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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      frecover - selectively recover files

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      /usr/sbin/frecover -r [-hmosvyAFNOX] [-c config] [-f device] [-S skip]
           [-E extarg]

      /usr/sbin/frecover -R path [-f device]

      /usr/sbin/frecover -x [-hmosvyAFNOX] [-c config] [-e path] [-f device]
           [-g graph] [-i path] [-S skip] [-E extarg]

      /usr/sbin/frecover -I path [-vy] [-f device] [-c config]

      /usr/sbin/frecover -V path [-vy] [-f device] [-c config]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      frecover reads media written by the fbackup command.  Its actions are
      controlled by the selected function -r, -R, -x, -V, or -I.

      The function performed by frecover is specified by one of the
      following options:

      -r          The backup media is read and the contents are loaded into
                  the directories from which they were backed up.  This
                  option should only be used to recover a complete backup
                  onto a clear directory or to recover an incremental backup
                  after a full level-zero recovery (see fbackup(1M)).  This
                  is the default behavior.

      -x          The files identified by the -i, -e, and -g options (see
                  below) are extracted or not extracted from the backup
                  media.  If a file to be extracted matches a directory
                  whose contents have been written to the backup media, and
                  the -h option is not specified, the directory is
                  recursively extracted.  The owner, modification time, and
                  access control list (including optional entries, unless
                  the -A option is specified) are recovered.  If no file
                  argument is given (including an empty graph file), all
                  files on the backup media are extracted, unless the -h
                  option is specified.

      -I path     The index on the current volume is extracted from the
                  backup media and is written to path.

      -V path     The volume header on the current volume is extracted from
                  the backup media and is written to path.  The following
                  fields from the header are extracted in the format
                  label:value with one pair per line.

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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

                  Magic Field                 On valid fbackup media, it
                                              contains the value
                                              FBACKUP_LABEL.  On pre-10.20
                                              fbackup media, it contains
                                              FBACKUP LABEL.
                  Machine Identification      This field contains the result
                                              of uname -m.
                  System Identification       This field contains the result
                                              of uname -s.
                  Release Identification      This field contains the result
                                              of uname -r.
                  Node Identification         This field contains the result
                                              of uname -n.
                  User Identification         This field contains the result
                                              of cuserid(3S).
                  Record Size                 This field contains the
                                              maximum length in bytes of a
                                              data record.
                  Time                        This field contains the time
                                              fbackup was started.
                  Media Use                   This field contains the number
                                              of times the media has been
                                              used for backup.
                  Volume Number               This field contains a #
                                              character followed by 3
                                              digits, and identifies the
                                              current volume in the backup.
                  Checkpoint Frequency        This field contains the number
                                              of data records between
                  Fast Search Mark Frequency  This field contains the number
                                              of files between fast search
                                              marks for backups made with
                                              DDS tape drives.
                  Index Size                  This field contains the size
                                              of the index.
                  Backup Identification Tag   This field is composed of 2
                                              items: the process ID (pid),
                                              and the start time of that
                  Language                    This field contains the
                                              language used to make the

      -R path     An interrupted full recovery can be continued using this
                  option.  frecover uses the information in file path to
                  continue the recovery from where it was interrupted.  The
                  only command line option used by frecover with this option
                  is -f.  The values in path override all other options to
                  frecover.  Note also that only full recoveries are
                  restarted with this option, because no history of include

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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

                  or exclude lists is stored in the restart file.  If a
                  partial recovery (i.e., using the -x option) is
                  interrupted then restarted with this option, frecover
                  continues recovering where the partial recovery left off,
                  but restores all files on the backup media beyond this

      The following options can be used in addition to the option above that
      selects the desired function:

      -c config   config specifies the name of a configuration file to be
                  used to alter the behavior of frecover.  The configuration
                  file allows the user to specify the action to be taken on
                  all errors, the maximum number of attempts at
                  resynchronizing on media errors (-S option), and the
                  action to be taken on media errors.  Each entry of a
                  configuration file consists of an action identifier
                  followed by a separator followed by the specified action.
                  Valid action identifiers are error, chgvol, and sync.
                  Separators can be either tabs or spaces.  In the following
                  sample configuration file, each time an error is
                  encountered, the script
                  /var/adm/fbackupfiles/frecovererror is executed.  The
                  script /var/adm/fbackupfiles/frecoverchgvol is executed
                  each time the backup media is to be changed.  The maximum
                  number of resynchronization attempts is five.

                  error  /var/adm/fbackupfiles/frecovererror
                  chgvol /var/adm/fbackupfiles/frecoverchgvol
                  sync 5

      -e path     path is interpreted as a graph to be excluded from the
                  recovery.  There is no limit on how many times the -e
                  option can be specified.

      -f device   device identifies the backup device to be used instead of
                  the default /dev/rmt/0m.  If device is -, frecover reads
                  from standard input.  Thus fbackup and frecover can be
                  used in a pipeline to backup and recover a file system as

                  fbackup -i /usr -f - | (cd /mnt; frecover -Xrf -)

                  If more than one output file is specified, frecover uses
                  each one successively and then repeats in a cyclical
                  pattern.  Patterns can be used in the device name in a way
                  similar to file name expansion as done by sh(1).  The
                  expansion of the pattern results in all matching names
                  being in the list of devices used.  A device on the remote
                  machine can be specified in the form machine:device.
                  frecover creates a server process, /usr/sbin/rmt, on the

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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

                  remote machine to access the tape device.  If
                  /usr/sbin/rmt does not exist on the remote system,
                  frecover creates a server process from /etc/rmt on the
                  remote machine to access the tape device.  The pattern
                  matching capability does not apply to remote devices.
                  Only raw magnetic tapes can be remote devices.  The fast
                  search marks capability is not used when accessing remote
                  DDS devices.

      -g graph    graph defines a graph file.  Graph files are text files
                  and contain the list of file names (graphs) to be
                  recovered or skipped.  Files are recovered using the -i
                  option; so, for example, if the user wants to recover all
                  of /usr, the graph file contains one entry:

                  i /usr

                  It is also possible to skip files by using the -e option.
                  For example, if a user wants to recover all of /usr except
                  for the subgraph /usr/lib, the graph file contains two

                  i /usr
                  e /usr/lib

                  If the graph file is missing, frecover exits with an error
                  message.  An empty graph file results in recovering all
                  files on the media.

      -h          Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that
                  it references.  This prevents hierarchical restoration of
                  complete subtrees from the backup media.

      -i path     path is interpreted as a graph to be included in the
                  recovery.  There is no limit on how many times the -i
                  option can be specified.

      -m          Print a message each time a file marker is encountered.
                  Using this option, frecover prints a message each time
                  either a DDS fast search mark, a filemark (EOF), or a
                  checkpoint record is read.  Although useful primarily for
                  troubleshooting, these messages can also be used to
                  reassure the user that the backup is progressing during
                  long, and otherwise silent, periods during the recovery.

      -o          Recover the file from the backup media irrespective of
                  age.  Normally frecover does not overwrite an existing
                  file with an older version of the file.

      -s          Attempt to optimize disk usage by not writing null blocks
                  of data to sparse files.

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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

      -v          Normally frecover works silently.  Verbose option.
                  Displays the file type and name of each file processed.

      -y          Automatically answer yes to any inquiries.

      -A          Do not recover any optional entries in access control
                  lists (ACLs).  Normally, all access control information,
                  including optional ACL entries, is recovered.  This option
                  drops any optional entries and sets the permissions of the
                  recovered file to the permissions of the backed up file.
                  Use this option when recovering files backed up from a
                  system with ACLs on a system where ACLs are not present
                  (see acl(5)).

      -F          Recover files without recovering leading directories.  For
                  example, this option would be used if a user wants to
                  recover /usr/bin/vi, /usr/bin/sh, and /etc/passwd to a
                  local directory without creating each of the graph

      -E extarg   Specifies the handling of any extent attributes backed up
                  by fbackup.  The -E option takes the following keywords as

                  warn      Issue a warning message if extent attributes
                            cannot be restored, but restore the file anyway.

                  ignore    Do not restore extent attributes.

                  force     Issue an error message and do not restore the
                            file if extent attributes cannot be restored.

                            Extent attributes cannot be restored if the
                            files are being restored to a file system which
                            does not support extent attributes or if the
                            file system's block size is incompatible with
                            the extent attributes.  If -E is not specified,
                            extarg defaults to warn.

      -N          (no recovery) Prevent frecover from actually recovering
                  any files onto disk, but read the backup as if it was, in
                  fact, recovering the data from the backup, producing the
                  same output that it would on a normal recovery.  This
                  option is useful for verifying backup media contents in
                  terms of validity (block checksum errors are reported),
                  and contents (a listing of files can be produced by using
                  the -N and -v options together).  Note that the listing of
                  files produced with the -N and -v options requires the
                  reading of the entire backup, but is therefore a more
                  accurate reflection of the backup's contents than the
                  index stored at the beginning of the backup (which was

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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

                  created at the start of the backup session, and is not
                  changed during the course of the backup).

      -O          Use the effective uid and gid for the owner and group of
                  the recovered file instead of the values on the backup

      -S skip     frecover does not ask whether it should abort the recovery
                  if it gets a media error.  It tries to skip the bad block
                  or blocks and continue.  Residual or lost data is written
                  to the file named by skip.  The user can then edit this
                  file and recover otherwise irretrievable data.

      -X          Recover files relative to the current working directory.
                  Normally frecover recovers files to their absolute path

    Environment Variables
      LC_COLLATE determines the order in which frecover expects files to be
      stored on the backup device and the order in which file names are
      output by the -I option.

      LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_COLLATE and LC_MESSAGES are not specified in the environment or
      are set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default
      for each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not specified or
      is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used
      instead of LANG.  If any internationalization variable contains an
      invalid setting, frecover behaves as if all internationalization
      variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

    International Code Set Support    [Toc]    [Back]
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      For incremental backups created prior to installing HP-UX Release 8.0,
      or for recoveries that do not begin with the first volume (such as
      when reading tape 3 first), it is possible for the preceding
      directories to a recoverable file to not be on the media.  This can
      happen, for example, if the directories did not change since the last
      full backup.  If frecover encounters a file on the backup that should
      be recovered, but it has not recovered the file's parent directories
      from the backup, it prints a message stating that the recovery will
      continue with that file, and attempts to create the file's parent
      directories as needed.

      Use of frecover does not require special privileges.  However, if a
      user does not have access permission to a given file, the file is not

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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

      The fbackup index format now includes the file size in the first
      field; the previous format simply had the '#' character in that field.
      The implementation provides both forward and backward compatibility
      between the old and new index formats.  However, the file sizes are
      used in conjunction with the checkpoints to increase selective
      recovery speed on DLT devices, so recovery of an fbackup volume that
      does not have the new index format will not see that performance gain.

      When using a DDS tape written with the current release of fbackup to
      do a partial recovery, frecover attempts to use the DDS fast-search
      capability to find files on the tape more quickly.  In order to do
      this, however, frecover needs to create an in-memory copy of the
      index, and mark the files on that index which it needs to recover
      before actually reading through the tape to find the files.  This is
      done when the first index is read from the tape, and accounts for a
      period of time just after recovery is begun where the tape is inactive
      while this in-memory index is constructed.  The larger the index is,
      the longer this period lasts.

      The utility set comprised of fbackup and frecover was originally
      designed for use on systems equipped with not more than one gigabyte
      of total file system storage.  Although the utilities have no
      programming limitations that restrict users to this size, complete
      backups and recoveries of substantially larger systems can cause a
      large amount of system activity due to the amount of virtual memory
      (swap space) used to store the indices.  Users who want to use these
      utilities, but are noticing poor system-wide performance due to the
      size of the backup, are encouraged to back up their systems in
      multiple smaller sessions, rather than attempting to back up the
      entire system at one time.  However, if the entire backup must be done
      with a single session, the user may encounter an error in frecover if
      there is not enough virtual memory available.  If this happens, the
      user might consider adjusting the maxdsiz parameter or the swap space;
      both of these require a reboot.

      Note that when recovering files with access control lists, the ACL
      entries are stored on the backup as user login names.  If a login name
      cannot be found in the password file, the file is recovered without
      its ACL, and an error is printed.  In order to fully recover files
      backed up with ACLs, the password file (/etc/passwd) must be recovered
      before attempting to recover any desired ACLs.

      Network special files are obsolete.  Therefore, frecover cannot
      restore these files.  A warning message is issued if an attempt is
      made to recover a network special file, and the file is skipped.

      Care should be taken to match the names specified by the include and
      exclude options with the names in the index on the tape.  Since the
      files are stored on the backup in lexographic order as defined by the
      LANG or LC_COLLATE environment variable, frecover uses the exact path
      names to determine when a partial recovery is complete, and when an

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 frecover(1M)                                                   frecover(1M)

      earlier tape needs to be loaded.  If a user's specification of a file
      to be recovered is misspelled, this may cause confusing messages, such
      as frecover asking for the previous volume, when volume one is

 DEPENDENCIES    [Toc]    [Back]
      frecover does not support QIC-120 and QIC-150 formats on QIC devices.
      If frecover is attempted for these formats, frecover fails and the
      following message is displayed :

           mt lu X:Read must be a multiple of 512 bytes in QIC 120 and QIC

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      frecover was developed by HP.

 FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
      /dev/rmt/0m         Default backup device.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      cpio(1), dump(1M), fbackup(1M), restore(1M), rmt(1M), acl(5).

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[ Back ]
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