locale - Description of multi-language support
A locale is a set of language and cultural rules. These cover aspects
such as language for messages, different character sets, lexigraphic
conventions, etc. A program needs to be able to determine its locale
and act accordingly to be portable to different cultures.
The header <locale.h> declares data types, functions and macros which
are useful in this task.
The functions it declares are setlocale() to set the current locale,
and localeconv() to get information about number formatting.
There are different categories for local information a program might
need; they are declared as macros. Using them as the first argument to
the setlocale() function, it is possible to set one of these to the
LC_COLLATE [Toc] [Back]
This is used to change the behaviour of the functions strcoll()
and strxfrm(), which are used to compare strings in the local
alphabet. For example, the German sharp s is sorted as "ss".
LC_CTYPE [Toc] [Back]
This changes the behaviour of the character handling and classification
functions, such as isupper() and toupper(), and the
multi-byte character functions such as mblen() or wctomb().
LC_MONETARY [Toc] [Back]
changes the information returned by localeconv() which describes
the way numbers are usually printed, with details such as decimal
point versus decimal comma. This information is internally
used by the function strfmon().
LC_MESSAGES [Toc] [Back]
changes the language messages are displayed in and how an affirmative
or negative answer looks like. The GNU C-library contains
the rpmatch() function to ease the use of these information.
LC_NUMERIC [Toc] [Back]
changes the information used by the printf() and scanf() family
of functions, when they are advised to use the locale-settings.
This information can also be read with the localeconv() function.
LC_TIME [Toc] [Back]
changes the behaviour of the strftime() function to display the
current time in a locally acceptable form; for example, most of
Europe uses a 24-hour clock vs. the US' 12-hour clock.
LC_ALL All of the above.
If the second argument to setlocale() is empty string, "", for the
default locale, it is determined using the following steps:
1. If there is a non-null environment variable LC_ALL, the value of
LC_ALL is used.
2. If an environment variable with the same name as one of the categories
above exists and is non-null, its value is used for that
3. If there is a non-null environment variable LANG, the value of
LANG is used.
Values about local numeric formatting is made available in a struct
lconv returned by the localeconv() function, which has the following
/* Numeric (non-monetary) information. */
char *decimal_point; /* Decimal point character. */
char *thousands_sep; /* Thousands separator. */
/* Each element is the number of digits in each group;
elements with higher indices are farther left.
An element with value CHAR_MAX means that no further grouping is done.
An element with value 0 means that the previous element is used
for all groups farther left. */
/* Monetary information. */
/* First three chars are a currency symbol from ISO 4217.
Fourth char is the separator. Fifth char is ' '. */
char *currency_symbol; /* Local currency symbol. */
char *mon_decimal_point; /* Decimal point character. */
char *mon_thousands_sep; /* Thousands separator. */
char *mon_grouping; /* Like `grouping' element (above). */
char *positive_sign; /* Sign for positive values. */
char *negative_sign; /* Sign for negative values. */
char int_frac_digits; /* Int'l fractional digits. */
char frac_digits; /* Local fractional digits. */
/* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a positive value, 0 if succeeds. */
/* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol from a positive value. */
/* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a negative value, 0 if succeeds. */
/* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol from a negative value. */
/* Positive and negative sign positions:
0 Parentheses surround the quantity and currency_symbol.
1 The sign string precedes the quantity and currency_symbol.
2 The sign string succeeds the quantity and currency_symbol.
3 The sign string immediately precedes the currency_symbol.
4 The sign string immediately succeeds the currency_symbol. */
setlocale(3), localeconv(3), locale(1), localedef(1), rpmatch(3), strf-
mon(3), strcoll(3), strxfrm(3), strftime(3)
Linux 1993-04-24 LOCALE(7)
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