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 hosts_options(5)                                           hosts_options(5)




 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      hosts_options - host access control language extensions

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      This manual page describes the optional extensions to the language
      described in the hosts_access(5) manual page.

      The extensible language uses the following format:

      daemon_list : client_list : option : option ...

      The first two fields are described in the hosts_access(5) manual page.
      Briefly, daemon_list is a list of one or more daemon process names or
      wildcards.  client_list is a list of one or more host names, host
      addresses, patterns or wildcards that will be matched against the
      client host name or address.

      The remainder of the rules is a list of zero or more options.  Any ":"
      characters within options must be protected with a backslash "\".

      An option is of the form "keyword" or "keyword value".  Options are
      processed in the specified order.  Some options are subjected to
      %letter substitutions.  For the sake of backwards compatibility with
      earlier versions, an equals sign "=" is permitted between keyword and
      value.

    Logging Options    [Toc]    [Back]
           severity mail.info
           severity notice

      Change the severity level at which the event will be logged.  Facility
      names (such as mail) are optional and are not supported on systems
      with older syslog implementations.  See syslog(3C) related to
      facilities.  The severity option can be used to emphasize or to ignore
      specific events.

    Access Control Options    [Toc]    [Back]
           allow
           deny

      Grant or deny the service for allow and deny options respectively.
      These options must appear at the end of a rule.

      The allow and deny keywords make it possible to keep all access
      control rules within a single file, for example in the hosts.allow
      file.  Examples are as follows:

      To permit access from specific hosts only:

           ALL: .friendly.domain: ALLOW
           ALL: ALL: DENY



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 hosts_options(5)                                           hosts_options(5)




      To permit access from all hosts except a few trouble-makers:

           ALL: .bad.domain: DENY
           ALL: ALL: ALLOW

      Notice the leading dot (.) on the domain name patterns.

    Running Other Commands    [Toc]    [Back]
      spawn shell_command
           Execute, in a child process, the specified shell command, after
           performing the %letter expansions described in the
           hosts_access(5) manual page.  The command is executed with stdin,
           stdout and stderr connected to the null device, so that it will
           not mess up the conversation with the client host.  For example:

           spawn (/usr/bin/sffinger -l @%h | \
            /usr/bin/mailx -s "alert" root) &

           executes, in a background child process, the shell command

           sffinger -l @%h | mail root

           after replacing %h by the name or address of the remote host.

           The example uses the sffinger command instead of the regular
           finger command to limit possible damage from data sent by the
           finger server.  The sffinger command is part of the daemon
           wrapper package.  It is a wrapper around the regular finger
           command that filters the data sent by the remote host.

      twist shell_command
           Replace the current process by an instance of the specified shell
           command, after performing the %letter expansions described in the
           hosts_access(5) manual page.  stdin, stdout, and stderr are
           connected to the client process.  This option must appear at the
           end of a rule.

           To send a customized bounce message to the client instead of
           running the real ftp daemon:

               ftpd : ... : twist /bin/echo 421 Some bounce message

           For an alternative way to communicate with the client processes,
           see the banners option below.

           To run /some/other/telnetd without polluting its command-line
           array or its process environment:

               telnetd : ... : twist PATH=/some/other; exec telnetd





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 hosts_options(5)                                           hosts_options(5)




      WARNING:  in case of UDP services, do not twist to commands that use
      the standard I/O or the read()/write() routines to communicate with
      the client process.  UDP requires other I/O primitives.

    Network Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      keepalive
           Causes the server to periodically send a message to the client.
           The connection is considered broken when the client does not
           respond.  The keepalive option can be useful when users turn off
           their machine while it is still connected to a server.  The
           keepalive option is not useful for datagram (UDP) services.

      linger number_of_seconds
           Specifies how long the kernel will try to deliver undelivered
           data after the server process closes a connection.

    Username Lookup Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      rfc931 [ timeout_in_seconds ]
           Look up the client user name with the RFC 931 (TAP, IDENT, RFC
           1413) protocol.  This option is silently ignored in case of
           services based on transports other than TCP.  It requires that
           the client system runs an RFC 931-compliant daemon (IDENT etc.)
           and may cause noticeable delays with connections from non-UNIX
           clients.  The timeout period is tunable through configuration
           file /etc/tcpd.conf.  If no or invalid timeout is specified, the
           user name lookup is disabled.

    Miscellaneous Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      banners /some/directory
           Look for a file in /some/directory with the same name as the
           daemon process (for example, telnetd for the telnet service), and
           copy its contents to the client.  Newline characters are replaced
           by carriage-return newline, and %letter sequences are expanded
           (see the hosts_access(5) manual page).

           WARNING: Banners are supported for connection-oriented (TCP)
           network services only.

      nice [number]
           Change the nice value of the process (default 10).  Specify a
           positive value to spend more CPU resources on other processes.

      setenv name value
           Place a (name, value) pair into the process environment.  The
           value is subjected to %letter expansions and may contain
           whitespace (but leading and trailing blanks are stripped off).

           WARNING: Many network daemons reset their environment before
           spawning a login or shell process.





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 hosts_options(5)                                           hosts_options(5)




      umask 022
           Like the umask command that is built into the shell.  A umask of
           022 prevents the creation of files with group and world write
           permission.  The umask argument must be an octal number.

      user someuser or user someuser.somegroup
           Assume the privileges of the "someuser" userid (or user
           "someuser", group "somegroup").  The first form is useful with
           inetd implementations that run all services with root privilege.
           The second form is useful for services that need special group
           privileges only.

 DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Problems are reported via syslogd, the syslog daemon, at info, notice,
      warning and err levels.  When a syntax error is found in an access
      control rule, the error is reported to the syslog daemon; further
      options will be ignored, and service is denied.

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      Wietse Venema (wietse@wzv.win.tue.nl)
      Department of Mathematics and Computing Science
      Eindhoven University of Technology
      Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513,
      5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      hosts_access(5), the default access control language.


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