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 printf(1)                                                         printf(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      printf - format and print arguments

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      printf format [arg ...]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      printf writes formatted arguments to the standard output.  The arg
      arguments are formatted under control of the format operand.

      format is a character string patterned after the formatting
      conventions of printf(3S), and contains the following types of

           characters          Characters that are not escape sequences or
                               conversion specifications (as described
                               below) are copied to standard output.

           escape sequences    These are interpreted as non-graphic

                                    \a   alert
                                    \b   backspace
                                    \f   form-feed
                                    \n   new-line
                                    \r   carriage return
                                    \t   tab
                                    \v   vertical tab
                                    \'   single quote character
                                    \\   backslash
                                    \n   the 8-bit character whose ASCII
                                         code is the 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-digit
                                         octal number n, whose first
                                         character must be a zero.

           conversion specification
                               Specifies the output format of each argument
                               ( see below).

           Arguments following format are interpreted as strings if the
           corresponding format is either c or s; otherwise they are treated
           as constants.

    Conversion Specifications    [Toc]    [Back]
      Each conversion specification is introduced by the percent character
      %.  After the % character, the following can appear in the sequence

           flags       Zero or more flags, in any order, which modify the
                       meaning of the conversion specification.  The flag
                       characters and their meanings are:

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 printf(1)                                                         printf(1)

                            -         The result of the conversion is leftjustified
 within the field.

                            +         The result of a signed conversion
                                      always begins with a sign, + or -.

                            <space>   If the first character of a signed
                                      conversion is not a sign, a space
                                      character is prefixed to the result.
                                      This means that if the space flag and
                                      + flag both appear, the space flag is

                            #         The value is to be converted to an
                                      ``alternate form''.  For c, d, i, u,
                                      and s conversions, this flag has no
                                      effect.  For o conversion, it
                                      increases the precision to force the
                                      first digit of the result to be a
                                      zero.  For x or X conversion, a nonzero
 result has 0x or 0X prefixed to
                                      it.  For e, E, f, g, and G
                                      conversions, the result always
                                      contains a radix character, even if no
                                      digits follow the radix character.
                                      For g and G conversions, trailing
                                      zeros are not removed from the result,
                                      contrary to usual behavior.

           field width An optional string of decimal digits to specify a
                       minimum field width.  For an output field, if the
                       converted value has fewer characters than the field
                       width, it is padded on the left (or right, if the
                       left-adjustment flag, - has been given) to the field

           precision   The precision specifies the minimum number of digits
                       to appear for the d, o, i, u, x, or X conversions
                       (the field is padded with leading zeros), the number
                       of digits to appear after the radix character for the
                       e and f conversions, the maximum number of
                       significant digits for the g conversion, or the
                       maximum number of characters to be printed from a
                       string in s conversion.  The precision takes the form
                       of a period . followed by a decimal digit string.  A
                       null digit string is treated as a zero.

           conversion characters
                       A conversion character indicates the type of
                       conversion to be applied:

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 printf(1)                                                         printf(1)

                            d,i,    The integer argument is printed a signed
                            o,u,    decimal (d or i), unsigned octal (o),
                            x,X     unsigned decimal (u), or unsigned
                                    hexadecimal notation (x and X).  The x
                                    conversion uses the numbers and letters
                                    0123456789abcdef, and the X conversion
                                    uses the numbers and letters
                                    0123456789ABCDEF.  The precision
                                    component of the argument specifies the
                                    minimum number of digits to appear.  If
                                    the value being converted can be
                                    represented in fewer digits than the
                                    specified minimum, it is expanded with
                                    leading zeroes.  The default precision
                                    is 1.  The result of converting a zero
                                    value with a precision of 0 is no

                            f       The floating-point number argument is
                                    printed in decimal notation in the style
                                    [-]dddrddd, where the number of digits
                                    after the radix character, r, is equal
                                    to the precision specification.  If the
                                    precision is omitted from the argument,
                                    six digits are output; if the precision
                                    is explicitly 0, no radix appears.

                            e,E     The floating-point-number argument is
                                    printed in the style [-]drddde+_dd, where
                                    there is one digit before the radix
                                    character, and the number of digits
                                    after it is equal to the precision.
                                    When the precision is missing, six
                                    digits are produced; if the precision is
                                    0, no radix character appears.  The E
                                    conversion character produces a number
                                    with E introducing the exponent instead
                                    of e.  The exponent always contains at
                                    least two digits.  However, if the value
                                    to be printed requires an exponent
                                    greater than two digits, additional
                                    exponent digits are printed as

                            g,G     The floating-point-number argument is
                                    printed in style f or e (or int style E
                                    in the case of a G conversion
                                    character), with the precision
                                    specifying the number of significant
                                    digits.  The style used depends on the
                                    value converted; style e is used only if

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 printf(1)                                                         printf(1)

                                    the exponent resulting from the
                                    conversion is less than -h or greater
                                    than or equal to the precision.
                                    Trailing zeros are remove from the
                                    result.  A radix character appears only
                                    if it is followed by a digit.

                            c       The first character of the argument is

                            s       The argument is taken to be a string,
                                    and characters from the string are
                                    printed until the end of the string or
                                    the number of characters indicated by
                                    the precision specification of the
                                    argument is reached.  If the precision
                                    is omitted from the argument, it is
                                    interpreted as infinite and all
                                    characters up to the end of the string
                                    are printed.

                            %       Print a % character; no argument is

                            b       Similar to the s conversion specifier,
                                    except that the string can contain
                                    backslash-escape sequences which are
                                    then converted to the characters they
                                    represent.  \c will cause printf to
                                    ignore any remaining characters in the
                                    string operand containing it, any
                                    remaining string operands and any
                                    additional characters in the format

                       In no case does a nonexistent or insufficient field
                       width cause truncation of a field; if the result of a
                       conversion is wider than the field width, the field
                       is simply expanded to contain the conversion result.

    Environment Variables
      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of arg as single and/or multibyte

      LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_CTYPE or LC_MESSAGES is not specified in the environment or is
      set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default for
      each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not specified or is
      set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used

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 printf(1)                                                         printf(1)

      instead of LANG.

      If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting,
      printf behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to
      "C".  See environ(5).

    International Code Set Support    [Toc]    [Back]
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 RETURN VALUE    [Toc]    [Back]
      printf exits with one of the following values:

            0   Successful completion;

           >0   Errors occurred.  The exit value is increased by one for
                each error that occurred up to a maximum of 255.

 DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]
      If an argument cannot be converted into a form suitable for the
      corresponding conversion specification, or for any other reason cannot
      be correctly printed, a diagnostic message is printed to standard
      error, the argument is output as a string form as it was given on the
      command line, and the exit value is incremented.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      The following command prints the number 123 in octal, hexadecimal and
      floating point formats in their alternate form

           printf "%#o, %#x, %#X, %#f, %#g, %#e\n" 123 123 123 123 123 123

      resulting in the following output

           0173, 0x7b, 0X7B, 123.000000, 123.000, 1.230000e+02

      Print the outputs with their corresponding field widths and precision:

           printf "%.6d, %10.6d, %.6f, %.6e, %.6s\n" 123 123 1.23 123.4 MoreThanSix

      resulting in the following output

           000123,     000123, 1.230000, 1.234000e+02, MoreTh

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      echo(1), printf(3S).

      printf: XPG4, POSIX.2

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 5 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003
[ Back ]
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