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SAIL(6)

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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Sail is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting
 sail originally developed by S. Craig Taylor.

       Players of Sail take command of an old  fashioned  Man  of
       War and fight other players or the computer.  They may reenact
 one of the many historical sea battles  recorded  in
       the game, or they can choose a fictional battle.

       As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete
       control over the workings of  his  ship.   He  must  order
       every maneuver, change the set of his sails, and judge the
       right moment to let loose the terrible destruction of  his
       broadsides.   In  addition  to fighting the enemy, he must
       harness the powers of the wind and sea to make  them  work
       for  him.   The  outcome of many battles during the age of
       sail was decided by the ability of one captain to hold the
       `weather gage.'

       The flags are:

       -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

       -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.

       -x     Play  the first available ship instead of prompting
              for a choice.

       -b     No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Sail is really two programs in one.  Each player starts up
       a  process which runs his own ship.  In addition, a driver
       process is forked (by the first player) to  run  the  computer
 ships and take care of global bookkeeping.

       Because  the  driver must calculate moves for each ship it
       controls, the more ships  the  computer  is  playing,  the
       slower the game will appear.

       If  a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize
       with the other players (a rather slow process  for  everyone),
 and then he may play along with the rest.

       To  implement  a  multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which
       was the operating system Sail was first written under, the
       communicating  processes  must use a common temporary file
       as a place to read and write  messages.   In  addition,  a
       locking  mechanism  must  be  provided to ensure exclusive
       access to the shared file.  For example, Sail uses a  temporary
  file  named /tmp/#sailsink.21 for scenario 21, and
       corresponding file names for the other scenarios.  To provide
  exclusive  access to the temporary file, Sail uses a
       technique stolen from an old  game  called  "pubcaves"  by
       Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the loop

            for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock)  0  n  30; n++)
                                    sleep(2);

       until  they  are  able  to  create  a link to a file named
       "/tmp/#saillock.??".  The "??" correspond to the  scenario
       number  of  the  game.   Since UNIX guarantees that a link
       will point to only one file, the process that succeeds  in
       linking  will have exclusive access to the temporary file.

       Whether or not this really works is open  to  speculation.
       When  ucbmiro  was rebooted after a crash, the file system
       check program found 3 links  between  the  Sail  temporary
       file and its link file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES    [Toc]    [Back]

       When players do something of global interest, such as moving
 or firing, the driver must coordinate the action  with
       the  other  ships  in  the game.  For example, if a player
       wants to move in a certain direction, he writes a  message
       into  the temporary file requesting the driver to move his
       ship.  Each ``turn,'' the driver reads  all  the  messages
       sent  from the players and decides what happened.  It then
       writes back into the temporary file new  values  of  variables,
 etc.

       The  most  noticeable effect this communication has on the
       game is the delay in moving.  Suppose  a  player  types  a
       move  for  his  ship  and hits return.  What happens then?
       The player process saves up messages to be written to  the
       temporary  file  in  a buffer.  Every 7 seconds or so, the
       player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file
       and  writes  out its buffer to the file.  The driver, running
 asynchronously, must read in  the  movement  command,
       process  it,  and  write  out the results.  This takes two
       exclusive accesses to the temporary file.   Finally,  when
       the  player  process gets around to doing another 7 second
       update, the results of  the  move  are  displayed  on  the
       screen.   Hence,  every  movement  requires four exclusive
       accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds
 depending upon asynchrony) before the player sees the
       results of his moves.

       In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they  would
       appear.   There  is room for "pipelining" in the movement.
       After the player writes out a first  movement  message,  a
       second  movement  command  can  then be issued.  The first
       message will be in the  temporary  file  waiting  for  the
       driver,  and the second will be in the file buffer waiting
       to be written to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a
       turn  ahead  of the time, the player can sail around quite
       quickly.

       If the player types several movement commands between  two
       7  second  updates,  only  the last movement command typed
       will be seen by the driver.  Movement commands within  the
       same update "overwrite" each other, in a sense.

THE HISTORY OF SAIL    [Toc]    [Back]

       I  wrote  the  first version of Sail on a PDP 11/70 in the
       fall of 1980.  Needless to say, the code  was  horrendous,
       not  portable  in  any sense of the word, and didn't work.
       The program was not very  modular  and  had  fseeks()  and
       fwrites()  every  few  lines.   After a tremendous rewrite
       from the top down, I got the first working version  up  by
       1981.   There were several annoying bugs concerning firing
       broadsides and finding  angles.   Sail  uses  no  floating
       point,  by  the  way, so the direction routines are rather
       tricky.  Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981 to  be
       more  correct  (although it still doesn't work perfectly),
       and he added code to let a player  select  which  ship  he
       wanted  at the start of the game (instead of the first one
       available).

       Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making Sail
       portable  for  the  first time.  This was no easy task, by
       the way.  Constants like 2 and 10 were  very  frequent  in
       the code.  I also became famous for using "Riggle Memorial
       Structures" in Sail.  Many of my structure references  are
       so  long that they run off the line printer page.  Here is
       an example, if you promise not to laugh.

       specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts


       Sail received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in  the
       summer  and fall of 1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and modularized
       the  code  (a  monumental  feat)  almost   from   scratch.
       Although he introduced many new bugs, the final result was
       very much cleaner and (?) faster.  He added  window  movement
 commands and find ship commands.

HISTORICAL INFO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of
       intricate sailing.  Their only disadvantage was an inability
  to  sail  very  close  to  the wind.  The design of a
       wooden ship allowed only for the guns to bear to the  left
       and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect (usually 6 or
       9 pounders) could point  forward,  but  their  effect  was
       small compared to a 68 gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.
       The guns bear approximately like so:

              \
               b----------------
           ---0
               \
                \
                 \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                  \
                   \
                    \

       An interesting phenomenon occurred when  a  broadside  was
       fired  down  the length of an enemy ship.  The shot tended
       to bounce along the deck and did several times  more  damage.
  This phenomenon was called a rake.  Because the bows
       of a ship are very strong and  present  a  smaller  target
       than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the
       bow) causes more damage than a bow rake.

                               b
                              00   ----  Stern rake!
                                a

       Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were  very
       large, close range cannons.  American ships from the revolution
 until the War of 1812 were  almost  entirely  armed
       with carronades.

       The  period  of  history  covered in Sail is approximately
       from the 1770's until the  end  of  Napoleonic  France  in
       1815.   There  are  many  excellent books about the age of
       sail.  My favorite author is  Captain  Frederick  Marryat.
       More   contemporary  authors  include  C.S.  Forester  and
       Alexander Kent.

       Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by  armament.
       The  mainstays  of any fleet were its "Ships of the Line",
       or "Line of Battle Ships".  They  were  so  named  because
       these  ships  fought  together  in great lines.  They were
       close enough for mutual support, yet every ship could fire
       both  its  broadsides.   We  get  the  modern words "ocean
       liner," or "liner," and "battleship"  from  "ship  of  the
       line."   The  most  common  size was the 74 gun two decked
       ship of the line.  The two gun decks  usually  mounted  18
       and 24 pounder guns.

       The  pride  of the fleet were the first rates.  These were
       huge three decked ships of the line  mounting  80  to  136
       guns.   The  guns  in the three tiers were usually 18, 24,
       and 32 pounders in that order from top to bottom.

       Various other ships  came  next.   They  were  almost  all
       "razees,"  or  ships  of the line with one deck sawed off.
       They mounted 40-64 guns and were a poor  cross  between  a
       frigate  and  a line of battle ship.  They neither had the
       speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.

       Next came the "eyes of the fleet."  Frigates came in  many
       sizes  mounting  anywhere  from  32 to 44 guns.  They were
       very handy vessels.  They could  outsail  anything  bigger
       and  outshoot  anything smaller.  Frigates didn't fight in
       lines of battle as the much  bigger  74's  did.   Instead,
       they harassed the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships.
       They were much more  useful  in  missions  away  from  the
       fleet,  such  as  cutting out expeditions or boat actions.
       They could hit hard and get away fast.

       Lastly, there  were  the  corvettes,  sloops,  and  brigs.
       These  were smaller ships mounting typically fewer than 20
       guns.   A  corvette  was  only  slightly  smaller  than  a
       frigate,  so  one  might  have up to 30 guns.  Sloops were
       used for carrying dispatches or  passengers.   Brigs  were
       something you built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Ships  in  Sail  are  represented  by two characters.  One
       character represents the bow of the ship,  and  the  other
       represents  the  stern.  Ships have nationalities and numbers.
  The first ship of a nationality is  number  0,  the
       second  number  1, etc.  Therefore, the first British ship
       in a game would be printed as "b0".  The second Brit would
       be "b1", and the fifth Don would be "s4".

       Ships  can  set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend
       on extra canvas called Full Sails.  A ship under full sail
       is  a  beautiful sight indeed, and it can move much faster
       than a ship under Battle Sails.  The only trouble is, with
       full  sails set, there is so much tension on sail and rigging
 that a well aimed round shot can burst  a  sail  into
       ribbons where it would only cause a little hole in a loose
       sail.  For this reason, rigging damage  is  doubled  on  a
       ship  with  full sails set.  Don't let that discourage you
       from using full sails.  I like to keep them up right  into
       the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails set has a capital
 letter for its nationality.  E.g., a Frog, "f0", with
       full sails set would be printed as "F0".

       When  a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man
       aboard "strikes the colors."  This ceremony is the  ship's
       formal  surrender.  The nationality character of a surrendered
 ship is printed as "!".  E.g., the Frog of our  last
       example would soon be "!0".

       A  ship  has  a  random chance of catching fire or sinking
       when it reaches the stage of listing hulk.  A sinking ship
       has  a "~" printed for its nationality, and a ship on fire
       and about to explode has a "#" printed.

       Captured ships become the nationality of the  prize  crew.
       Therefore,  if  an  American ship captures a British ship,
       the British ship will have an "a" printed for its  nationality.
  In addition, the ship number is changed to "","'",
       "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon the original number,
       be  it  0,1,2,3,4,  or  5.   E.g., the "b0" captured by an
       American becomes the "a".  The "s4"  captured  by  a  Frog
       becomes the "f*".

       The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured
 by an American: "#".

MOVEMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

       Movement is the most  confusing  part  of  Sail  to  many.
       Ships can head in 8 directions:

                                        0      0      0
               b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
               0        0                                             0

       The  stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains
       stationary.  Ships can always turn, regardless of the wind
       (unless  they  are  becalmed).   All ships drift when they
       lose headway.  If a ship doesn't move forward at  all  for
       two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship has begun to
       drift, then it must move forward before it  turns,  if  it
       plans  to do more than make a right or left turn, which is
       always possible.

       Movement commands to Sail are a string  of  forward  moves
       and  turns.  An example is "l3".  It will turn a ship left
       and then move it ahead 3 spaces.  In  the  drawing  above,
       the  "b0" made 7 successive left turns.  When Sail prompts
       you for a move, it  prints  three  characters  of  import.
       E.g.,
            move (7, 4):
       The  first  number  is the maximum number of moves you can
       make, including turns.  The second number is  the  maximum
       number  of  turns  you  can  make.  Between the numbers is
       sometimes printed a quote "'".  If the quote  is  present,
       it  means  that  your ship has been drifting, and you must
       move ahead to regain headway before  you  turn  (see  note
       above).   Some of the possible moves for the example above
       are as follows:

            move (7, 4): 7
            move (7, 4): 1
            move (7, 4): d      /* drift, or do nothing */
            move (7, 4): 6r
            move (7, 4): 5r1
            move (7, 4): 4r1r
            move (7, 4): l1r1r2
            move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

       Because square riggers performed so  poorly  sailing  into
       the  wind,  if at any point in a movement command you turn
       into the wind, the movement stops there.  E.g.,

            move (7, 4): l1l4
            Movement Error;
            Helm: l1l

       Moreover,  whenever  you  make  a  turn,   your   movement
       allowance drops to min(what's left, what you would have at
       the new attitude).  In short, if you turn  closer  to  the
       wind,  you  most  likely  won't  be  able to sail the full
       allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

       Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on  the
       wind.   Captains in Sail are no different.  A ship's ability
 to move depends on its attitude to the wind.  The best
       angle  possible is to have the wind off your quarter, that
       is, just off the stern.  The direction rose on the side of
       the  screen  gives the possible movements for your ship at
       all positions to the wind.  Battle sail speeds  are  given
       first, and full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.

                            0 1(2)
                           \|/
                           -^-3(6)
                           /|\
                            | 4(7)
                           3(6)

       Pretend  the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward
       and the wind is blowing from the bottom to the top of  the
       page.  The numbers at the bottom "3(6)" will be your speed
       under battle or full sails in such a  situation.   If  the
       wind  is  off  your quarter, then you can move "4(7)".  If
       the wind is off your beam, "3(6)".  If  the  wind  is  off
       your  bow, then you can only move "1(2)".  Facing into the
       wind, you can't move at all.  Ships facing into  the  wind
       were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  windspeed  and  direction  is  displayed  as a little
       weather vane on the side of the screen.  The number in the
       middle  of the vane indicates the wind speed, and the + to
       - indicates the wind direction.  The wind blows from the +
       sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).  E.g.,

                           |
                           3
                           +

       The  wind  speeds  are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light breeze, 2 =
       moderate breeze, 3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5  =
       gale,  6 = full gale, 7 = hurricane.  If a hurricane shows
       up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING    [Toc]    [Back]

       If two ships collide, they run the risk of  becoming  tangled
  together.   This  is called "fouling."  Fouled ships
       are stuck together, and neither can move.  They can unfoul
       each  other if they want to.  Boarding parties can only be
       sent across to  ships  when  the  antagonists  are  either
       fouled or grappled.

       Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the
       rigging of the other.

       The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on
       the upper right of the screen.

BOARDING    [Toc]    [Back]

       Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life.
       Boarding parties may be formed in Sail to either board  an
       enemy ship or to defend your own ship against attack.  Men
       organized as Defensive Boarding  Parties  fight  twice  as
       hard to save their ship as men left unorganized.

       The  boarding  strength of a crew depends upon its quality
       and upon the number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY    [Toc]    [Back]

       The British seaman was  world  renowned  for  his  sailing
       abilities.   American  sailors, however, were actually the
       best seamen in  the  world.   Because  the  American  Navy
       offered  twice the wages of the Royal Navy, British seamen
       who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.

       In Sail, crew quality is quantized into 5  energy  levels.
       "Elite" crews can outshoot and outfight all other sailors.
       "Crack" crews are next.  "Mundane" crews are average,  and
       "Green"  and  "Mutinous"  crews are below average.  A good
       rule of thumb is that "Crack" or  "Elite"  crews  get  one
       extra  hit  per  broadside  compared  to  "Mundane" crews.
       Don't expect too much from "Green" crews.

BROADSIDES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot:
       grape,  chain,  round, and double.  You have guns and carronades
 in both the port and  starboard  batteries.   Carronades
  only  have  a range of two, so you have to get in
       close to be able to fire them.  You  have  the  choice  of
       firing  at  the  hull  or rigging of another ship.  If the
       range of the ship is greater than 6,  then  you  may  only
       shoot at the rigging.

       The types of shot and their advantages are:

ROUND    [Toc]    [Back]

       Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

DOUBLE    [Toc]    [Back]

       Range  of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.  Double
       takes two turns to load.

CHAIN    [Toc]    [Back]

       Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down  rigging.   Cannot
       damage hull or guns, though.

GRAPE    [Toc]    [Back]

       Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

       On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information
 about your ship:

                      Load  D! R!
                      Hull  9
                      Crew  4  4  2
                      Guns  4  4
                      Carr  2  2
                      Rigg  5 5 5 5

       "Load" shows what your port (left) and  starboard  (right)
       broadsides  are loaded with.  A "!" after the type of shot
       indicates that it is an initial broadside.  Initial broadside
  were  loaded  with care before battle and before the
       decks ran red  with  blood.   As  a  consequence,  initial
       broadsides  are  a  little  more effective than broadsides
       loaded later.  A "*" after the type of shot indicates that
       the  gun  crews  are still loading it, and you cannot fire
       yet.  "Hull" shows how much hull you  have  left.   "Crew"
       shows your three sections of crew.  As your crew dies off,
       your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns"  and  "Carr"  show
       your  port  and  starboard  guns.   As you lose guns, your
       ability to fire decreases.  "Rigg" shows how much  rigging
       you  have  on your 3 or 4 masts.  As rigging is shot away,
       you lose mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE    [Toc]    [Back]

       It is very dramatic  when  a  ship  fires  its  thunderous
       broadsides, but the mere opportunity to fire them does not
       guarantee any hits.  Many factors influence  the  destructive
  force  of  a broadside.  First of all, and the chief
       factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at  range
       ten  than  it  is  to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is
       raking.  Raking fire, as mentioned before,  can  sometimes
       dismast  a ship at range ten.  Next, crew size and quality
       affects the damage done by a broadside.    The  number  of
       guns firing also bears on the point, so to speak.  Lastly,
       weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the  seas
       are high (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the
       line can't even be opened to run out the guns.  This gives
       frigates  and other flush decked vessels an advantage in a
       storm.  The scenario Pellew  vs.  The  Droits  de  L'Homme
       takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the
       slow rate of two points  per  three  turns.   The  message
       "Repairs Completed" will be printed if no more repairs can
       be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Computer ships in Sail follow all the rules above  with  a
       few  exceptions.   Computer ships never repair damage.  If
       they did, the players could never beat  them.   They  play
       well  enough  as  it  is.   As a consolation, the computer
       ships can fire double shot every turn.  That  fluke  is  a
       good reason to keep your distance.  The Driver figures out
       the moves of the computer ships.   It computes them with a
       typical A.I. distance function and a depth first search to
       find the maximum "score."  It seems to work  fairly  well,
       although I'll be the first to admit it isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands  are  given to Sail by typing a single character.
       You will then be prompted for further input.  A brief summary
 of the commands follows.

COMMAND SUMMARY    [Toc]    [Back]

           'f'  Fire broadsides if they bear
           'l'  Reload
           'L'  Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
           'm'  Move
           'i'  Print the closest ship
           'I'  Print all ships
           'F'  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
           's'  Send a message around the fleet
           'b'  Attempt to board an enemy ship
           'B'  Recall boarding parties
           'c'  Change set of sail
           'r'  Repair
           'u'  Attempt to unfoul
           'g'  Grapple/ungrapple
           'v'  Print version number of game
          '^L'  Redraw screen
           'Q'  Quit

           'C'      Center your ship in the window
           'U'        Move window up
           'D','N'  Move window down
           'H'        Move window left
           'J'        Move window right
           'S'      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:


Ranger vs. Drake:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This  is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard the
       Bonhomme Richard, he was able to  overcome  the  Serapis's
       greater firepower by quickly boarding her.

       (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
       (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:
       Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
       (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
       (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
       (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
       Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a)  Constitution       44  gun  Corvette (elite crew) (24
       pts) (b) Cyane             24 gun Sloop (crack  crew)  (11
       pts)  (b)  Levant            20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10
       pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
       (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
       (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
       (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
       (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
       (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:
       Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

       A scenario for you Horny  fans.   Remember,  he  sank  the
       Natividad  against  heavy odds and winds.  Hint: don't try
       to board the Natividad, her crew is  much  bigger,  albeit
       green.

       (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

       (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:
       Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one
       ship and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.

       (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

Cape Horn:
       Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:
       Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Watch that little Cypress go!

       (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
       Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

       (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:
       Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)


Star Trek:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

CONCLUSION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Sail has been a group effort.

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       Dave Riggle

CO-AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       Ed Wang

REFITTING    [Toc]    [Back]

       Craig Leres

CONSULTANTS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Chris Guthrie
       Captain Happy
       Horatio Nelson
            and many valiant others...

REFERENCES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Wooden Ships  Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
       Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
       Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
       The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
             Mr. Midshipman Easy
             Peter Simple
             Jacob Faithful
             Japhet in Search of a Father
             Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
             Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Probably   a   few,   and  please  report  them  to  "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu" and "edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"



                           June 1, 1994                   SAIL(6)
[ Back ]
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