name)
     xstat      exit or stop status (valid only  for  stopped  or
zombie process)

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /dev                special files and device names
     /dev/drum           default swap device
     /var/run/dev.db     /dev name database
     /var/db/kvm_bsd.db  system namelist database

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

     $ ps -auxw

     Display information on all system processes.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     fstat(1),  kill(1),  pgrep(1),  pkill(1), procmap(1), sh(1),
top(1), w(1),
     kvm(3), strftime(3), dev_mkdb(8), pstat(8)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     A ps command appeared in Version 3 AT&T UNIX in section 8 of
the manual.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Since ps cannot run faster than the system and is run as any
other scheduled
 process, the information it displays can never  be  exact.

OpenBSD      3.6                          April      18,     1994
[ Back ]
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